Method of separating polydisperse solution of distillery stillage
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of separating polydisperse systems through vibroacoustic effect. The method of separating polydisperse solution of distillery stillage involves coagulation of colloidal and dissolved substances of a dispersed phase and subsequent separation of the solid fraction of the formed product from the solution with separation of the liquid fraction of the dispersed medium. The dispersed phase is coagulated in two steps by applying energy of acoustic vibrations on the solution in at least two spectra in the 1-18 kHz range, providing weakening of surface tension of colloidal and dissolved substances, and in the 80-400 Hz range, increasing their amplitude of vibration. Before coagulation of the dispersed phase from the solution through evacuation, volatile aromatic substances are separated in form of a condensate, and before the second step for applying energy of acoustic vibrations the solution is dehydrated by 20-50% in vacuum drying conditions with extraction of the water condensate.
EFFECT: invention provides environmentally safe non-waste technology of processing distillery stillage and widens the range of processed products.
The invention relates to processes for the separation of polydisperse systems methods electrophoresis and can be used in industrial processes fractionation of colloidal and soluble organic and mineral substances in colloidal solutions, emulsions, suspensions, for example, neutralization and disposal of liquid industrial waste and, in particular, for alcohol production waste stillage from getting dry protein and vitamin feedstuff, surface-active substances (surfactants) in the form of aromatic and non-native speakers of smell bards, and purified water suitable for technical purposes.
The known method of separation of dispersed media and colloidal solutions, according to which dispersed and colloidal particles subjected to chemical coagulation silicon-containing flocculant followed by the separation of the solid fraction of the formed product from the solution and the separation of liquid fractions of the dispersed medium (the description of the patent RU 2246447 IPC 7 C02F 1/56, B01D 21/01, 20.02.2005).
The disadvantage of this method is the use of a chemical reagent, which not only increases production costs but also when used in technological processes, for example, food production reduces the biological value and environmental safety get PR the products.
There is a method of separating a disperse medium in the form of alcohol stillage, providing for the removal of suspended, colloidal and dissolved organic and mineral impurities and volatile substances physico-chemical methods and the allocation of the aqueous phase, in which the coagulation of colloidal and dissolved substances spend aluminum hydroxide, and the removal of organic and mineral admixtures reverse osmosis membranes with a pore diameter of not more than (10-15)×10-10m (the description of the patent of the Russian Federation 2128688, IPC 7 C12F 3/10).
A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the use of an expensive reagent and expensive equipment. In addition, secreted protein balance due to the use of chemical coagulation method as livestock feed is unsafe. Removal of volatile substances in the atmosphere leads to the pollution of the air space and reduces the environmental safety of the method.
The objective of the invention is to design environmentally safe and cost-effective method of separation of polydisperse solutions on the basis of vibro-acoustic methods of coagulating the dispersed phase colloidal and dissolved substances.
The technical result is to simplify the process of separation of colloidal solutions and, in particular, the ability to create environmentally safe is wasteless processing of alcohol stillage and expanding the range of products of processing.
The technical result is achieved by the method of separation of polydisperse solution of alcohol stillage involving the coagulation of colloidal and dissolved substances dispersed phase and the subsequent separation of the solid fraction of the formed product from the solution with separation of the liquid fraction of the dispersed environment, the coagulation of the dispersed phase is carried out in two stages impact on the solution of the energy of acoustic waves, at least two spectra, respectively, in the range of 1-18 kHz, providing a weakening of the surface tension of colloidal particles and dissolved substances, and the range of 80-400 Hz, providing an increase in the oscillation amplitude, while before coagulation of the dispersed phase from the solution by vacuum emit volatile aromatic substances in the form of condensate, and before the second stage of the impact energy of acoustic oscillations the solution is dehydrated by 20-50% in the vacuum drying emitting water condensate.
The essence of the method lies in the fact that the colloidal solutions are microheterogeneous system in which the energy expended in the process of emulsification, distributed in the form of the free surface energy on the globules. Condition destabilization of the dispersed system is to reduce the surface section of discrete phases that can be achieved is with the increase of the size of suspended particles. Vibroacoustic treatment of colloidal solutions, at least two sources of oscillations, emitting acoustic waves in ranges, respectively (1-18) kHz and (80-400) Hz, translates colloidal and dissolved substances in category weighted for certain separated from the dispersion medium. For each polydisperse solution the choice of the frequency of acoustic oscillations of the above ranges is set experimentally based on the physico-chemical properties of the dispersed phase and dispersion medium.
Below is an example of the method in the process of waste disposal spirit bards, centrate which is a combination of colloidal solution.
The method is as follows.
The original bard at a temperature of 90-100°C is subjected to a preliminary separation of the solid fraction with a selection of cake and the liquid fraction in the supernatant. Separator can be used, the system self-cleaning filters or decanter cleaning of effluents to 0.1 mm From the separator centrate served in a vacuum system where it removes the volatile aromatic substances and eliminate them in the collection of condensate surfactant, which may be implemented, for example, in medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. Removal of surfactants leads to the reduction of surface tension forces of the colloid to the of mponents and destabilization of the dispersed phase of supernatant.
Next, the centrate is directed to the first stage of coagulation in hydrodynamic installation with a vibrator configured for the emission of two frequencies in the acoustic range, respectively, f11=2 kHz, f21=120 Hz. Frequency f11established experimentally from the conditions for impact attenuation of surface tension of colloidal particles of amino acids and nitrogen in the dissolved form, the second frequency - amplitude increase their linear oscillations, increasing the probability of contact between them, merger, consolidation. As a result, after the first stage of the vibro-acoustic treatment in selected modes of colloidal and soluble substances are coagulated and the centrate is converted in an inhomogeneous dispersion system with the size of the suspended particles of 50-100 μm, i.e. suspension.
Before the second stage of vibroacoustic treatment for improving the efficiency of the coagulation process perform vacuum drying the resulting suspension with a selection of moisture in the form of aqueous condensate and residue volatile aromatic substances, maintaining a vacuum in the vacuum system (-0,8)-(-0,9) ATM and temperature of supernatant 72-85°C. Water condensate is collected in the water collection. Simultaneously with the process of vacuum selection moisture in an amount up to 20-50% occur the phenomenon of agglomeration of particles of a disperse system of supernatant to a size of 100-200 microns.
After selecting the lags centrate sent to vibroacoustical processing in hydrodynamic installation with a vibrator, configured on the radiation frequency f12=1.8 kHz and f22=100 Hz, in which there is a further escalation of suspended particles of a disperse system of supernatant to the size of 200-400 microns.
Then comes the final stage of separation of supernatant with separation of the solid fraction in the protein product and the release of aqueous phase with a residual content of not more than 0.05-0.08 g/l of dispersed phase size of not more than 5 μm, which after antibacterial treatment can be used for technical purposes.
Thus, the claimed method allows you to implement a waste-free environmentally safe and cost-effective technology utilization spirit bards with obtaining such products utilization, as dry food for farm animals, a surfactant, and purified water for technical purposes.
The method of separation of polydisperse solution of alcohol stillage involving the coagulation of colloidal and dissolved substances dispersed phase and the subsequent separation of the solid fraction of the formed product from the solution with separation of the liquid fraction of the dispersed medium, characterized in that the coagulation of the dispersed phase is carried out in two stages impact on the solution of the energy of acoustic waves, at least two spectra, respectively, in the range of 1-18 kHz, providing attenuation of surface tension, h is STIC colloidal and dissolved substances, and the range of 80-400 Hz, providing an increase in the oscillation amplitude, while before coagulation of the dispersed phase from the solution by vacuum emit volatile aromatic substances in the form of condensate, and before the second stage of the impact energy of acoustic oscillations the solution is dehydrated by 20-50% in the vacuum drying with allocation of water condensate.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in dividing hot distillery dregs obtained at production of ethyl alcohol into flows, in concentrating one of them to moisture contents of 70-75% and in production of filtrate, in dividing filtrate into parts; also one of these parts is used for preparation of setting, while another one is used for preparation of solutions of mineral salts. Solution of mineral salt containing nitrogen and/or potassium is added into the third part of filtrate and into the second flow of distillery dregs. Mineral salts containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are added into a concentrated part of distillery dregs. Produced feeding compositions have pH 3.8 - 6.5. One part of feeding compositions is cooled to temperature 25-30°C, while another part is stored under conditions of natural cooling. Upon cooling feeding compositions can be preserved.
EFFECT: facilitating more complete utilisation of distillery dregs, preventing pollution of environment, production of feeding compositions used as fertilisers of directional effect with more regulated activity due to controlled introduction of required components.
4 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: chemistry; brewing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of processing brewery wastes based on grain material, obtaining fodder product. The method involves neutralisation of initial distillery stillage to pH = 7.5-8.5 with simultaneous flocculation with anionic flocculant with molecular weight not less than 15·106, which is a product of reacting polyacrylamide with a sodium salt of acrylic acid, with subsequent separation of residue and clarified aqueous phase.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the technology of processing distillery stillage and allows for obtaining a clarified aqueous phase, which virtually contains no suspended substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the distillation industry and can be used in recycling after-distillery stillage. The method involves addition of dolomite powder to after-distillery stillage in an amount equal to its sulphuric acid content, stirring and introduction of carbon dioxide at pressure of 75 to 80 atm into the mixture obtained after alcohol fermentation.
EFFECT: invention speeds up neutralisation of stillage.
FIELD: food products; alcoholic beverages.
SUBSTANCE: according to the method, initial flow is supplied to the first distillation steam-stripping column while its distillate is passed to the second distillation rectifying column. Initial flow is refined using first membrane separation method. Obtained concentrate is passed to the first distillation column and derived permeate is supplied to the second distillation column. Distillate from the second distillation column is refined using second membrane separation method.
EFFECT: increasing pureness of obtained ethanol.
16 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: method provides for preliminary mixing of initial waste liquor with flush water from the stage of press-filter regeneration, filtrate and sediment from neutralisation stage produced in the previous cycle, and then settling in settling tanks, at that more efficient settling of suspended particles takes place due to specified mixing. Then separation is carried out into condensed phase and mother liquid, filtration of produced condensed phase in belt press filters, drying of produced sediment to prepare animal food. Then filtrate is neutralised by lime to produce sediment and neutralised mother liquid, which is purified from dissolved organic compounds, and water is produced, which is suitable for technical purposes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of belt press filter operation due to the fact that only condensed phase of waste liquor is filtrated, and higher yield of fodder product enriched with calcium.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes coagulation and deposition of organic-mineral substances by introduction of defecation mud or slaked lime into liquid wastes of alcohol production in the amount of 10-100 kg of dry weight per one ton of liquid wastes and polyacrylamide in amount of 10-100 gram per 100 liters of liquid wastes and further pumping of deposited mixture. Sapropel or peat may be introduced into liquid wastes in amount of, accordingly, 10-200 kg or 10-1,000 kg of dry weight, per 1 ton of liquid wastes. Microelements and mineral components may be added to deposited mixture of organic-mineral substances. Invention makes it possible to recycle wastes of both alcohol and sugar production with preparation of organic-mineral fertilisers of pointed action and forage.
EFFECT: this technology is ecologically safe.
FIELD: alcoholic industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for processing waste from alcoholic production. Method involves neutralization, coagulation and selection of a precipitated product. Neutralization of liquid waste is carried out at pH above 6 by addition of lime in the amount 0.3% of liquid waste weight, or ammonia. Coagulation is carried out by addition of chalk as a dry powder or as a mixture of dry chalk with air, or as a liquid paste with simultaneously feeding air wherein the amount is 5-150 kg per 1 ton of liquid waste. Method provides enhancing technological effectiveness in processing waste from alcoholic production.
EFFECT: improved and enhanced effectiveness of processing.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, production of feeds, organomineral fertilizers from distillation industry wastes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves neutralizing acidity of distillery dregs; coagulating and settling organomineral mixture by introducing sapropel in an amount of up to 20% by volume of produced settled mixture; extracting settled mixture having moisture content of 40-80% and drying to moisture content of 20-50%; mixing resultant mixture with other components having lower moisture content for producing of organomineral mixture having moisture content of 10-25%; granulating resultant mixture. Utilization of sapropel allows not only coagulation of particles suspended in distillation dregs to be carried out, but settled product to be enriched with valuable components, without hazardous release of pollutions into environment.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to lack of necessity for employment of complicated equipment, effective utilization of distillation and sugar industry wastes, reduced costs and high quality of complex feed and organomineral fertilizers.
16 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: processing of distiller's spent grains into protein-vitamin feed product.
SUBSTANCE: processing line has main pipelines for feeding of distiller's spent grains and discharge of solid and liquid process products, vacuum pipeline, intermediate reservoir, dehydrator, ventilation chamber, cyclone, drier, evaporator, atmospheric condenser, intermediate reservoir for liquid processing products, apparatus for concentration of suspended filtrate particles, mixer, granulator, ready product collector, and packaging apparatus. Fan and air heater are positioned in front of drier for producing of hot air with different temperature of drying agent. Apparatus for concentration of suspended filtrate particles is formed as osmosis unit having semi-impermeable membranes with pore diameter of (20-30)·10-10 m. Drier has casing made in the form of hyperboloid of rotation and is equipped with reflector located in its upper part and feeder and acceleration portion which are located in its lower part, said acceleration portion being designed for producing of gas suspension therein. Drier central pipe adapted for discharge of dried spent grains particles has flare portion and is designed so that its height may be adjusted.
EFFECT: simplified construction, favorable conditions for running of heat- and mass- exchanging processes between gaseous phase and material under process and, as a consequence, improved quality of ready product.
FIELD: alcohol production.
SUBSTANCE: line comprises vacuum chamber with steam heater and gutter, first and second horizontal evaporators, collecting tank, and batching pump. Process consists in heating distillery dregs in the first evaporator using primary steam fed into steam heater and then in the second horizontal evaporator and vacuum chamber using secondary steam from separator of the first horizontal evaporator, after which, in third stage, distillery dregs are dehydrated in vacuum chamber.
EFFECT: increased productivity and reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is a fluoropolymer latex which contains a fluoropolymer and fluorine-containing emulsifier of formula (1): F(CF2)4OCF2CF2OCF2COOA, where A is a hydrogen atom, alkali metal or NH4. A method is also described for producing such latex, and a fluoropolymer, which is obtained by coagulating fluoropolymer latex. The fluoropolymer latex can be used as an agent for coating different materials, such as metallic substrates, inorganic oxide substrates, polymer substrates, synthetic fibre, glass fibre, carbon fibre or natural fibre.
EFFECT: fluoropolymer is useful as material with excellent heat resistance, oil resistance, chemical resistance, weather resistance, non-stickiness, anti-overgrowth properties, water-repellent properties, oil-repellent properties, solvent-repellent properties.
7 cl, 2 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: scope of invention covers stabilized water dispersions of curing agent suitable for coating preparation. Dispersion dispersed in water contains the following components: A1) at least one organic polyisocyanate with isocyanate groups connected in aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, araliphatic and/or aromatic manner, A2) ionic or potentially ionic and/or non-ionic substance, A3) blocking agent, B) stabilizer containing a) at least one amine with structural element of common formula (I) without any hydrazide group, b) substance with formula (IV) .
EFFECT: resistance to thermal yellowing increases.
6 cl, 5 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: polymer production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polymeric binders for toner and can be used for copying appliances and printers. Process comprises separate preparation via emulsion polymerization of (i) low-molecule weight copolymer of styrene (α-methylstyrene), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (or butyl acrylate) and methacrylic acid at monomer weight ratio (88-91.5):(8-11):(0.5-1.0) with intrinsic viscosity in toluene 0.08-1.2 dL/g and (ii) high-molecule weight copolymer of styrene (α-methylstyrene) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (or butyl acrylate) at monomer weight ratio (88-92):(8-12) with intrinsic viscosity in toluene 1.0-1.28 dL/g. In both cases, polymerization is carried out at 60-70% to monomer conversion close to 100%. Resulting latexes of low- and high-molecule weight copolymers are supplemented by stopper and antioxidant and then mixed with each other at "dry" weight ratio between 70:30 and 75:25 and coagulated intrinsic viscosity in toluene 1.0-1.28 dL/g. with electrolyte solutions to form polymer characterized by intrinsic viscosity in toluene 0.4-0.45 dL/g and polydispersity Mw/Mn, which ensures bimodal molecular weight distribution of copolymer. The latter has melting (spreading) point 125-137°C and softening temperature 70-75°C.
EFFECT: improved quality of electrographic printing.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: polymers, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the continuous method for preparing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or modified PTFE finely divided powders. The continuous method for preparing PTFE or modified PTFE finely divided powders involves the following steps: (a1) dilution of PTFE-latex of modified PTFE-latex prepared in polymerization in the dispersion-emulsion to the concentration from 5 to 25 wt.-% of PTFE or modified PTFE with possible filtration of the prepared diluted latex; (b1) molding latex with inert gas to the relative pressure with respect to atmosphere pressure in the range 3-40 kg/cm2 (0.3-4 MPa); (c1) addition of acid electrolyte solution to latex in the line-flow mixer at pH value 1-4; (d1) feeding the latex flow from the mixer through capillary tube under condition of turbulent current with the Reynolds number above 3000; (e1) gel prepared at step (d1) is coagulated onto granules at mechanical stirring with the specific power 1.5-10 kWt/m3 and stirring is maintained up to flotation of finely divided powder; (f1) below water is separated from the finely divided powder. PTFE of modified PTFE finely divided powders that can't be processed by thermal method prepared by abovementioned method show the following indices: apparent density is ≥ 470 g/l; average diameter of particles (D50) is above 200 mcm; distribution of particles by diameter determined as ratio between particles mass with diameter from 0.7 to 1.3 times with respect to average particles diameter and the total particles mass above 50%. Invention provides preparing powders without using the complex and expensive equipment, and powders possess the improved fluidity and show the apparent density and narrow distribution of particles by the diameter index.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is meant for reagentless natural water softening. The method can be used in public services in centralised and decentralised water supply systems, as well as in treating water for supplying industrial facilities. Aeration and filtration in a contact mass are carried out preliminarily in order to realise the method of softening natural water. Filtration is carried out in a contact mass with catalytic properties. The contact mass used is an alumomanganese catalyst with 2-3 mm granules. In the preferred version of the method, filtration is carried out at a rate of 0.4-1.2 m/h and aeration with a water outlet with height of 0.5-1.0 m.
EFFECT: method enhances the effect of softening water and reduces power consumption.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in waste water treatment. Depending on the pH of the incoming liquid stream, a control device 3 brings an electromagnet 4 into a state where the core pulled in or not. Valve 6 turns such that liquid through flow distributor 5 on pipe 7 or 8 enters accumulation tank 9 or 10. Continuous liquid streams from containers 9 and 10 reach inputs of flow computer 13 through flow regulators 11 and 12 respectively. Treated waste water then passes through pipe 14 into biochemical filter 15 and to the output of the device.
EFFECT: invention simplifies and increases stability of controlling the given system, enables stabilisation of pH and component composition of waste water.
3 cl, 2 dwg