Multielement photodetector

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: singly connected or multiply connected diaphragm 3 in the cold screen of a multielement photodetector does not fall outside the limits of the section of an area which is common for overlapping figures which are sections of oblique pyramids. Bases of the pyramids coincide with the exit pupil of the objective lens 4, which forms an image on a matrix of photosensitive elements 1. Vertices of the pyramids are in corners of the photosensitive field of matrix 1. The sectional plane of the pyramid coincides with the plane of the diaphragm 3. The design of the photodetector according to the invention prevents stray radiation falling on the matrix of photosensitive elements.

EFFECT: improved parametres of the photodetector.

8 cl, 9 dwg

 

This invention relates to Photonics, in particular infrared (IR) technology, and can be recommended for use in modern thermal imaging, teploenergetichnih and other devices registration thermal images (NT).

Multi-element photodetectors (MFP), operating in the accumulation mode, is a key node of such devices. The receivers are designed to convert an infrared image formed in the plane of the photosensitive elements through the lens, into an electrical output signal that is used for visual and electronic registration thermal imaging devices in various applications. The mode of operation of the photodetectors is the accumulation of photogenerated charge carriers within a predetermined period of accumulation and subsequent reads output signals proportional to the charge accumulated relevant elements of the photodetector.

Known IR MFP that includes a housing with an optical window that is integrated with stabilizer operating temperature (microcryogenic system), located inside svetoizluchayuschiy screen, button closing contact raster matrix of photosensitive elements connected by the multiplexer and mounted on the cold finger of the stabilizer working temperature is ture, svetoizluchayuschiy screen of the MFP contains a single aperture, the edge of which coincides with the outer envelope of the cross section plane of the diaphragm of a family of cones with a common base coincident with the exit pupil of the lens, and with vertices located at the perimeter of a photosensitive field MPCA (see Configurations, Performance Data, JT Cooled Detector Modules, CMT 256×256 MWIR/LWIR, PtSi 486×640, AEG Infrarot Module GmbH, 1998; Detector of infrared radiation, the Japan Patent JP06-026925, filing date 06.07.1992,, MKI G01J 1/02, G01J 1/06).

This sensor has a drawback. Each of PSEs matrix through the aperture (Fig 1, 2) sees the entire exit pupil of the lens. Through the virtual aperture, which is the projection of the exit pupil of the lens to the plane of the diaphragm, each of PSEs receives a full background and signal radiation from the lens. In addition to these radiations on PSEs falls and stray background radiation is not from the lens. It goes on PSEs through the remaining area of the diaphragm. Under the action of radiation of PSEs generate charge carriers accumulated in storage tanks Withn. The size of storage tanks is limited, thereby limiting the maximum amount of accumulated charges. Therefore, when the presence of stray background radiation decreases the number of accumulated signal carriers or humanised the signal and degrades the signal-to-noise since the total noise remains constant. In addition, MPCA absorbs most of the light power passing through the large dimensions of the aperture. For this reason, the heat gain due to absorbed radiation would also be great. Consumed by the device fixation operating temperature power will be increased because of the need to maintain the temperature MPCA constant.

As a consequence, will be low following device features:

- threshold irradiance (NEI);

threshold power (NEP);

is the specific detecting ability (D*);

the threshold temperature difference (NEDT);

- contrast video;

- dynamic range;

- power consumption ISS power.

The prototype of the claimed invention is IR MFP, including located in a vacuum cryostat entrance window of a matrix of photosensitive elements connected elementwise with the multiplexer being in thermal contact with the stabilizer operating temperature, the surrounding matrix and multiplexer svetoizluchayuschiy screen with a circular aperture coinciding with the cross-section of a cone, the vertex of which is located in the center of the field MPCA, and the base coincides with the exit pupil of the lens (see Japan patent JP 2001-264179, filing date 21.03.2000,, MKI G01J 5/48, G01J 1/02).

This MFP has the following disadvantage (figure 3, 4. In the center of the photosensitive field MPCA gets only the radiation from the exit pupil of the lens and misses parasitic radiation. As the distance from the center of the matrix corresponding PSEs "see" through the aperture only part of the exit pupil of the lens, the area of which gradually decreases with the approach of PSEs to the edge of the matrix. Accordingly in proportion to the reduction of the area of the visible part of the lens useful radiation is reduced, and it takes place in more stray background radiation passing through the remainder of the diaphragm. The number of accumulated charge carriers generated useful quanta decreases with increasing distance of PSEs from the centre MPCA, and the number of accumulated carriers generated by photons stray background radiation increases. By the end of the accumulation time in storage containers 99% of PSEs will be the charges generated by the parasitic background radiation. As mentioned above, this will reduce the amount of accumulated charges generated by the signal radiation. In addition, the heat gain due to the incident radiation, will still be great. As a consequence, the consumption of stabilizer operating temperature power will also be increased.

The result will be not high enough, the following device settings:

the threshold is the first irradiance MFP (NEI);

- power threshold MFP (NEP);

is the specific detecting ability of the MFP (D*);

the threshold temperature difference MFP (NEDT);

- contrast video MFP;

- dynamic range;

- power stabilizer operating temperature power.

The aim of the invention is the reduction of the threshold oblojennosti, the threshold power and the threshold temperature difference, increasing the detecting ability, dynamic range and contrast of the video image while reducing power consumption by eliminating the ingress of spurious background thread on MPCA.

This objective is achieved in that in a multi-element photodetector, comprising a housing with an optical window located inside svetoizluchayuschiy screen with aperture surrounding the photosensitive node, consisting of a multiplexer and matrix of photosensitive elements adjacent to the stabilizer operating temperature, the edges of the aperture does not extend beyond the portion of the area common to intersecting shapes which are inclined sections of the pyramids, the bases of which coincides with the exit pupil of the lens forming the image on the matrix of photosensitive elements, the tops of the pyramids are located on the perimeter of the photosensitive field matrix, the section plane, the feast of the MFA coincides with the plane of the diaphragm, and aperture is simply connected or neodnovidnoe.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the proposed multi-element photodetector includes a filter with a given spectrum bandwidth, the temperature of which is maintained by the regulator operating temperature, the inner side of the casing and screen are covered with an absorbing coating, the outer side svetozarevo screen and stabilizer operating temperature covered with a reflective coating, the temperature of the regulator operating temperature below the ambient temperature, and the regulator operating temperature is thermoelectric system, or microcryogenic system, or throttle system, or a liquid cooling system.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that in the inventive multi-element photodetector shape, size and number of holes constituting the aperture in svetosobirayushchim the screen, aligned simultaneously with the shape and dimensions of a matrix of photosensitive elements and the exit pupil of the lens, distance and aperture of the lens being used from the matrix so that any PSEs matrix misses parasitic radiation, and is only coming from the output lens radiation. The area of the aperture of the inventive sensor, ceteris paribus, is always less than in the prototype. Due to e the CSOs heat gain from the absorbed radiation will be less and this will lead to lower power consumption.

The claimed technical solution is illustrated by the following drawings:

Figure 1 - the design of the device is similar:

1 - the matrix of photosensitive elements, 2 - svetoizluchayuschiy screen, 3 iris, 4 - exit pupil of the lens 5 of the optical box 6 - the case of a sensor, 7 - stabilizer operating temperature.

Figure 2 - shape of the cold diaphragm device similar:

3 - aperture, 4' - section plane of the diaphragm of the projection of the exit pupil of the lens corresponding PSEs.

Figure 3 - design device-prototype:

1 - the matrix of photosensitive elements, 2 - svetoizluchayuschiy screen, 3 iris, 4 - exit pupil of the lens 5 of the optical box 6 - the case of a sensor, 7 - stabilizer operating temperature.

Figure 4 - the form of the cold diaphragm device-prototype:

3 - aperture, 3' - portion of the diaphragm, through which the corresponding PSEs hits parasitic background radiation, 4' - section plane of the diaphragm of the projection of the exit pupil of the lens corresponding PSEs, 4" - visible respective PSEs through the aperture portion of the exit pupil of the lens, from which the corresponding PSEs comes useful radiation.

5 is a embodiment of the claimed device:

1 - matrix photoacustic is lnyh elements, 2 - svetoizluchayuschiy screen, 3 iris, 4 - exit pupil of the lens 5 of the optical box 6 - the case of a sensor, 7 - stabilizer operating temperature.

6 is a form simply cold aperture maximum possible value in case of a circular exit pupil of the lens and the rectangular field MPCA, 3 - aperture, 4' four-section plane of the diaphragm of the projection of the exit pupil of the lens in the four corners of the rectangular field MPCA.

Fig.7 is one of the forms neodnovidnoe cold diaphragm (two holes) of the claimed device in case of a circular exit pupil of the lens and the rectangular field MPCA:

3 - aperture, 4' four-section plane of the diaphragm of the projection of the exit pupil of the lens in the four corners of the rectangular field MPCA.

Fig - form single cold aperture maximum possible value in the case of a rectangular exit pupil of the lens and the rectangular matrix:

3 - aperture, 4' four-section plane of the diaphragm of the projection of the exit pupil of the lens in the four corners of the rectangular field MPCA.

Fig.9 is one of the forms neodnovidnoe cold diaphragm (four holes) of the inventive device in the case of a rectangular exit pupil of the lens and the rectangular matrix:

3 - aperture, 4' four-section plane of the diaphragm of the projection of the exit pupil of the lens to couple the e corner of the rectangular field MPCA.

The inventive photodetector includes the following main components:

matrix of photosensitive elements (MPCE) with photosensitive field 1 arbitrary shape, costacabana element with a silicon multiplexer;

- svetoizluchayuschiy screen 2 with aperture 3;

- vakuumirovaniya housing 6, which includes an optical window 5, is designed to pass radiation from the exit pupil of the lens 4 of arbitrary shape;

- stabilizer operating temperature 7 (cooling system), providing a fixed operating temperature MPCA and svetozarevo screen. The temperature of the screen is always not lower than the temperature of the cooled site and not higher than the ambient temperature.

MPCA with photosensitive field 1 is surrounded on all sides svetosobirayushchim the screen 2 with aperture 3, is located inside the vacuum housing 6 with the optical window 5. The optical window 5 and the diaphragm 3 are used to input radiation from the exit pupil of the lens 4 in a photosensitive field 1. Continuous operating temperature MPCA supported with stabilizer operating temperature 7. The vacuum housing 6 MFP to reduce heat gain to the stabilizer operating temperature 7 in order to reduce its power.

As a stabilizer operating temperature 7 may be used any of the system cooling and temperature stabilization, including microciona cooling system (ISS), throttle cooling system (DS), thermoelectric cooling system (TES) or a liquid cooling system (LGL) on the basis of liquid nitrogen, helium, oxygen, etc.

Photosensitive field 1 MPCE and exit pupil of the lens 4 can have arbitrary sizes and shapes, depending on the specific application.

Aperture 3 is constructed as follows.

Let the exit pupil of the lens 4 has the shape of a circle with diameter D, and the distance from the exit pupil of the lens 4 to a rectangular photosensitive field 1 MPCE set and is equal to L.

Build four inclined cone (pyramid with an infinite number of faces), the base of which coincides with the exit pupil 4 of diameter D, the height is equal to L, and the vertices on the corners of the photosensitive field 1 MPCE. Will conduct the cross-section of these cones plane aperture located at a given distance l from the plane of the photosensitive field 1 MPCE. The cross-sections of cones will be four circle 4', shown at 6, 7. The total land area of these circles, limited their parts, shown in Fig.6, will be the maximum possible aperture 3 of the inventive multi-element photodetector. Aperture 3 can be neodnovidnoe, as shown in Fig.7, but it should not go beyond the maximum POS of the Noi of the diaphragm. Aperture allows you to configure the inventive photodetector in optimum performance, which is impossible in the case of similar or prototype.

Similarly constructed aperture 3 in the case of a rectangular exit pupil of the lens 4. To build requires four rectangular pyramid. View simply and neodnovidnoe aperture 3 for the specified shape of the exit pupil of the lens shown in Fig and 9.

In the General case, to build the aperture for arbitrary forms of the matrix and the exit pupil of the lens is required to build the set of pyramids (cones) with the common base coincident with the exit pupil of the lens. Then the inner envelope in the plane of the diaphragm 3, covering common to all sections of the pyramids 4' square will be the maximum possible aperture MFP.

Consider the operation of the inventive sensor.

The radiation from the exit pupil of the lens 1 passes through the optical window 5 of the housing 6 through the aperture 3 in svetosobirayushchim the screen 2, the transmittance ToCRwhich is defined by the following expression:

where ϕ is the angle in the polar coordinate system;

r(ϕ,l) is the absolute value of the radius vector from the center of the diaphragm to its edge;

x, y - coordinates of a point in the plane MPCA.

After passing through the aperture 3 radiation falls on fotokasten the second field 1 MPCE. Background irradiance in the plane MPCA will then be equal to

where KCRis determined by the expression (1).

N(T, λ1, λ2) - integrated density of the background flux quanta when the background temperature T, the spectral range from λ1to λ2and solid angle 2·π equal to

where C = 2,998·1010cm·s-1the speed of light;
kB= 1,381·10-23W··K-1(watt·sec·K-1)Boltzmann's constant;
h = 6,626·10-34W·s2(watt·sec2)Planck's constant.

Background irradiance has the dimension [quanta/cm2·].

Next, we need the integral of the power density of the background radiation when the background temperature T, in the same spectral range and in the solid angle 2π steradian equal to

Under the effect of background radiation (2) PSEs generate photo libraries, which is expressed by the following formula:

where As- area of PSEs, [cm2];

η is the average quantum efficiency of PSEs [electron/photon];

q is the electron charge (q=1.6 x 10-19K).

Photogenerated charges, together with charges dark current Id, piling up over time τ0for storage tanks Withnpre-charged up to the potential of E0. The maximum value of the accumulation time τmaxis determined by the capacitance value Cnthe size of the potential E0, the magnitude of the photocurrent Ifdefined by the expression (5), and dark current Id.

where ktimes- the relative amount of capacity discharged during the time of accumulation.

The value of τ0may not exceed the value of τmax.

During the accumulation τ0cumulative capacity of each cell multiplexer MFP accumulate the following number of electrons:

Given the independence of the processes of generation of the dark carriers and photocarriers in PSEs, we get the following expression for the full noise of the cell of the MFP in the electrons after accumulation time τ0:

In this case, the noise is expressed in number of electrons.

Now we can get photovoltaic parameters of PSEs, we are interested in.

Threshold irradiance (NEI) - the value of the signal oblojennosti at which the signal-to-noise ratio equal to one. The smaller its value, the better the photodetector.

In the guise of NEI is defined by the following expression:

The dimension of the NEI - [quanta·cm-2with-1].

Noise-equivalent power (Noise Equivalent Power (NEP)or the threshold power value of the signal power incident on PSEs, in which the signal-to-noise ratio equal to one. The smaller NEP is the better receiver. Using expression (3), (4) and (9), we obtain

The threshold power has the dimension [Watt].

Specific detecting ability (Specific Detectivity) - the reciprocal of NEP, normalized to a single space and a single operating frequency. More than D*, the better the photodetector.

D* is determined from expression (3), (4) and (10) by the following formula:

Specific detecting ability has the dimension [cm·s-1/2·W-1].

Limited noise temperature differences that could indicate problems) - the lowest temperature difference between the longest thermal test object and the background in which the signal-to-noise ratio equal to one. The lower it is the better the photodetector. Using expressions (3) and (9), we obtain:

where Z(T,λ12) is determined by the following formula:

Dimension NEDT - [C].

From expressions (9)-(12) shows that all the parameters of the photodetector worse, if increases Tamnava the current I d.

The dark current of PSEs that is accumulated in containers, this parasitic charge carriers occupying the limited size capacity a place that could take charge carriers generated by the signal radiation and background radiation emanating from the lens. Stray radiation coming from areas outside of the lens, also generates useless charge carriers, which means that the actual increase in dark current. Therefore, the photodetector, in which no parasitic background irradiance will have better options.

MPCA can be made on the basis of quantum receivers (photoconductive semiconductor, p-n photodiodes, Schottky diodes, MOS or CCD elements, quantum-size structures) or thermal detectors of different types, also operating in the accumulation mode.

1. Multi-element photodetector, comprising vakuumirovaniya case with an optical window located inside svetoizluchayuschiy screen with aperture surrounding the photosensitive node, consisting of a multiplexer and matrix of photosensitive elements mounted on the stabilizer operating temperature, characterized in that the edges of the aperture does not extend beyond the portion of the area common to intersecting shapes which are inclined sections of the pyramids, the bases of which the same is with the exit pupil of the lens, forming the image on the matrix of photosensitive elements, the tops of the pyramids are located on the perimeter of the photosensitive field matrix, the cross section of the pyramid coincides with the plane of the diaphragm.

2. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 1, characterized in that on the inner surface of the screen and the casing is located the antireflection coating.

3. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 2, characterized in that on the outer surface of the screen, and site stabilization operating temperature is reflective coating.

4. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 3, characterized in that the temperature of the node stabilize the operating temperature below the ambient temperature.

5. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 4, characterized in that the stabilizer operating temperature is a thermoelectric cooling system.

6. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 4, characterized in that the stabilizer operating temperature is microciona cooling system.

7. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 6, characterized in that the stabilizer operating temperature is throttle the cooling system.

8. Multi-element photodetector according to claim 4, characterized in that the stabilizer operating temperature is a liquid cooling system.



 

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The invention relates to meteorology, namely physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, and is intended for the determination of ozone in the atmosphere by optical methods

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: assembly and measuring unit can be used for measurement and registration of light transmission of window units and other light-transparent structures and their members. Assembly for measuring total coefficient of window frames light transmission has A type diffusion light source, which has semi-sphere, illumination devices disposed inside semi-sphere, shields protecting against incident light, external photoelectric member, light-measuring chamber which has semi-sphere and non-transparent partition provided with opening for placing window unit, measuring unit, which has internal photoelectric members, analog signal switch and measuring unit. Semi-spheres of diffusion light source and of light-measuring chamber have the same structure and are mounted in a such way that axis of symmetry of assembly is directed along horizontal line; units are connected one to another for placement of window frame in opening of partition of light-measuring chamber, which partition is mounted in vertical. Diameters of semi-spheres do not exceed 1,2 maximal size of diagonal of tested window unit. Non-transparent partition provided with opening for placement of window unit is unmovable connected with semi-sphere of diffusion light source and it is provided with small-sized lockers which determine position of window unit. Illumination devices are connected with power circuit through voltage stabilizer. Opening is protected by screens against direct light coming from illumination devices. Measuring unit of assembly for measuring total coefficient of light transmission has internal photoelectric members and analog signal switch. Any internal photoelectric member is connected with analog signal switch through "current-voltage" electron converter, which has input voltage lower than 1 Ohm. Output of analog signal switch is connected with first measuring channel, which has digital milli-voltmeter with double integration and with second measuring channel which has analog-to-digital converter with preamplifier. Outputs of first and second measuring channels are connected by data buses through digital signal switch with matching unit, which is in turn connected by data buses and control buses with computer and with control bus provided with control unit, which both are connected with analog signal switch, analog-to-digital converter and digital double integration milli-voltmeter with through control buses.

EFFECT: reduced sizes of assembly; reduced number of illumination devices; reduced power consumption; higher comfort at use; reduced error of measurement; higher speed of measurement process; simplified processing of results of measurement.

FIELD: engineering of devices for determining angular distribution of radiation reflected from object surface.

SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains radiation emitter, radiation receiver, transformer of radiation to photocurrent and information processing block, base in form of a ring and two semi-rings. On each semi-ring, emitter and receiver of radiation are mounted. Semi-rings are mounted perpendicularly to measurement plane. One of semi-rings is moveable relatively to the base. Also, aforementioned semi-rings may be made shortened.

EFFECT: it is possible to determine angular distribution of radiation which is reflected from object surface being examined, at any angles of falling radiation by changing positions of radiation receiver within limits of spatial angles of distribution of reflected radiation for different positions of radiation source.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: singly connected or multiply connected diaphragm 3 in the cold screen of a multielement photodetector does not fall outside the limits of the section of an area which is common for overlapping figures which are sections of oblique pyramids. Bases of the pyramids coincide with the exit pupil of the objective lens 4, which forms an image on a matrix of photosensitive elements 1. Vertices of the pyramids are in corners of the photosensitive field of matrix 1. The sectional plane of the pyramid coincides with the plane of the diaphragm 3. The design of the photodetector according to the invention prevents stray radiation falling on the matrix of photosensitive elements.

EFFECT: improved parametres of the photodetector.

8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises analysed object, radiation receiver and imitator. Analysed object and radiation receiver are arranged on two- and one-axis traverse gear. Two-axis traverse gear allows model rotation about mutually perpendicular horizontal and vertical axes. One-axis traverse gear allows radiation receiver rotation about vertical axis in horizontal plane of model rotation.

EFFECT: measurement of reflected radiation intensity at whatever directions of incident rays.

1 dwg

Optical cryostat // 2486480

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: base for this cryostat is a casing 1, made in the form of a sleeve from a heat insulation material (for instance, foam plastic). On the bottom of the inner part of the casing there is a sample holder 2, made of a material with high heat conductivity for reduction of temperature gradient (for instance, of copper). In the bottom of the casing 1, near the generating inner wall, there is one or several holes 3. The bottom outer part of the body is made so that it is tightly (without gaps) installed into a neck part of a vessel 4 with a liquid cryoagent 5. In process of evaporation the cold gaseous cryoagent arrives via holes 3 inside the casing and displaces warm (moist) air from it, and therefore eliminates the possibility of freezing of a holder and a sample investigated on it. Vapours of the coolant wash the holder, which results in its cooling.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to exclude variation of incident radiation spectrum due to availability of windows, to make it possible to do investigation in wide range of temperatures, is simple to implement and inexpensive.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a measurement bench, a radiation receiver, a processing and control unit with a device of information output. At the same time the measurement bench comprises a base, where two rotary devices are fixed, being arranged so that their axes of rotation are mutually perpendicular. On the first rotary device there is a fixation device for the investigated source of radiation. On the second rotary device there is a holder, on which there is an inlet window of a radiation transfer channel, such as an optic-fibre channel, and its outlet window is fixed on the receiver of optical radiation, such as a spectrometer.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements during simplification of an assembly process and simultaneous automation of a process of measurements.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to imaging terahertz (THz) radiation (ν=0.1-10 THz or λ=30-3000 mcm) and can be used to design devices for detecting and analysing terahertz radiation. The device for imaging terahertz radiation sources has a converter for converting terahertz radiation to infrared radiation, which consists of a layer of artificial metamaterial with resonant absorption of terahertz radiation, deposited on a solid-state substrate made of sapphire, placed between an input terahertz lens and an infrared camera lens situated on the side of the substrate. The converter is based on a gelatin matrix which contains metal nanoparticles and is provided with a cut-off filter placed in front of the matrix to allow filtration of thermal radiation of the terahertz radiation source with wavelength of not more than 30 mcm.

EFFECT: high noise-immunity of the design, low noise level and high sensitivity while simplifying the design of the imaging device.

16 cl, 6 dwg

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