Method for detection of geological properties of terrigenous rock

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes geophysical surveys of wells, identification of filtration-capacitance properties in core (Kp - porosity, Kper - absolute permeability) of rocks opened by well, processing of all the information obtained with assessment of geological properties and further extraction of collector intervals. Rock is modeled as a structural frame with various dimensions of porous channels that shape pore space. Using above-mentioned representations, shape of rock geological properties reflection is determined into its petrophysical properties depending on values of pore radiuses and ranges of porosity variation, petrophysical models of rock geological properties reflection are established. In process of geophysical surveys of well cuts rock porosity (Kp) is defined in open boreholes. Based on application of petrophysical models of rock geological properties reflection, absolute permeability (Kper) is calculated in each well for each bed, taking into account geometry of pore space of rock, which is an index of structural-mineralogical heterogeneity of geological medium, its filtration-capacitance properties, absolute and phase permeability.

EFFECT: detection of geological properties of terrigenous rocks.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the exploration wells can be used when determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks, in particular, in the study of heterogeneity of the rock cut and square, when determining structural-mineralogical and fluid models of the geological environment with the delineation of different geological bodies and reservoirs, the construction of a permanent geological models of oil and gas fields, for efficient well placement and selection of effective methods of influence on reservoir/reservoirs in their design.

There is a method of determining the composition of the terrigenous rocks of the reservoir, based on the processing of geophysical data studies of borehole sections (GIS), including the selection in the well section of the reservoir intervals, determination of the clay content and the nature of the distribution of the clay material in the rock, porosity, absolute and relative permeability [1].

The known method is implemented in accordance with [2] and allows to determine reservoir characteristics highlighted in the well section of the reservoir with the application in the processing of readings logging theoretical empirical petrophysical models and stochastic petrophysical relationships established on the basis of studies selected and the wells in the intervals of occurrence of rocks reservoir cores sample and analyze the relationships of type Cairn Cairn, the core-GIS and GIS-GIS.

The known method has limitations when determining geological properties of rocks due to the fact that correlation CRC=f (KP) does not take into account the geometry of the pore space and is generalized petrophysical formation model.

There is a method of determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks in the well vicinity according to geophysical borehole sections (GIS), including the execution of geophysical surveys in the borehole and processing the received information identifying intervals collectors and assessment of their geological properties [3].

The method is based on processing of GIS data, using petrophysical models that take into account the high content in the skeleton rocks silty material and clays having different distribution (dispersed, structural, layered) in the array of the breed. During processing of GIS data to determine the coefficient of porosity, content of sand, silt and clay fractions in the skeleton of the breed.

The known method has limitations when determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks for use in the process of reading logs simplified theoretical and stochastic petrophysical models that are applicable for approximate evaluation of the geological properties of rock collectors, be the accounting geometry steam space.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence is a method of determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks in the well vicinity according to geophysical borehole sections [4], which includes performing an advanced complex of geophysical research (CC-gamma logging, COG-neutron-gamma logging, AK-acoustic logging, GTK-gamma-gamma logging, PS-method natural electrical potentials, KS (BK, MBK, MKZ, IR, BKZ, PZ, high-frequency logging methods electrical resistivity, KV-cavernosometry), processing the received information to determine geological properties of the formation and isolation of the reservoir intervals, the simulation of the breed as a structural frame forming the pore space and the electric charge of the pore channels, the form definition reflect the geological characteristics of the breed in its petrophysical properties depending on running in them integral adsorption processes, the scale of which is determined by the ratio of the values of the electric charge pores and mineralization saturating pore water and uglevodorodokislyayuschih expressed in the change of physical fields of GIS methods (electric, acoustic, radioactive properties, hydrogen, bulk density of the rocks), the establishment of petrophysical models reflect the geological the practical characteristics of the breed, which are the indicators of structural-mineralogical heterogeneity of the geological environment, its reservoir properties, absolute and relative permeability.

The disadvantages of this method is that the method focuses:

on modern advanced complex GIS (GK, NGK, AK, GGK, PS, IR, BC, BKZ, PZ, MBq, high-frequency logging, MKZ, KB) in uncased wells drilled in brackish wash fluids that cannot be used on an industrial scale when working with production wells, the drilling of which is often held at the saline wash liquids.

- When working with the old wells, investigated a limited set of geophysical methods (CC, COG, COP, KS, KB, MKZ, BC, IR), which makes it impossible for a comprehensive interpretation of the data survey.

- The use of particle size distribution in the core in an industrial scale is not provided in small core samples and their few studies.

The objective of the invention is determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks, based on the use of any completed geophysical studies of borehole sections (GIS), including a limited range of GIS, regardless of the parameters of drilling fluid, in the absence of data on granuloma the practical part of the core, by creating petrophysical models for each terrigenous rocks/reservoir deposits taking into account the geometry of the pore space in certain ranges of porosity.

The task is solved in that in the method of determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks, including the execution of geophysical research sections of wells, processing the received information with the assessment of the geological properties of the rocks composing terrigenous thickness, the allocation of the reservoir intervals, the simulation of the breed as a structural frame forming the pore space, the form definition reflect the geological characteristics of the breed in its petrophysical properties, determination of petrophysical models of the geological characteristics of the breed, the definition in uncased wells according to the GIS hydrogen rocks (porosity KP), the definition of the geological characteristics of the breed, which are indicators of structural-mineralogical heterogeneity of the environment, its reservoir properties and absolute permeability, modeling breed, as the structural frame is produced by using a certain method R35 Vinland sizes of the radii of pores, establish petrophysical model for core analysis (KP, CRC) depending on the combination of these parameters and geometry of the pore space, with each point group formation op the shift equations of the form CRC=10 A*log(CP)+where a and b are constants that depend on the radii of the pores and intervals of change of porosity, determine the geological characteristics of the breed, its reservoir properties, structural and mineralogical heterogeneity of the rocks on the areal and vertical, absolute permeability at the established petrophysical models in each well for each layer in a certain interval changes of porosity in the formula as KP is used, the porosity is calculated by the GIS, then simulate the permeability field over the entire area of the development of terrigenous rocks/reservoir.

Features of the invention are:

1) execution of geophysical surveys open-hole sections;

2) the definition of core porosity and permeability (KP-porosity, CRC is the absolute permeability) opened by the well rocks,

3) processing of the received information with the assessment of the geological properties of the rocks composing terrigenous thickness, and the allocation of the reservoir intervals,

4) modeling of the breed as a structural frame with different sizes of pore channels forming the pore space,

5) the definition of core forms reflect the geological characteristics of the breed in its petrophysical properties depending on the structure of the pore space (pore radii) and intervals porosity,

6) installation is of petrophysical models reflect the geological characteristics of the rock depending on the ranges of porosity and geometry of the pore space,

7) determination of the geological characteristics of the rock are indicators of structural-mineralogical heterogeneity of the environment, its reservoir properties and absolute permeability,

8) modeling the permeability, the identification of the size and shape of sand phone Signs 2, 3, 7 are shared with the prototype, attributes 1, 4, 5, 6, 8 are the salient features of the invention.

Using known methods petrophysical models and relationships (core-core) allows to determine the geological properties of the reservoir rocks composing the reservoir/reservoir, based on the generalized without taking into account the structure of the pore space, it is not possible to reliably estimate the geological properties of the reservoir rocks and tires (non-reserves), to determine the distribution of the sand body in the space, resulting in their use cannot restore the geological characteristics of terrigenous strata of the rocks with accuracy and detail required to build geological models of sand bodies (hydrocarbons), which are used to optimize hydrocarbon production. Restrictions impose performed bounded complexes of geophysical research (GIS), conditions for GIS and small amounts of laboratory core studies, especially gr is nanometre. To build and study the geological model of the reservoir/reservoir should:

a) to explore the geological heterogeneity of the studied terrigenous rocks in the incision area;

b) to reliably distinguish the various lithological formations and reservoirs (sand body);

C) to reliably determine reservoir properties and to determine the fluid model;

g) to reliably estimate the permeability based on the structure of the pore space,

d) to accurately simulate the permeability field when building a permanent geological models of oil and gas fields.

In the proposed invention also solves the problem of increasing detail and accuracy determine the logging data and core analysis porosity and permeability characteristics of the rocks composing terrigenous thickness based on the use of petrophysical models reflect the geological properties of the rock taking into account the radii of pores, more accurately describing filtration-capacitive properties of terrigenous rocks and linking these properties to its structural features.

The basis of petrophysical models of reflection is the idea that different terrigenous rocks are characterized by a single petrophysical laws, but the unique value of options porous the th-permeability-pore", which are formed in the physical properties specific terrigenous rocks sand bodies depending on the conditions of sedimentation.

These physical properties of rocks determine the features to be installed on the core and logs petrophysical relationships for individual allocated a total thickness of rock stratigraphic units (formations/hydrocarbons). Thus, applying petrophysical models of reflection at specific intervals porosity and taking into account the radii of the pores, reflecting the basic petrophysical patterns, and can be measured reliably geological properties specific terrigenous rocks.

Applying petrophysical models of reflection is crucial to build permanent geological-technological field models. This is due to the following reasons:

- use the entire Fund drilled at the field wells with a different set made of geophysical methods of research regardless of the type of drilling fluid, including wells old Fund in which you have a limited set of GIS,

- errors are excluded when determining the volume of the rock models in the context arising from the use of generalized stochastic relations for the group of neighboring even-aged deposits, as it is used in promyshlennykh ways,

- use a more complete geological information about the investigated complex rocks allows the study of the geological model of the environment in General and to identify the amount of rocks and geological square body with different structural and mineralogical characteristics, to implement lithological facies analysis of the rocks and explore their heterogeneity.

Thus, applying petrophysical models of reflection will provide more reliable data about the geological properties of the rocks in the incision area, allows you to set the development of the sand bodies, gives the opportunity to build a more complete and detailed geological model of each of terrigenous reservoir/reservoir and hydrocarbons in General.

When creating petrophysical models of reflection for terrigenous rocks in the framework of the present invention have been updated knowledge about some of the most important regularities of the influence of the structure of the pore space in terrigenous rocks on the formation of their reservoir properties. The result revealed new and/or revised-known most important basic petrophysical patterns for terrigenous rocks and developed new petrophysical model to determine the geological characteristics and the absolute permeability of the rocks.

Corresponding is fixed by the present invention representations of each elementary volume of the geological environment within sedimentary strata and specifically in the vicinity of the well is a structural frame, forming the pore space of different geometry depending on porosity.

As you know, participation in the filter pore channels of different sizes are unequal, as the mouth then limit the movement of fluids. Active for fluid goes mainly through United into a single system the largest pore throats, and revealed a clear pattern of decreasing radii of the pores in the transition from the best collectors for the worst. Pores with radii less than 0.5 microns are not involved in the filtration process, the movement in them is not subject to the law Darcy, as the fluid is held high capillary forces, and filtering when the real pressure gradients is not.

Description 1.

So, Dale Vinland built an empirical relation of porosity, permeability and radius of the mouths of the pores on the basis of laboratory studies (mercury porometry) [5], which has the form

Substituting different radii of the pores in the formula 1 are different according CRC=f(KP), which figure 1 shows in the form of curves in the graph field (cipher curves is the pore radius in microns). From figure 1 it is seen that with the increase of the radii of the pores with the same value of porosity (CP) permeability (CRC) is increasing. Figure 1 further used as three-dimensional maps.

Description figure 2.

Figure 2 shows a generalized dependence is awn-specific field where in the lower Carboniferous selected 6 of productive layers (C2-C7). Based on the fact that the layers of even-aged, have the same temperature and pressure conditions and depth 1300-1350 m, traditionally in the calculation of reserves and the construction of geological-technological model uses a generalized dependence, obtained in particular on the core samples KP and CRC, and used data for all layers (formula 2).

The description of Fig. 3.

The obtained three-dimensional reticulation dealt with the point KP and CRC for each layer separately, the parameters KP and KPI defined in the core samples from the respective reservoirs (figure 3), and the same data KP and the CRC used in figure 2 and figure 2. As can be seen from figure 3, the points are located on sample groups, and different groups are described by different dependencies

,

where a and b are constants that depend on the structure of the pore space due to the fact that different layers are of different samples from the core, depending on the combination of parameters KP-CRC" points on the graphs are grouped around dependencies with different pore sizes, which means communication CRC=f(KP) for a specific group of points can be described by a specific equation.

This pattern exists in a certain range change Gearbox, which is also prolieve is camping on the chart. For each interval change KP points on the graph are grouped around curves with different radii of pores, and thus, for each interval change KP describes the different correlation relationships CRC=f(KP). The more selected intervals of change of control, the more accurately describes petrophysical reservoir model, table 1 shows the petrophysical model each layer visean deposits.

Example.

Consider the formation C6 (figure 3). It is seen that the groups of points with coordinates KP and CRC in different ranges KP fall on different curves (with different pore), and therefore petrophysical model of the reflection layer C6 is:

PlastThe radius is then r, MKCP, %Correlation
C62<18CRC=101,47*lg(KP)-0,73
10>18-24CRC=101,47*lg(KP)+0,46
30>24CRC=101,47*lg(KP)+1,27

The intervals of non-reserves are described by formula 4, in accordance with the regulations, that the pores of radii less than 0,micron not involved in the filtration process.

Certain GIS KP for each of terrigenous formation in each well of the substitution in the formula of table 1 depending on the values of KP, we get for each layer in each well of the value of the CRC.

As can be seen from a comparison of figure 2 and 3, a generalized dependence (figure 2) does not reflect the true properties of terrigenous rocks reservoir/reservoir.

The permeability field is modeled by the square of the normal distribution of the obtained values of the CRC in each layer of each well. Received card field permeability area allows to estimate the geological heterogeneity of the reservoir, to carry out facial analysis, to determine the size of sandy phone Reliably simulated field permeability when building permanent geological models of oil and gas fields can identify and implement measures for the optimal development of hydrocarbon deposits.

Figure 4 shows the total CRC cards·visean deposits deposits, traditionally built on the generalized dependence (figure 4 b) and proposed method (figure 4 and table 1). As can be seen in figure 4 and clearly traced the outlines of the sand body, its size and distribution on the square at that time, as map 4 b does not reflect the true parameters of the Deposit. The analysis of the development of the visean saleimmediate over the last 5 years has confirmed the failed geological and technological activities in areas which new concepts are characterized by poor reservoir properties, and areas of the absence of the sand body and the location of injection wells with very low response in the areas of lack of sand bodies, which confirms the high efficiency of the proposed method for planning geologicheskikh activities in order to ensure rational development of deposits.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion about the effectiveness of the proposed method, which allows you to use any complex GIS regardless of the parameters of drilling fluid in the absence of particle size on the core, to determine with high accuracy the structure of each of terrigenous formation and deposits in General.

The proposed method can be recommended to optimize the system design multilayer terrigenous deposits with the aim of maximum residual oil reserves.

Table 1.
Petrophysical model layers visean deposits
Plastg MKThe CP.%CRC, MD
C22 g-16CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)-0.73)
10>16CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+0.46)
C32KPg-12CRC=10^(1.47 * lg(KP)-0.73)
5>12-19CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)-0.057)
10>19-25CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+0.46)
30>25CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+1,27)
C45>KGRCRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)-0.057)
C55KPg-20CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)-0.057)
25>20CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+1.13)
C62KPg-18CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)-0.73)
10>18-24CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+046)
30>24CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+1.27)
C710KPg-22CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+0.46)
20>22CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+0.97)
45>26CRC=10^(1.47*lg(KP)+1.57)

Sources of information

1. Methodological recommendations for determining estimation parameters for oil and gas deposits on materials GIW with the inclusion of the results of core analysis, sampling and testing of productive layers, Ed. Boundaryscan, Vfraser, Gel, helenin, NGO "Southfromjersey", 1990, 261 S.

2. Instructions for use materials geophysical study using the results of the study of the core and test wells to determine and justify estimation parametrov oil and gas deposits. Moscow, VNIGNI, 1987, 20 S.

3. Usagencies, Gashora, VHUTEINe. The method of estimating porosity and composition of the sand-aleurolite-clay rocks on geophysical data. Oilfield Geophysics. Issue 5. Ufa, Basepin ft, 1975, p.88-94.

4. EN 2219337 C1. The method of determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks in the well vicinity according to geophysical borehole sections. Afanas'ev V.S., Afanasiev S.V., A.V. Afanasjev

5. REVIEW OF THE WINLAND R35 METHOD FOR NET PAY DEFINITION AND ITS APPLICATION IN LOW PERMEABILITY SANDS and Mike Spearing, Tim Allen, Gavin McAulau (AEA Technology).

The method of determining geological properties of terrigenous rocks, including the execution of geophysical research sections of wells, processing the received information with the assessment of the geological properties of the rocks composing terrigenous thickness, the allocation of the reservoir intervals, the simulation of the breed as a structural frame forming the pore space, the form definition reflect the geological characteristics of the breed in its petrophysical properties, determination of petrophysical models of the geological characteristics of the breed, the definition in uncased wells according to the GIS hydrogen rocks (porosity KP), the definition of the geological characteristics of the breed, which are indicators of structural-mineralogical heterogeneity of the environment, its reservoir properties and absolute permeability, characterized in that the simulation of the breed as the structural frame is produced by using a certain method R35 Vinland sizes of the radii of pores, establish petrophysical models of geological the practical characteristics of the breed for core analysis (KP, CRC) depending on the combination of these parameters and geometry of the first space, with each point group formation described by equations of the form CRC=10And·log(CP)+where a and b are constants that depend on the radii of the pores and intervals of change of porosity, determine the geological characteristics of the breed, its reservoir properties, structural and mineralogical heterogeneity of the rocks on the areal and vertical, absolute permeability at the established petrophysical models in each well for each layer in a certain interval changes of porosity in the formula as KP is used, the porosity is calculated by the GIS, then simulate the permeability field over the entire area of the development of terrigenous rocks/reservoir.



 

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3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mounting elements, imitating cracks, in artificial porous substance. As elements, imitating bed cracks, metallic meshes folded twice or more are used. Areas and dimensions of meshes are determined by geometric likeness of modeled bed cracks. Porous substance is compacted between meshes. Model is hermetically sealed, vacuumized and filled with water under vacuum conditions. Water is pumped along and transversely to position of meshes. Penetrability of modeled bed is determined in said directions and water is displaced by model of oil.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has hollow body which is a fragment of force pipeline at vertically placed portion of mouth armature. Tool for controlling flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance is made in form of valve, connected to rotary support. Sample chamber is a ring-shaped hollow in hollow body, placed at same level with valve and connected at inlet to flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance through extracting channels, made on hollow body. Extracting channels are made in form of side slits, positioned symmetrically relatively to valve rotation axis. Ring-shaped hollow on hollow body is connected at outlet to locking tool, mounted at extension of valve shaft and made in form of sample-taking valve. Valve shaft and sample-taking valve are interconnected through hollow intermediate shaft. Sample-taking valve is placed in the body of locking tool with possible reciprocal movement. Valve shaft and hollow intermediate shaft are interconnected with possible mutual rotation for a quarter of one turn.

EFFECT: simplified construction and maintenance, higher quality.

4 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has body in form of calibrated cylinder. From both sides lids are connected to body. Inside the body separating piston and ball for mixing sample are placed. Also provided is hydraulic resistance for slow inlet of sample. Slide valve is used for safe inletting, pressurization and depressurization of taken fluid, is connected to lid and consists of rod with channels and bushing with clamp. Clamp is held between nuts interconnected by threads, one of which is connected to rod by thread. Needle valve consists of locking pin and axle-bearing and is used to drain pressure from closed space above slide valve prior to disconnection of sample-taking container from bed-testing equipment.

EFFECT: simplified construction, higher reliability.

3 dwg

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has hollow body mounted in force pipeline, inside of which body tool for controlling flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance is placed, probing chamber with extracting channels, locking tool with handle and guiding pipe, driving valve for picking sample, mounted with possible interaction with spring-loaded rod, placed inside the shaft of flow control tool. Hollow body is a fragment of force pipeline at vertical portion of mouth armature, control tool is made in form of valve of lesser diameter, then inner diameter of hollow body, and probing chamber is a ring-shaped hollow in hollow body, positioned at same level with valve and connected at input to flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance through extraction channels, made symmetrically to rotation axis of valve, and at output - to locking tool, while rod is provided with shelves for multi-start thread of appropriate cross-section, made at shaft on length of no less than quarter of axial step of this thread.

EFFECT: simplified construction, higher efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has hollow cylindrical body, branch pipes for extraction and output of sample and locking element. Body is made thick-walled. End portions of body are made in form of truncated cone and interconnected, on the side of lesser bases by means of channel. Branch pipe for extraction of sample is made elongated, with length equal to body diameter, and is let through in transverse direction of body through the center of said channel. Within limits of branch pipe cross-section its hollow is separated by slanted solid wall on two portions, each of which is connected thereto. One portion of branch pipe hollow is meant for taking sample, other one - for feeding reagent into well product. To receive trustworthy information about sample, by setting flow to homogenous state, inner surface of cone, on the side of larger base, is provided with rigidly fixed blades for turbulization of flow flowing into body, while diameter of channel connecting cones is selected equal to diameters of their lesser bases.

EFFECT: simplified construction, broader functional capabilities, higher quality of sample.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: device has non-magnetic body, electronic block, longitudinal and transverse probes with inductive coils, each of which has generator and receiver windings, while transverse probe has no less than three inductive coils, positioned along perimeter of central ferromagnetic core.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg

FIELD: well research, particularly means for drilling rock sample out of borehole in an airtight manner.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises case and hollow drill arranged in the case and having ring-shaped cutter. Stopper closing cartridge for sample receiving is kinematically linked with the drill by means of transmission mechanism. Transmission mechanism is formed as rotary drum with curved cut made in side surface thereof, deflecting finger and rotary arm. Deflecting finger slides in curved cut and is fixedly secured to drill body. Rotary arm is connected with the drum by one end thereof and with stopper by another end. Rotary arm is connected with stopper by means of mechanical couple including rod with plug. The stopper is arranged in cartridge lid and is made as rotary cylinder. Formed in the cylinder is through channel sized in accordance with the sample to be drilled out. Cylinder is provided with annular gaskets connected one to another by linear members. The rotary arm has an axis of rotation connected to device case.

EFFECT: simplified structure, increased reliability.

3 dwg

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