Corrosionproof fluid flow conducting parts and method to replace equipment and parts using corrosionproof fluid flow conducting parts

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to corrosionproof fluid flow conducting parts and equipment comprising one or more such parts. Equipment component comprises first fluid corrosionproof flow conducting section that comprises first corrosionproof material and second fluid flow conducting section that comprises second material. First and second sections are, directly or indirectly, have their ends welded together in solid state to make integral fluid flow conducting part. Invention covers also the method of replacing at least one fluid flow conducting equipment part that proposes replacement component comprising first fluid flow conducting section that includes first material and second fluid flow conducting section that includes second material. Second material is, in fact, identical to that of equipment section whereat spare part is to be mounted. First and second sections are, directly or indirectly, have their ends welded together in solid state to make integral fluid flow conducting part. Space part is secured to equipment by flush butt welding of second material of second space part with material being, in fact identical, to that of equipment attachment section.

EFFECT: higher efficiency due to replacement with parts that feature improved corrosion resistance properties.

101 cl, 2 ex, 4 tbl, 14 dwg

 

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates to corrosion-resistant, conductive liquid flow parts, and equipment that includes one or more of such parts. The present invention also relates to methods of substitution of one or more conductive liquid flow parts item of equipment for improved corrosion resistant, conductive liquid flow part. The present invention additionally relates subjected to cold working, multi-element, which can create corrosion resistant, conductive liquid flow part.

Description of the prior art

Various industrial methods and equipment operate at very high pressures and temperatures. For example, worldwide industrial method for the synthesis of urea involves the reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide in large reactors, high pressure, at temperatures over 150°C (302°F) and pressures of approximately 150 bar (15.0 MPa). This method is well known and described, for example, in U.S. patent No. 4210600, 4899813, 6010669 and 6412684. In this way, the ammonia, which is usually present in excess, and carbon dioxide react in one or more reactor, giving as the final products of an aqueous solution containing urea, ammonium carbamate, is not transformed into urea and excess ammonia, the use of aemy in this synthesis.

The most aggressive conditions during the synthesis of urea exist when the ammonium carbamate is at its highest concentration and temperature. Although these conditions are most critical stages of this method, only a relatively small number of materials can withstand these conditions without appreciable corrosion, which can lead to equipment damage. The materials from which may be produced equipment for the synthesis of urea, include in part, for some time, stainless steel AlSi316L, stainless steel INOX 25/22/2 Cr/Ni/Mo, lead, titanium, stainless steel Material®and zirconium.

When the method of synthesis of urea was developed for the first time, used the austenitic-ferritic stainless steel grade urea and other proprietary grades of stainless steel. Equipment of this synthesis includes desorber with the bundle of vertical tubes in which the environment of the method of synthesis of urea breaks down and condenses. Environment method for the synthesis of urea flows through the internal volume of the tubes, while saturated steam circulates and is condensed on the outside of the tubes. Condensable vapor provides the necessary energy for the decomposition of excess ammonia and ammonium carbamate in the tubes to urea and water. The gaps between the tube d is the sorber supported partitions for mounting tubes, which include round holes, through which the tube, and a separate tube is also attached to the surface of the walls for fastening tubes durable welding.

Few materials can withstand internal and external conditions, which are tubes of desorber without appreciable corrosion and/or erosion over time. The corrosion resistance of stainless steels is strongly dependent on whether the urea solution in the tubes of uniform and evenly distributed along the surfaces of the tubes to asseverate stainless steel (this solution provides part pestiviruses oxygen). If the inner surface of the tubing is not fully and not continuously wetted, stainless steel will corrosivity. Thus, if a worker node is operating in steady-state conditions and at relatively high performance, stainless steel tube will function adequately. However, if the host is running at less than full power, the distribution medium method for the synthesis of urea in the tubes desorber may be uneven or tube may include Nesmachnyi inner surface, which is not fully passivated, which leads to corrosion. Thus, currently available stainless steel does not represent a reliable material for Tr the side of desorber when used in the method of synthesis of urea.

Paying attention to the problems of corrosion that occur in stainless steels, for the past 30 years we developed equipment for the synthesis of urea, which is made of titanium. In this construction clad with titanium desorber includes solid titanium tube connected to plated titanium bulkhead for mounting tubes. When this design is used in the work, a vertically arranged tube desorber were subjected to corrosion and erosion near durable welds connecting the tube with the walls of desorber for fastening tubes. Erosion and corrosion was also found on the ground 1 meter (39,4 inch) length tubes. The ammonium carbamate is present at very high concentration and temperature, and decomposes and is condensed in this area, and it is believed that the erosion/corrosion occurs due to the sudden change of direction of flow, collision trends or sudden evaporation in this area. After detecting the inclination of titanium desorber to corrosion/erosion this equipment has been changed so that the nodes of desorber could be flipped end-to-end, allowing erosion/corrosion to occur at both ends of the tubes desorber before it became necessary replacement tubes. Although it almost doubled the service life of the tubes desorber, this post was not the permanent solution to the problem of corrosion data nodes, and many of the nodes in the method of synthesis of urea, made with titanium tubes desorber felt to some extent the problem of erosion/corrosion.

Additionally, addressing the problems of erosion and corrosion from the desorbers synthesis of urea was injected tube desorber made using zirconium as described in U.S. patent No. 4899813. Since Zirconia is more expensive titanium and stainless steel, the first equipped with a zirconium tube desorber were developed with the inclusion of the outer tube of stainless steel (typically 2 mm (0.8 inch) minimum thickness) and a relatively thin tubular liner of zirconium (typically 0.7 mm (0.03 inch) minimum thickness, mechanically connected (planted) with stainless steel tubing. The mechanical connection required for retention of zirconium liner in place, was achieved by expanding the inner diameter of the zirconium liner so as to neatly fit in the outer tube of stainless steel. The outer stainless steel tube obtained fit of double-layer tube provides mechanical strength, and low cost of the pipe relative to the solid zirconium tube. Relatively thin zirconium liner provides superior corrosion resistance. Zirconium was chosen for this application, so the AK it exhibits excellent resistance to corrosion in highly aggressive environments at high pressure and high temperature.

Mentioned two-layer tube for desorber with fit stainless steel/zirconium produced with strict requirements to ensure a very tight mechanical fit. However, the mechanical connection data layers serving as a source of trouble in the pipes for a long period of operation. Due to the lack of metallurgical connection between the liner of corrosion-resistant zirconium and outer stainless steel tube there was a small gap between the inner zirconium liner and the outer tube of stainless steel. This gap was partly arisen because of the different mechanical and physical properties of zirconium and stainless steel. For example, these materials have very different coefficients of thermal expansion, and, when heated, stainless steel expands more than zirconium. Also because of the different properties of these materials, they cannot be welded by melting together, and it becomes necessary to remove a portion of the zirconium liner from the end of the tube desorber for fusion welding of tubes with walls of stainless steel for mounting of the tubes. Regardless of how well-produced pipes of stainless steel and zirconium inserts and how tightly the components of the tube mechanically customized together was detecting the woman, over time, the corrosive environment of the method of synthesis of urea able to penetrate into the small gap between the stainless steel and zirconium, causing crevice corrosion and, in the end, the formation of holes in the outer tube of stainless steel. In some desorbers synthesis of urea with this construction, the tube began to break for this reason, causing a shutdown of the equipment for the synthesis of urea to fix this problem and causing significant maintenance costs.

Another recent development is the development of bundles of tubes desorber synthesis of urea, comprising a solid zirconium tube desorber clad with zirconium partitions for anchoring tubes and attached by the explosion of a Zirconia coating on all internal wetted surfaces. However, from the viewpoint of equipment cost of the synthesis of urea is usually cheaper to restore the correlated part of the existing equipment than to replace equipment with this new, corrosion resistant design. Although substitution of parts may be economically advantageous option for equipment desorber, including solid zirconium tube desorber clad with zirconium partitions for mounting tubes and the zirconium cladding on the wetted surface is its it would be advantageous if clad titanium nodes desorber could be made with tubes desorber having improved corrosion resistance. The reason for this is that clad titanium nodes desorber tend to be significantly cheaper to produce than clad zirconium nodes.

Accordingly, it would be preferable to provide an improved construction of tubes desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea. Also it would be preferable to suggest a method of modifying existing desorbers equipment for the synthesis of urea by some form of replacement, corrosion resistant tubes desorber, at the same time using the existing partitions of desorbers for fastening tubes.

In General it would be preferable to provide an improved construction for corrosion resistant flow parts of pieces of equipment operating under conditions causing corrosion. In addition to the nodes of desorber equipment for synthesis of urea such items of equipment include, for example, other chemical production equipment, units condensers and heat exchangers. Also it would be preferable to propose a method for retrofitting of existing worn and/or corroded parts corrosion-resistant replacement cha the authorities, where replacement parts are made from corrosion resistant materials such as, for example, zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

The INVENTION

To provide the above advantages, according to one aspect of the present invention provides a rst method for replacing at least one of the conductive liquid flow parts of an item of equipment, with the site of attachment. The first method includes the provision of a replacement part, containing the conductive liquid flow, the first portion including a corrosion resistant first material and the conductive liquid flow, the second section comprising a second material that is identical or substantially identical to a material of the site of attachment. The first section and the second section are directly and indirectly connected solid welding, forming a single body of liquid flow replacement part. The replacement part is attached to the item of equipment by a method containing the attachment of the second material of the second segment of the replacement part to the plot mounting hardware item.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method of a replacement part is selected from the part cylindrical, tube, pipe, nozzle, cut end, connector, tubing, connector pipes, Tr is the KJV of desorber, tube heat exchanger and a conductive liquid flow part.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the first way a piece of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, the replacement part is a tube of desorber, and the site of attachment represents a portion of a partition of desorber for fastening tubes.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method of a replacement part is attached to the item of equipment, the method comprising welding a second material of the second segment of the replacement parts section of the fastening element equipment. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method of attaching the second material in the second section to the site of attachment is carried out using, for example, welding, selected from acetylene welding and fusion welding using weld metal.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method of welding in the solid state of the first section directly and indirectly to the second section includes welding in the solid state, selected from cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, inertia welding, hot pressing, the cooking rolling and ultrasonic welding.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method the first section is made of one material and a second section made from the same material. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method, the corrosion resistant first material is at least one material selected from zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method, the second material selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the first method the second section includes an inner layer of corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of a second material. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the first method is the method that contains the fusion of the inner layer and the outer layer forms the second section. One non-limiting example of a technology that can be used for fusing the inner and outer layers is a combination of extrusion. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the first way metallurgical linking the inner layer and the outer layer of the second section forms the second in the Astok. This way metallurgical bonding may include, for example, performing at least one technology metallurgical bonding selected from binding extrusion, binding explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the inner layer is made of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer is made of a material selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

According to yet another non-limiting variant of the implementation of the first method piece of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, the replacement part is a tube of desorber, the site of attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes, the first portion of the replacement part represents zirconium, and the second section of replacement parts has an internal layer of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer of a material selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

In certain embodiments of the implementation of the first method piece of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for synthesis of urea; replacing the art is a tube of desorber; the site of attachment represents a portion of a partition for fastening pipes; the first section of replacement parts represents zirconium; and the second section replacement part contains the inner layer of material selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer of material selected from titanium and titanium alloys. In some of these embodiments the inner layer is metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer by a method which may include, for example, at least one technology selected from binding extrusion, binding explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting. In some of these embodiments, the area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state of the first section directly or indirectly with the second plot, in essence, free from alloys combining the first material and the second material. In the variants of implementation, in which the first section is a solid, indirectly welded to the second area, at least one third material may be located between the first area and the second area. Such at least one third material may be selected from, for example, titanium, titanium alloys, vanadium, alloys of vanadium, tantalum, tantalum alloys, hafnium, hafnium alloys, niobia alloys of niobium.

According to another aspect of the present invention offers the second method. The second way is to replace the tube desorber node, desorber for the synthesis of urea into the tube desorber. The second method includes the offer of a replacement tube desorber containing the conductive liquid flow, the first section including a corrosion resistant first material and the conductive liquid flow, the second section comprising a second material which is a material that is identical or substantially identical to the material from which constructed partition desorber for fastening tubes. The first section and the second section is directly or indirectly connected by welding in the solid state, forming a single body of liquid flow replacement part. To attach the replacement tube desorber to desorber, the second material of the second section is welded to an identical or substantially identical to a material of the partition for mounting tubes. This method of welding may be, for example, welding technology by fusing selected from acetylene welding and welding with weld metal.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the second method is corrosion resistant first material is at least one material selected the C group, consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys. Non-limiting examples of zirconium alloys include Zr700 (UNS R60700), Zr702 (UNS R60702), Zr705 (UNS R60705) and Zircaloys. In certain non-limiting embodiments implement the second method, the second material selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the second method is welding in the solid state of the first section directly or indirectly with the second site is carried out on welding technology in the solid state, selected from cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, including inertial welding, welding by hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding. In certain non-limiting embodiments implement the second method, the area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state of the first section directly or indirectly with the second plot, in essence, free from alloys corrosion resistant first material and the second material.

In certain non-limiting embodiments implement the second method the first section of the replacement tube desorber made of the same material, and a second section made from the same material. Alternatively, in certain embodiments implement the second method the second part is OK contains an inner layer of corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of a second material. In certain embodiments of the alternative implementation of the second method the second section is formed by the binding of extrusion so that the inner layer and the outer layer of the second segment are fused. In certain embodiments of the alternative implementation of the second method the second section contains the inner layer of material selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer portion of material selected from titanium and titanium alloys.

In certain non-limiting embodiments implement the second method the first section indirectly welded in the solid state to the second section so that at least one third material is located between the first area and the second area. Non-limiting examples of this at least one third material located between the first area and the second area, in such non-limiting implementation options include vanadium, vanadium alloys, tantalum, tantalum alloys, hafnium, hafnium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys.

According to another aspect of the present invention features the first part of the item of equipment. This first part includes the first area of the conductive liquid flow, comprising the corrosion resistant first material and the second section, the conductive liquid flow, comprising the second material. the first section and the second section is directly or indirectly connected by welding in the solid state, forming a single body of liquid flow part. The first part may be, for example, the replacement part or the initial part of the item of equipment. Non-limiting examples of possible forms in which may be secured to the first part includes a part cylindrical, tube, pipe, nozzle, cut the end connector, tubing, connector, pipe, tube desorber, tube heat exchanger and a conductive liquid flow part. Non-limiting examples of hardware components include chemical production equipment, site of desorber, the node of the capacitor and the coil.

Non-limiting examples of welding in the solid state, which can be used for direct or indirect welding in the solid state of the first section with the second section of the first part, include cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, inertia welding, welding by hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the first part of the corrosion resistant first material is a material selected from zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys. Non-limiting examples of the zirconium alloys are Zr700 (UNS R60700), Zr702 (UNS R60702), Zr705 (NS R60705) and Zircaloys (grade zirconium for nuclear applications). Also in certain non-limiting embodiments, the first portion of the second material are selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the first portion of the first section indirectly weld in the solid state to the second section such that at least one third material is located between the first area and the second area. Non-limiting examples of this at least one third material located between the first area and the second area, in such non-limiting implementation options include vanadium, vanadium alloys, tantalum, tantalum alloys, hafnium, hafnium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys.

In certain non-limiting embodiments of the second section of the first part includes an inner layer of corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of a second material. In certain non-limiting embodiments of the second section of the first part includes an inner layer of material selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer of material selected from titanium and titanium alloys. The inner and outer layers of the second segment can be, for example, directly or indirectly metallurgically mn are connected together. In one embodiment, assests the internal and external layers directly metallurgically mn associated with method, selected from binding extrusion (coextrusion), linking the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting. In certain embodiments of the realization of the absence of any significant medifusion layer formed between directly metallurgically mn associated inner and outer layers, allows the element to easily handle cold method during the manufacturing process of the conductive liquid flow part.

According to an additional aspect of the present invention offers a third way. The third way is intended to replace the tube desorber in desorber site of synthesis of urea into the tube desorber. The third method involves replacing the existing tube desorber site of synthesis of urea on the corrosion resistant pipe of desorber having the construction described above the first part.

According to another aspect of the present invention offers the first item of equipment. This element includes a part having the construction of the first part. According to certain non-limiting variants of implementation of the first item of equipment is an element of chemical production equipment, site of desorber, the node of the capacitor and the coil. Also according to specific, non-limiting variants assests the tion, the first part included in the first item of equipment is part of a selected part of the cylindrical tube, pipe, nozzle, cut end, connector, tubing, connector pipe, tube desorber, tube heat exchanger and a conductive liquid flow part.

According to an additional aspect of the present invention provides a fourth method. The fourth way is intended to prepare a conductive liquid stream portion containing the inner layer of corrosion resistant material surrounding the conductive liquid flow passage, and an outer layer of a different material. In certain embodiments of the fourth way conductive liquid flow portion is formed from an element that includes a first layer of zirconium or zirconium alloy, which directly metallurgically mn is associated with a layer of titanium or titanium alloy, and in which no significant diffusion of the intermediate layer between the bonded first and second layers.

According to another aspect of the present invention proposes a fifth way. The fifth way is intended to replace at least one of the conductive liquid flow parts of an item of equipment, with the site of attachment. The fifth method includes providing replacement conductive liquid stream portion containing the inner layer of the corrosion resistant first what about the material, surrounding conductive liquid flow passage through this conductive liquid flow portion, and the outer layer of the second material. The inner layer is a layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn associated with the outer layer. Non-limiting examples of technologies that can be used to directly or indirectly metallurgically mn link layer in the fifth method includes linking extrusion, linking the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method of a replacement part is attached to the item of equipment by a method containing the fastening of the outer layer of the replacement parts section of the fastening element equipment. Non-limiting examples of methods suitable for attaching the outer layer to the site of attachment in the fifth method, include welding, fusion welding, acetylene welding and fusion welding using filler metal. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the area of attachment includes a third material which is a material that is identical or substantially identical to the second material replacement parts, and fastening the replacement parts for the item of equipment includes the mounting of a participant who and the outer layer to the third material of the site of attachment.

Conductive liquid flow portion mentioned fifth method may be selected from, for example, of a cylindrical form, tube, tube desorber, tube heat exchanger, pipes and nozzles. Also in certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the corrosion resistant first material is selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys (such as, for example, Zr700 (UNS R60700), Zr702 (UNS R60702), Zr705 (UNS R60705) and Zircaloys). Also in certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the second material selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the inner layer and outer layer are layers, directly or indirectly metallurgically mn connected through a method including at least one technology selected from the group consisting of binding extrusion, binding explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting. Also in certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, there is no significant medifusion layer during direct or indirect metallurgical bonding of the inner and outer layers. In this case, the part can easily be subjected to cold working such as cold Voloshin who I am or cold compression tubes.

In certain non-limiting embodiments of implementation of the fifth method piece of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, the replacement part is a tube of desorber, and the site of attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes. Also in certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the item of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for synthesis of urea; the replacement part is a tube of desorber; the site of attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes; the inner layer of the substitute part selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys; and the outer layer substitution selected from titanium and titanium alloys.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth fastening method of a replacement part for the piece of equipment includes fusion welding area of the second material of the outer layer to the third material of the site of attachment, so formed, the welding area is substantially free of alloys that have essentially reduced the corrosion resistance relative to the first material and the second material.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the inner layer directly metallurgically mn of light is an outer layer. In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the fifth method, the inner layer indirectly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer, so that at least one layer comprising a third material that is different from the first material and the second material is located between the inner layer and outer layer.

According to another additional aspect of the present invention offers a sixth way. The sixth way is intended to replace the tube desorber in desorber site of synthesis of urea into the tube desorber. The sixth method includes providing a replacement tube desorber comprising an inner layer of a corrosion resistant first material surrounding the conductive liquid flow passage through the tube desorber, and the outer layer of the second material, in which the inner layer is directly or indirectly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer and in which the second material is identical or substantially identical to the material from which made the partition of desorber for fastening tubes. The second material of the outer layer is attached to an identical or substantially identical to a material of the partition for mounting tubes.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the sixth method corrosion resistant first material is in me is greater least one material selected from zirconium and zirconium alloys (such as, for example, Zr700 (UNS R60700), Zr702 (UNS R60702), Zr705 (UNS R60705) and Zircaloys). In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the sixth method, the second material selected from titanium and titanium alloys.

According to certain non-limiting variants of implementation of the sixth fastening method of the second material of the outer layer to identical or essentially identical to a material of the partition for mounting tubes contains the welding of the second material of the outer layer with essentially identical partition material for fastening tubes. Non-limiting examples of welding technology, which can be used include acetylene welding and fusion welding using weld metal. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the sixth method, the welding area formed by welding a second material of the outer layer of identical or essentially identical to the partition material for fastening tubes, essentially free from alloys having significantly reduced corrosion resistance relative to the second material.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the sixth method, the inner layer and the outer layer tube desorber directly or indirectly metallurgically mn connected by means of a method comprising, p is at least one technology selected from binding extrusion, binding explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting. Also in certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the sixth method, the inner layer directly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer and in certain embodiments, the implementation does not occur, essentially, medifusion layer when the inner layer is metallurgically mn communicates with the outer layer. In certain other non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the sixth method, the inner layer indirectly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer, so that at least one layer containing a material that is different from the first material and the second material is located between the inner layer and outer layer.

According to another additional aspect of the present invention features the second part of the item of equipment. The second part is selected from tube desorber and tube heat exchanger and includes an inner layer of a corrosion resistant first material surrounding the conductive liquid flow passage through the conductive liquid flow portion, and an outer layer of a second material, and the inner layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer. The second part may be a replacement part or the source cell battery (included) part is the equipment. In the case when the second part is a tube of desorber, piece of equipment can be, for example, the node desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea.

As described, in the second part of the inner layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer. Non-limiting examples of technologies that can be used to directly or indirectly metallurgically mn link layers include linking extrusion, linking the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting.

In certain non-limiting embodiments of the second part of the inner layer of the second part directly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer. In some of these embodiments does not occur, essentially, medifusion layer between directly metallurgically mn associated inner and outer layers, which allows the received parts are easily subjected to cold working, such as cold drawing or cold compression tubes. In other non-limiting embodiments of the second part of the inner layer indirectly metallurgically mn is associated with the outer layer, so that at least one layer comprising a third material that is different from the first material and the second material is located between the inner layer and outer layer.

According to another aspect of the present invention serves the seventh way. The seventh method is for manufacturing a conductive liquid stream portion containing the inner layer of the corrosion resistant first material surrounding the conductive liquid flow passage, and the outer layer of the second material. The seventh method includes metallurgical linking the inner layer and the outer layer without the formation of any substantial medifusion layer between the inner layer and outer layer.

In certain embodiments of the implementation of the seventh method, the part obtained by metallurgical bonding of the inner layer and the outer layer can easily be subjected to cold working, and in such cases this method can additionally include the cold processing of the intermediate part. Non-limiting examples of possible technologies that can be used for cold working of this part, include cold drawing, cold compression tubes, Truboprokatny with the inner and outer rollers and flow forming.

In certain non-limiting embodiments, the implementation of the seventh method corrosion resistant first material is at least one material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys (such as, for example, Zr700 (UNS R607.00), Zr702 (UNS R60702), Zr705 (UNS R60705) and Zircaloys). In certain variations the tah implementation of the seventh method, the second material is selected from titanium and titanium alloys.

According to another additional aspect of the present invention is proposed eighth way. The eighth method is intended to replace the tube desorber in desorber site of synthesis of urea into the tube desorber. The eighth method involves replacing the existing tube desorber site of synthesis of urea on the corrosion resistant pipe of desorber with the design of the second part.

According to an additional aspect of the present invention offers a piece of equipment, this piece of equipment includes the second part. Possible non-limiting examples of hardware components include chemical production equipment, site of desorber, the node of the capacitor and the coil.

Preferably the reduction alien contamination on at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder includes cleaning at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder using cleaning methods, in which the remnants of the cleansing agents do not remain on the surface.

Preferably ice blowing involves the movement of crystalline water against the surface, thereby mechanically cleaning and rinsing fluid to the surface.

The reader is taken into account for the mentioned details and benefits and others, in consideration of the subsequent detailed description of certain non-limiting embodiments of these methods, elements and parts of the present invention. The reader can also understand certain additional advantages and details of the implementation or use of these methods, elements and parts.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

The characteristics and advantages of these methods can be better understood with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 illustrates one variant of implementation tube desorber of the present invention, in which the tube includes a first conductive liquid flow section made of zirconium and attached inertial technology welding or other welding in the solid state to the second conducting liquid flow section, made of titanium.

Figure 2 illustrates the arrangement for fastening the tube desorber 1 to plated titanium surface partitions for mounting tubes desorber, which involves the use of a multilayer conductive liquid flow trim pipe.

Figure 3 schematically illustrates a variant implementation of the method of manufacturing a multilayer conductive liquid flow part.

Figure 4 schematically illustrates an end welded double layer blanks made is as an intermediate element in the way 3.

Figure 5 illustrates an arrangement for fastening a variant implementation tube desorber, including multilayer pipe end according to the present invention, plated titanium surface partitions for mounting tubes desorber.

6 depicts uncut and cut the samples section of the zirconium tube that was welded inertial welding with section titanium tube.

Fig.7 depicts two sample sections of zirconium tubes, welded inertial welding with section titanium tube, and in which the resulting zirconium/titanium conductive liquid flow tube was processed to remove the ribs.

Fig is a photograph of a cross section of a surface section of a welded seam of zirconium to titanium in the wall of the tube welded inertia of the sample.

Fig.9 is a view with a large increase in the surface section of the weld is shown in Fig.

Figure 10 is an image with a large increase of the surface area of the section of the weld is shown in Fig.9.

11 and 12 are a schematic diagram of stages of a variant implementation of the method according to the present invention for manufacturing a multilayer conductive liquid flow part or parts of the section.

Fig illustrates a view from the end of the welded double-layer billet, made in the quality of the intermediate element in one of the stages of the method, included in Fig.

Fig is a micrograph of metallurgically mn related site heat-treated multi-layer tube made according to a variant implementation of the method according to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of CERTAIN embodiments

Certain embodiments of proposed in the present invention, include new, corrosion resistant, conductive liquid flow parts, equipment, comprising one or more of such parts, and ways to replacement of conductive liquid flow components subjected to correlated and/or erosive conditions, corrosion resistant, conductive liquid flow, replacement parts. A non-limiting embodiments of the new parts include, for example, the part having a cylindrical or other form, tubes, pipes, nozzles, cut off the ends, connectors, tubing, connectors, pipes, and other conductive liquid flow part. Certain non-limiting embodiments of conductive liquid flow parts include at least one first conductive liquid flow area, made of at least one corrosion-resistant material such as, for example, zirconium, titanium, tantalum, niobium, alloys of any of these metals or other corrosion resistant metal is or alloy. These parts also include at least one second conductive liquid flow area, which includes material that is compositionally identical or composition essentially identical to the material from which is formed the existing site of attachment of the equipment to which this part should be attached. Corrosion resistant first section directly or indirectly connected with the second section by welding in the solid state with the formation of a single conductive liquid flow portion, such as, for example, tube or pipe. Such a part may be attached to the item of equipment welding similar materials of the second leg and fastening pieces of equipment. Such materials can be made by melting, for example, autogenous welding or welding with welding metal, without any conditions in the vicinity of fusion welding, which will significantly contribute to corrosion.

Parts and methods described in this invention can be adapted for use with various types of chemical manufacturing and other equipment. A non-limiting embodiments of such equipment and special conductive liquid flow parts of such equipment which may be constructed according to the present invention includes a tube for JASS is below urea, capacitors carbamate and bimetallic desorbers and tube heat exchangers, and pipes for the chemical and petrochemical processes.

Specific non-limiting variant described here implement is a way to replace correlated and/or eroded titanium tubes desorber hardware synthesis of urea into the tube containing the plot of corrosion resistant metal or alloy, such as a segment of zirconium or zirconium alloy, which would have been very resistant to the effects of corrosion/erosion environment of the synthesis process of urea in the tubes. This method allows you to reuse existing clad titanium partitions for mounting tubes desorber and head exchanger, so there is no need to replace the entire node desorber. This method includes providing a replacement tubes desorber having (i) a tubular, corrosion resistant section, made of, for example, zirconium or corrosion-resistant alloy of zirconium, and (ii)at least one tubular section mounting, made of, for example, titanium or other metal or alloy that can be welded by fusion with plated titanium bulkhead for mounting tubes desorber without any conditions in the vicinity of the fusion welding, which significantly contribute to the correspondent of the Ziya or erosion. Corrosion resistant section of the site and the mount are connected directly or indirectly with technology welding in the solid state with the formation of the conductive liquid flow replacement part.

Figure 1 is a view in section of one non-limiting variant of the implementation of the tube 10 desorber constructed according to the present invention. Tube 10, for example, may be suggested as the source host part of desorber or, as described above, can be used as a replacement tube of desorber for modifying an existing node desorber. Tube 10 desorber includes a cylindrical passage 12 defined by a continuous wall 13. The Central part of the continuous wall 13 of the tube 10 is a corrosion resistant zirconium tube 14. Some long titanium tube 16 is welded inertial welding at each end of the Zirconia tube 14. The ends of the titanium tube 16 can be welded by fusion to an existing plated titanium bulkhead for mounting the tubes in the node desorber without creating heterogeneous weld melting the zirconium-titanium. Figure 2 shows one possible location of the welding of tube-to-baffle for mounting the tube to secure the tube 10 desorber in the tube hole in the partition 20 for fastening tubes. It is clear that the configuration of the mounting shown in IG, can be used with original manufacturer desorber or can be used when replacing tubes desorber in the existing desorber, i.e. when servicing. Tube 10, which includes a piece titanium tube 16, are welded by inertial welding at site 17 to section 14 of zirconium tubes located in the hole plated titanium plate 24 of the partition 20 for fastening tubes. Sections 26 are plots of carbon steel or stainless steel septum 20 for fastening tubes. The tube 10 is attached to the partition 20 for fastening tubes durable titanium welded seam 28 when the connection is cut titanium tube 16 and plated titanium plate 24. Thus, the area of fusion welding is a fully titanium, and in the area of fusion welding does not occur alloys combining titanium and zirconium.

As discussed below, it is believed that alloys are formed in the welding area when the weld fusion of dissimilar metals, such as alloys of zirconium-titanium formed when the weld fusion zirconium and titanium, have a tendency to rust when exposed correlated substances and/or conditions. Welding in the solid state, however, does not generate the alloys in any significant quantities. Accordingly, providing a conductive liquid flow part, it is either highly resistant to corrosion plot, welded solid to the site, including material that is identical to the fastening pieces of equipment or which otherwise gives alloys are prone to corrosion when welded by fusion to the fixing part, the present method allows you to make or modify equipment with corrosion resistant parts, without causing conditions conducive to corrosion.

Used here welding in the solid state refers to a group of welding process that produces coalescence at temperatures essentially below the melting point of the main connected materials without adding solid solder. Pressure can be used or not during the different methods of welding in the solid state. Non-limiting examples of welding in the solid state, which can be used in variants of the implementation described here include, for example, cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding (including inertial welding), welding, hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding. These technologies have been used for many years in other applications and is well known to specialists in this field of technology. As such, an expanded discussion of technologies such compounds should not be present is camping here to allow experts in the art to use these methods.

Welding in the solid state is fundamentally different from fusion welding, in which the joined materials are melted during the joining process. When welded by melting the materials are not identical, the plot of fusion welding must include alloys of connected materials. Fusion welding of zirconium with titanium, for example, creates alloys that increase the rate of corrosion/erosion in the vicinity of the welding area. Fusion welding of zirconium and titanium also causes hardening of solid solution in the resulting weld seam, which, in turn, reduces the viscosity of the weld, and substantially increases the hardness of the weld. The obtained fused mixture of a welded joint from zirconium to titanium includes a range of mixtures of zirconium alloys-titanium (from 100% titanium up to 100% of zirconium, and all combinations in between). The composition of the alloys found in heterogeneous welded joint of zirconium to titanium, will have different mechanical properties and corrosion properties that cannot be adjusted during the welding process. Mechanical alloys of zirconium and titanium have very high strength and can have a very high hardness, which can be up to two times compared to the hardness h is the simple metals. Other mechanical properties, which may interfere with fusion welding, are sensitive to the cut and formability. Thus, certain areas of the weld fusion welding of zirconium/titanium demonstrate mechanical properties, which are unacceptable, if the equipment has generated significant pressure. Certain compositions of the alloys (sections mixture weld) will have very high oxidation and corrosion.

Usually the resulting corrosion resistance of metal welded with dissimilar metal, will have a much lower resistance to corrosion than the corrosion resistance of pure metal, and so, in the case of fusion welding of zirconium and titanium. Even if the weld metal is made of pure zirconium or titanium, will be the area of the weld seam, in which there is an alloy of zirconium-titanium having a low corrosion resistance compared to pure metal. Corrosion test Huey is a standard corrosion test for materials used in applications where the materials come into contact with nitric acid and/or urea. Found that the corrosion test Huey, for example, seam welding by melting the zirconium-titanium shows a high corrosion rate, whereas welds titanium-titanium or zirconium-zirconium demon is tryout very low corrosion rate.

Thus, welding in the solid state of zirconium and titanium conductive liquid flow plots and fusion welding of one or more parcels of titanium tube plated with titanium walls for fastening tubes mentioned above, non-limiting, described here, an implementation option avoids fusion welding of dissimilar materials. This, in turn, allows to avoid the formation of alloys in the areas of the weld, with a relatively high rate of corrosion/erosion by contact with the environment of the synthesis process of urea and other contributing corrosion conditions in desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea. Should be a significant increase in service life of newly constructed or modified desorber.

Taking into account its reproducibility and easy adaptation to the fusion tubular and cylindrical elements, inertial welding can easily be used for education of the embodiments described new here parts. As is known in the technique, inertia welding is a welding technology in the solid state, which is a type of friction welding, when the joined materials to weld together without melting of these materials. In inertia welding energy required for the formation of the weld, served, chiefly the m way by the stored rotational kinetic energy of the welding machine. One of the two workpieces is held on a rotatable shaft attached to the flywheel with a certain mass. Another workpiece is captured in the clamping Chuck and is held from rotation. The flywheel is accelerated to a predetermined speed and then released, so that the rotating components can rotate with a certain kinetic energy. At this time, the motor engine flywheel off, blanks are compressed together axially attached pressure, which in some technologies may increase during the weld cycle. The kinetic energy stored in a rotating flywheel is converted into heat by the friction between the billet surface section of the weld, and this huge localized energy associates of the workpiece. Axial pressure is maintained up until all the energy of a rotating mass will not istrated in welding, thereby stopping the rotation. During the welding cycle the material that is on the surface of the section becomes plastic in the dissipation of heat of friction in and out of the weld. The remaining plastic material undergoing joint hot processing, forming a weld bead. The resulting loss in the length of the blanks in the result of application of force and displacement plastically what about the material of the contact area is called "the landing". When the inertia welding of tubular elements with the formation of certain lengths of pipe and the inner and outer diameters of the resulting pipe will have a ledge arising from the landing. This protrusion can be removed using technology finishing. As materials, United inertial welding, do not melt during this process, there is not appreciable alloying, thereby eliminating the harmful effects of education alloys on mechanical and corrosion properties in the weld seam area.

Inertia welding can be used to connect metal combinations are not generally regarded as compatible, such as, for example, aluminum and steel, copper and aluminum, titanium and copper and Nickel alloys and steel. Generally, any metal materials that are malleable, can be welded by friction, such as inertia welding, including Maraging steel, tool steel, alloy steel and tantalum. The process of friction welding usually is much faster than fusion welding, and this process is mainly regulated by the machine, eliminating human error, so that the resulting weld bead does not depend on the operator's skill. There is also no need significant preparation of the welded connection, and does not require welded wire or consumable items svarc is.

Explosion welding is a well-known technology of welding in the solid state for the connection of dissimilar materials, and the technology is generally described in the literature. Examples of such descriptions include "Explosion Welding", Volume 6, ASM Handbook, Welding, Brazing and Soldering (ASM Intern. 1993), pages 705-718; and A.Nobili, et al., "Recent Developments in Characterization of Titanium-Steel Explosion. Bond Interface", 1999 Reactive Metals in Corrosive Applications Conference Proceedings, September 12-16, 1999 (Sunriver, Oregon), pages 89-98. At explosion welding adjustable energy detonating explosion is used to create a metallurgical connection between two or more homogeneous or heterogeneous metallic materials. During high-speed collisions of materials under appropriate conditions jet is formed between the materials, which blows away the polluting surface film. Materials cleaned from the surface of the films the influence of the jet, are connected at an interior point under the action of very high pressure, which is obtained near the point of collision.

As used here, the term "metallurgical bond" refers to the relationship between concatenated metal surfaces, achieved by applying pressure and/or temperature. Diffusion material does not leak during explosion welding, so the problem alloy cannot be formed. This technology is a way Ho is one of welding, in which a surface film of dirt are removed with basic materials as a result of collision of materials at high pressure.

In the described embodiment, for the manufacture of pipes of desorber synthesis of urea planirovanie explosion welded connection can be formed between the segments of titanium and zirconium replacement tube desorber. In one embodiment of this method, for example, zirconium and titanium are linked by a blast together, and a small tube is made from plate. This tube consists of zirconium hand and titanium sides. Zirconium is then welded by melting a section of the Zirconia tube, titanium welded by melting a section of titanium tubes. Clad pipe explosion transient connections are made at the present time, although the inventor is not aware of such tubes having a combination of the metals zirconium-titanium.

While these particular embodiments of directed to the use of tubes desorber the site of synthesis of urea, while the tube desorber include zirconium section and one or more titanium plots, it is clear that what is described here parts and methods are not so limited. For example, the methods of the present invention can be adapted to provide the original or a replacement, conductive liquid p is the current parts for other types of chemical production equipment, as well as other types of equipment, in which parts contain the first section, which includes corrosion-resistant material directly or indirectly connected with the second segment using technology welding in the solid state, so that the resulting welding area is not suffering from a significantly reduced mechanical and/or corrosion properties relative to the first and second materials. The material in the second area may be selected so that it can be attached by fusion welding to the site of a chemical production or other equipment that is made from a compatible material. By "compatible" is meant that the method of fusion welding does not cause the alloys in the region of the weld, have significantly degraded the mechanical and corrosion properties. One example is an original or a replacement tube for a heat exchanger in which the tube is made of corrosion-resistant section and the second section, as just described.

In addition, although the above, non-limiting, specific options for implementation include welded in solid state conductive liquid flow parts that have separate areas comprising zirconium and titanium, the present method can also be applied in cases where the corrosion resistant area including the AET of one or more of zirconium alloys or other corrosion-resistant materials, and/or where the second section includes titanium alloys or other materials. Non-limiting examples of zirconium alloys include, for example, Zr700 (UNS R60700), Zr702 (UNS R60702), Zr705 (UNS R60705) and Zircaloys (including, for example, Zr-4, Zr-2 and Zr2, 5Nb). As a non-limiting example provides that parts manufactured according to the present invention can be used in applications where the existing structure, which is alloyed conductive liquid flow part is a titanium alloy or stainless steel, and in this case the appropriate section of this part may be made of similar or essentially similar titanium alloy or stainless steel, respectively. In the manufacture of this part of the site, including titanium alloy or stainless steel, directly or indirectly, is welded in a solid state to a different area of the zirconium alloy of zirconium and/or other metal or alloy that provides the desired mechanical, corrosion and/or other properties.

Another possible modification to the above variant of the method of the present invention is designed to provide multi-layer, conductive liquid stream end or portion that includes corrosion resistant inner layer surrounding the passage of the liquid stream and an outer layer of a different material. As used here, the term "multilayer" refers to the presence of two or more layers of different materials, metallurgically mn connected in the indicated structure. The corrosion resistant material of the inner layer may be, for example, zirconium, zirconium alloy, or other corrosion resistant metal or alloy. Multilayer end or section can be formed by any suitable means, such as, for example, coextrusion, also known as binding by extrusion, which is a method of forming tubes, are well known to experts in the art, and which is also discussed further here. Multilayer conductive liquid flow end or the plot can be welded in a solid state, for example, inertial welding, corrosion resistant, conducting the liquid flow section formed of zirconium or other corrosion resistant material. Thus, highly resistant to corrosion of the metal or alloy is provided on the entire inner length of the conductive liquid flow part. If the outer layer of multilayer end or portion is formed of titanium, for example, it can be welded by fusion to the plated titanium bulkhead for mounting tubes node desorber no significant degradation of the mechanical and corrosion properties of the material okrestnosti weld.

Design of multilayer pipes are known for nuclear cladding to contain the fuel pellets. The patent literature includes known methods of metallurgical bonding layers made of alloys based on zirconium for this particular application. For example, a thin inner liner of pure zirconium for nuclear plated tube is described in U.S. patent No. 4200492. Specified zirconium liner inhibits the initiation and propagation of cracks due to corrosion cracking from the strain. Much thicker outer layer of an alloy of zirconium is the base material of the cladding and provides a suitable resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. Additional patents, such as, for example, U.S. patent No. 5383228, 5524032 and 5517540, describe changes to the options chemistry, layering and processing for multi-layer cladding of nuclear fuel tablets. In the same location was used for cladding fuel pellets thin outer liner to improve the stability of the cladding to water corrosion. The present inventors conceived adaptation of certain aspects of the multi-layer cladding of nuclear fuel on the options for the implementation of the conductive liquid flow parts of the present invention containing the layout of the multilayer conductive liquid sweat is for parts. However, in contrast to certain choices of the implementation of these conductive liquid flow parts mentioned patents are directed to the cladding of nuclear fuel and linking layers made of alloys such as alloys based on zirconium, and, for example, do not suggest or not suggest metallurgical linking dissimilar reactive metals such as titanium and zirconium.

As noted here, dissimilar reactive metals such as titanium alloys and zirconium, it is difficult to combine due to, for example, the difference in their properties thermal expansion, the difference in size of the crystal lattice and lack of integrity of the weld, when these materials are linked. Explosion welding is used for metallurgical bonding of dissimilar alloys, but this technique suffers from the well-known disadvantages. For example, localized deformation or thinning of linked layers can occur due to changes in explosive force. For this reason, used processing after binding, but can be difficult during processing to precisely adjust the thickness of the inner liner. Also the pressure force arising during welding by explosion, forcing the metal to behave like a viscous fluid that can give a wavy boundary line between the associated materials. The wavy nature of the boundary line is eleet difficult or impossible to maintain the correct thickness of the liner, as the length of the edge line can vary significantly. In some known related by the explosion of designs, for example, a wavy boundary line between the related materials varies in the range from 0.5 mm to 1 mm (0,0197 inches to 0,0394 inch). The geometry of the associated parts is also a limiting factor when using the explosion welding. Specific technologies for explosion welding of the outer component are surrounded by the explosive substance to explode on the inner liner of a heterogeneous material, which is supported by the rod, to prevent the collapse inside after a certain point. In this technology, the wall thickness and strength of the external components are the limiting factor. In alternative technologies explosive is placed inside the inner diameter of the liner component, and an explosion expands the inner liner on the inner surface of the outer component. In this case, the inner diameter must be large enough to contain a sufficient amount of explosives that may hinder the application of this technology in the manufacture of thick-walled tubes with small internal diameter and other conductive liquid flow parts, such as are used in heat exchangers high pressure.

Not known is how many alternative methods for metallurgical bonding of dissimilar metals and alloys. For example, U.S. patent No. 4518111 offers a two-step method for bonding components made of zirconium and steel. At the initial stage of the explosion welding is used for metallurgical bonding of the two components in the workpiece. In the second phase steel third layer is metallurgically mn is associated with coextruding workpiece, thereby providing three connected layers. Of course, the use of explosion welding is discussed above limitations, and the application of the two-way coupling increases the cost of the final product. U.S. patent No. 5259547 also describes a two-step method that includes the step of explosion welding with subsequent dissemination associated workpiece on a shaped mandrel to securely link layer metallurgically mn. Although multilayer conductive liquid flow portion in the present invention can be produced using a multi-stage manufacturing methods, they can have a significant advantage in cost due to a one-step methods of binding, such as described in methods.

Another well-known approach to metallurgical bonding of dissimilar metals or alloys is the use of hot isostatic pressing (CIP) pre-connected cylindrical components before bonding in the solid state extrusion. atent U.S. No. 6691397 uses the ISU with pressure over 15,000 psig and temperatures over 2000°F for at least, from 2 hours to 24 hours. The GUI creates a metallurgical bond between dissimilar metals, allowing materials with different voltages plastic flow to maintain integrity during hot extrusion into a tube. Of course, as described above, the two-way linking can add value relative to the one-step method. Also the original education and metallurgical connection between the materials through the ISU requires considerable time under conditions of pressure and temperature. Dissimilar materials can form brittle diffusion layer on their surface section or may result in excessive grain growth during heating for long periods. None of these properties is undesirable, if the extruded tube is then subjected to cold working.

Another approach to the formation of a metallurgical connection between dissimilar metals or alloys are described in U.S. patent No. 5558150, in which the outer layer alloy centrifugal molded on the inner layer. The layers of the composite casting metallurgically mn contact cooling. The method of this patent is designed for bonding steel and reactive metal, which requires casting was carried out in a vacuum to prevent contamination by oxygen and nitrogen from the atmosphere. In addition, C is Mista structure of the cast material is rough, interfering with subsequent cold working.

One non-limiting variant of the method, by which a cylindrical multi-layered zirconium/titanium, conductive liquid flow parts or sections of parts that are applicable in the present invention include the steps generally shown in figure 3, as further described below.

In the first step of the method 3 separate, hollow, cylindrical titanium and zirconium, joined together, the components are provided in suitable form, and a cylindrical zirconium put the component has a size corresponding to the inner diameter of the cylindrical titanium main component. As an example, the main part may be made of titanium 3 class (ASTM designation), and zirconium invest part may be made of an alloy Zircadyne 702™ (Zr702). The surface of these link together parts prepared accordingly to better ensure sufficient metallurgical bond between the components. It is preferable to process, prepare the surface and clear link along the surface. For example, the inventors have determined that in the preparation of titanium and zirconium in front of metallurgical bonding, it is preferable to prepare the associated surface so that each had a surface roughness not greater than about 63 microtu the mA (0,0016 mm) RA. It is believed that providing the surface with such a surface finish better ensures adequate clearance in the protrusions and depressions of the profile of the surface roughness. It is also considered that the absence of deep grooves and scratches, for example, helps to maintain a continuous metallurgical bond between the surfaces without stratification.

Also, it is preferable to clean the associated surface of extraneous contaminants, such as dirt and oil that gives metallurgical and high quality communication. An example of one method that can be used to clean the surface of the reactive metal, is an ice jet cleaning, which is described in U.S. patent No. 5483563. Technology ice blasting involves intensive feeding crystalline water on the cleaned surface of the metal or alloy to obtain simultaneously the mechanical cleaning and watering liquid. Ice blast cleaning can give improved the integrity of the metallurgical connection between the surfaces compared to conventional methods of surface cleaning, as well as ice blasting leaves no residue cleaning agent on the cleaned surface. An example of such a balance is the residual fluoride, which may remain on the surface, etched with hydrofluoric-nitric Ki is lotai. Non-limiting examples of alternative technologies for cleaning surfaces include machining, etching acid, and the use of solvents and alkaline cleaners. Other suitable technologies for cleaning the surface of well-known specialists in this field of technology.

On the second step of the method figure 3 components collect so that zirconium invested eligible component is located inside the titanium main component, and end connections between components are welded so as to provide a multi-layer workpiece, suitable for extrusion. End view of a multilayer workpiece 110 shown in figure 4, in which 114 denotes a cylindrical titanium outer main material, 116 denotes a cylindrical zirconium inner liner, and 118 denotes a welded edge between the main material and the liner. Welding may be, for example, autogenous welding, melting, and in this case, the weld seam comprises a mixture of titanium/zirconium. As described above, the fusion welding of dissimilar reactive metals gives the alloy in the weld zone, which typically has a lower strength and toughness relative to individual metals. The integrity of the welded connection of the ends of the workpiece, however, is critical for protection of the atmosphere from surface contamination section the and components during the pre-heating of the billet before extrusion billet at a later stage. Violation of the weld during extrusion can lead to atmospheric pollution or uneven reduction of the primary and nested components during extrusion.

In one embodiment, the method of figure 3 alternative technology, electron beam welding is used for welding end connections between the main and sub components, providing the workpiece. Found that the welding electron beam provides an acceptable welding depth and width of the weld and provides adequate protection from atmospheric contamination between the boundary surfaces. Preferably, the weld penetrates into the end connection at from 5 to 50 mm (0,197 to 1.97 inches) (measured in the plane of the welded surfaces) and with a width that is adequate to isolate the opposite surface of the base and attached components from the atmosphere. Suitable alternative technologies provide autogenous or filler welding known to experts in the field of welding of reactive metals.

On the third step of the method, shown in figure 3, the workpiece obtained in the previous step, is heated and ekstragiruyut education metallurgically mn-linked, seamless pipes of dissimilar metals having sufficient thickness uniform liner. In one embodiment, this sposobamiraboty/zirconium billet induction heated to a temperature in the range from 550 to 900°C (1022 to 1652°F). Alternatively, for example, acetylene or electric furnace can be used for heating billets before extrusion, but such heating technologies require significantly more time and create more surface contamination on the workpiece compared with induction heating.

The heated billet is loaded into the press extrusion using appropriate equipment, to obtain a concentric tube of the workpiece. In one embodiment of this method the plunger extrusion moves essentially continuously from 50 to 900 mm/min (from 1,969 to 35.4 inches/minute) during the extrusion cycle to avoid unacceptable deviation of the thickness of the liner extruded tube. Factors affecting the quality metallurgical communication received as a result of extrusion include temperature, time at temperature, pressure and purity of the surface. In this non-limiting embodiment, for example, extrusion may vary from 3:1 to 30:1, to better ensure adequate pressure at the metallurgical bond principal and attached components.

A significant advantage of induction heating of billets and then extruding the billet to metallurgically mn link layer, is that the period of time when the billet is heated and maintained at temperature the re-extrusion, there may be very limited. When time is at a temperature of extrusion is small, a small or zero mutual diffusion occurs between the layers of titanium and zirconium, when metallurgical bond is formed during the extrusion process. The mutual diffusion layer or simply "the diffusion layer usually exists between layers of dissimilar metals that are connected metallurgically mn. The diffusion layer may include an intermetallic compound or composition gradients, which are harder and more brittle than the individual alloys. As there is a significant deficit of mutual diffusion during induction heating of the workpiece and the subsequent extrusion of the billet to metallurgically mn link layer, a material which is brittle and has a high strength relative to the layers of titanium and zirconium, is not formed in significant amounts. This gives you the ability to easily subjected to cold working extruded multilayer part, for example, by cold drawing or cold compression tube, if it is necessary to make the final conductive liquid flow part. Accordingly, one significant aspect of some embodiments described here lies in the manufacture of parts that includes heterogeneous, metallurgically mn-linked layers, without the formation of any there is i.i.d. layer mutual diffusion between the layers. It can be concluded that a significant mutual diffusion layer is not formed during thermal processing during extrusion, annealing, or the processes of alternative binding if obtained, is metallurgically mn-linked multilayer structure can easily be subjected to cold working, such as cold drawing or cold compression tubes.

On a possible fourth step of the method, shown in figure 3, the extruded multilayer pipe is subjected to heat treatment to release tension in the material and/or recrystallizing material before applying cold working. Preferably, the technology of heat treatment minimizes the development of a layer of mutual diffusion between reactive, metallurgically mn-related layers. To better inhibit the development of mutual diffusion layer, heat treatment is preferably tailored to achieve the desired stress relieving and/or recrystallization in the constituent materials of the multilayer pipe, using the minimum required temperature and time. So, for example, titanium/zirconium multilayer pipe manufactured according to the present variant implementation, can otjihase at a temperature in the range from 500 to 750°C (932 to 1382°F) for 1 to 12 hours, to limit the development of mutual diffusion layer. Experts in the field of those who provide logistical processing can easily find a suitable mode of heat treatment for a specific multilayer conductive liquid flow portion, made according to the present invention.

On the fifth step of the method 3 of the multilayer pipe is subjected to cold working. Cold processing reactive metals can provide additional properties, such as improved grain structure, mechanical properties, dimensions and surface finish. As noted above, the preferred method of manufacture of the pipe, which limits the formation of a brittle layer of mutual diffusion. Possible methods of cold treatment, suitable for multilayer pipes made according to the present invention, include, for example, cold drawing, cold compression tube and Truboprokatny inner and outer rollers, such as continuous education. Other technologies suitable for cold processing of multilayer conductive liquid flow element manufactured according to the present invention will be obvious to experts in the field, corresponding to the present invention.

Found that a cold compress tube (also known as "pilgrimage") represents a particularly advantageous technique for cold treatment in connection with this embodiment of the method of the present invention. During cold compression tube applied corrugated tape stamps, which roll along the tube, extruding the material onto the belt frame. P is gradually decreasing cross-sectional area of cut compresses the tube wall on the corresponding tape frame. The tube is longitudinally into the die and is rotated around its longitudinal axis, so that the full circumference uniformly reduced in size. The usual reduction achieved by cold compression of the tubular elements of the reactive metals are in the range from 20 to 90%.

It is clear that, although a variant of the method, shown in figure 3 and described above, uses a main component and titanium zirconium liner, alternative materials may be used for primary and attached components. For example, and without intending to limit the scope of the present invention in any way, you can use titanium outer framework and niobium inner liner or tantalum outer liner and titanium internal basis. Other combinations of materials can be selected based on the application for which adapts the tube, and such combinations will be obvious to those of ordinary skill in the field relating to the present invention.

It is also understood that the multilayer conductive liquid flow parts or sections of parts of the present invention need not be manufactured with the use of the methods listed in figure 3. For example, here described alternative ways. Also ordinary specialists after reading the present invention can easily formulated the ü alternative ways to provide such multi-layered parts or sections of parts.

In addition, since the present invention relates to a multilayer parts and parts of parts, more than two layers can be provided in such parts and parts of parts. For example, the portion may include three or more layers, if desired, which can be arranged in the workpiece and converted into a conductive liquid flow portion, as generally described above in relation to part with two layers. Therefore, it will be understood that the scope of the present invention includes a conductive liquid flow portion that includes three or more layers, including a corrosion-resistant inner layer or liner surrounding the conductive liquid flow passage through this part, an outer layer and one or more intermediate layers between the inner and outer layers. In this case the inner and outer layers are called here "indirectly" connected, which is opposed to the case when the inner and outer layers are directly connected to each other. In each case, however, directly adjacent layers in the multilayer structure are bonded together metallurgically mn. As noted, such a multilayer conductive liquid flow parts and parts of parts can be manufactured by using the ideas here together with the knowledge of experts in the field of technology.

One location for attachment of the IP is the same or a replacement of zirconium/titanium tube desorber, having monoclonal section of the tube is welded in a solid state to a multi-layered pipe end toward the wall for mounting the tube shown in cross section in figure 5. Double-layer end of the tube, shown in figure 5, can be manufactured, for example, coextrusions, providing an outer tube made of titanium and corrosion resistant zirconium inner liner. As shown in figure 5, the tube 210 desorber includes a Central cylindrical passage 212 defined by a tubular wall 213. Tubular zirconium section 214 is welded in a solid state to a two-layer tubular section 216 of the end section 217 welding. Section 216 of the double-layer end includes a tubular titanium outer section a, metallurgically mn associated with tubular zirconium inner liner 219b. Partition 220 for mounting tubes includes plakirovannyy titanium plate 224 associated with section 226 of carbon or stainless steel. Durable titanium weld 228 is formed by the fusion welding of titanium outer section a with plated titanium plate 224. It is clear that, as such materials are fusion-welded to secure the tube 210 desorber to the septum 220 for mounting tubes, problematic alloys having low resistance to corrosion, does not occur, and the mechanical properties of materials WB the ISI weld zone does not deteriorate significantly.

As a modification described above, the tube may include a corrosion resistant tubular section made of zirconium, zirconium alloy, or other corrosion-resistant material, and a tubular section, which includes stainless steel, and these two areas are directly or indirectly connected to the inertial welding or other welding technology in the solid state, forming a single tube. Tube desorber made this way can be used as original equipment in the newly manufactured desorbers, which includes partitions for mounting tubes of stainless steel, or can be used as a substitute tubes to modify the desorbers, which includes partitions for mounting stainless steel tubes. Stainless steel tubes of desorber choose, essentially identical to the stainless steel walls for fastening tubes with which these tubes are fused. A welded joint is formed when joining stainless steel pipes and stainless steel partitions for mounting tubes, attaching the tube to the site of desorber. Of course, any described herein, combinations of materials and construction of the tubes desorber also applicable as original or replacement tubes desorber in concrete structures deserve the A.

Another possible modification episondes parts and methods should include intermediate sections of one or more materials of this part, which are joined by welding in the solid state. Sites connected such intermediate materials are referred to here as "indirectly" connected by welding in the solid state. In the case of welding in the solid state of the first section, of zirconium or zirconium alloy with a second plot of titanium or titanium alloy, for example, possible materials located between the first and second parts include, for example, one or more of nizkochastotnogo titanium, vanadium, tantalum, hafnium, niobium and alloys of these materials. These intermediate materials would be problematic in the case of fusion welding, but may suitably be combined with other materials inertia welding.

The following additional examples illustrate features of embodiments described herein, parts and methods.

Example 1 is a Comparative study of joints by welding in the solid state and fusion welding

In connection with the here described methods, mechanical and corrosion characteristics of compounds of zirconium-titanium welding fusion was evaluated relative to the welded joints produced by welding in the solid state. is all right known the zirconium and titanium can be welded by fusion, using technologies such as, for example, welding tungsten electrode in autogenous environment, welding metal electrode in autogenous environment, plasma arc welding and resistance welding, receiving high-strength welded joints. As noted above, however, the welding seam is obtained when joining dissimilar materials by melting, can corrode and is subjected to a hardening of solid solutions, which can significantly increase the hardness and toughness of the weld zone. When autogenous (i.e. without the use of filler metal) the fusion welding of zirconium and titanium alloys, zirconium-titanium obtained in the weld zone, ranging from 100% zirconium, up to 100% titanium. The effect of alloying can be partly reduced by the use of zirconium or titanium filler metal. Even with the use of filler metal section of the alloy will consist of different compositions of the alloy of zirconium, titanium, and this section of the alloy can significantly degrade the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

Welding in the solid state of the tubular sections has been studied as a means to avoid melting of connected materials during welding and education problematic alloys in the weld zone.

Experimental methods

1/2hours to remove the stress of the weld. In welded samples where used to absorb voltage heat treatment, the samples were evaluated before and after heat treatment. Fig.7 shows two completely fabricated, welded inertia welding of the sample, in which the protrusion is removed.

The purpose of the comparison was prepared and evaluated several samples section zirconium plates, welded by melting with section titanium plates. Prepared samples welded autogenous welding, melting, and samples welded by melting with the use of filler metal. Mechanical testing, hardness testing, metallography, scanning electron microscopy and pytanie corrosion used in order to evaluate and compare the welded samples.

The results of mechanical testing and hardness testing

Small samples were tested at room temperature using a standard tensile test to determine the mechanical strength of the welded joints. The sample strain was treated with the center of the weld zone in the middle of the sample sensor stretching. The samples were tested according to ASTM E-8. Table. 1 shows the results of tensile tests for several different weld samples. The results show that inertia welded welded samples had higher tensile strength and slightly lower yield strength than welded by melting the samples. The application of the above relieves stress annealing welded to the inertial welding samples only slightly reduced mechanical strength of the samples. When observing the actual test procedure tensile strength was evident that all welded samples (cooked and inertia welding, and melting) was destroyed in a titanium source material and not in the field of welding.

Table 1
The type of welded connectionPMFRI
ksi (MPa)ksi (MPa)%, min
Zr/Ti autogenous (without weld metal)71,8 (495)57,1 (394)17
70,4 (485)55,1 (380)12
Zr/Ti fusion welding (Zr additive)61,1 (421)44,0 (313)22
60,9 (420)46,1 (318)20
Zr/Ti fusion welding (Ti additive)70,1 (483)53,1 (366)16
70,6 (487)56,1 (387)16
Zr/Ti in rtiona welding (as welded) 75,2 (519)51,8 (357)20
76,4 (527)52,8 (364)15
71,5 (493)50,8 (350)5
Zr/Ti/ inertia welding (removed voltage)74,6 (514)47,8 (330)16
74,9 (517)48,3 (333)28
74,5 (514)49,1 (339)19
Forged (not welded)
Titanium grade 2 ASTM50 (345) min40 (275) min20
Forged (not welded)
Titanium grade 3 ASTM
65 (450) min55 (380) min18
Forged (not welded)
Zirconium grade 702™ ASTM
55 (379) min30 (207) min16

Table. 1 also specifies the requirements of ASTM for titanium grade 2, titanium grade 3 and Zr702. In tested samples of welded joints mechanical properties of each of inertia welded welded tubes (stress relieving) met the requirements for grade Zr702.

The hardness of the welded samples was estimated from zirconium source of the metal and through the weld to the titanium source metal. Hardness test was performed to determine the degree of solid solution hardening in the weld of zirconium and titanium, obtained by melting and inertia welding. Table. 2 shows the results of the test of hardness. It is established that during the inertia welding is not formed fused weld metal, "N/A" is specified as the hardness of the welded metal for such samples. The results show that in fusion welded clicks scah the hardness of the weld metal was more than double the hardness of any of the original metals. This may contribute to the very poor ductility in bending weld melt and may cause premature failure of the weld. On the contrary, the hardness of the zone of thermal influence tested, inertia welded welded samples was only slightly increased relative to the immediate neighbors of the original metal. This difference demonstrates the mechanical disadvantage arising from the inevitable occurrence of alloys in the weld zone fusion.

Table 2
The test results corrosion
The type of welded connectionZirconium source metalThe heat impact zoneThe weld metalThe heat impact zoneTitanium original metal
The Vickers hardness (load : 1 kg)
Zr/Ti autogenous welding without weld metal159174 339173165
158163339180160
164174348168167
Zr/Ti welding156165326165160
fusion with Zr weld metal149163330176159
153172339168161
Zr/Ti fusion welding with Ti weld metal160173264177159
163174279167154
166178254174166
Zr/Ti inertial welding (as welded)170217N/A211184
173217N/A199181
175209N/A 197185
Zr/Ti inertial welding (removed voltage)171202N/A171161
177200N/A161171
165206N/A165170

Weld samples were tested for corrosion resistance in the standard test conditions Huey (65% nitric acid at boiling point 118°C (224°F)) according to the instructions ASTM A-262. The Huey test is usually used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of materials that are exposed to nitric acid or urea. There were five test periods for 48 hours, and after each test period used the new nitric acid. Nitric acid was replaced as leaching, restorani the ions Ti +4in the test acid solution will be to reduce the apparent corrosion rate of titanium in the tested samples. In addition, replacement of the acidic solution is better simulates dynamic conditions existing equipment such as heat exchangers, where the acid is continuously updated. The corrosion rate of zirconium, however, does not depend on the presence of ions of titanium or zirconium in nitric acid solution.

Samples of welded joints subjected to the action of the test solution for a pre-determined time, and then estimated the mass loss using a standard calculation of corrosion rate. Correlated samples visually and metallographically studied to determine did the weld area preferred attack. Table. 3 shows the results of corrosion tests. As shown, the corrosion rate of welded by melting the samples exceed 15 mils/year (mpy) (0,39 mm/year) for samples autogenous welding and samples prepared with titanium filler metal. Welded by melting the samples prepared with zirconium filler metal showed significantly less 5,7 mpy (0.15 mm/year) average corrosion rate, but the test surface section of the weld showed preferred attack in the area close to the border of the outer surface of the weld.

Table 3
The test periodAutogenous weldingFusion welding with zirconium welding metalFusion welding of titanium weld metalInertia welding
As receivedThe captured voltage
The corrosion rate of die (mm/d)
#115,4 (0,39)3,3 (0,08)19,6 (0,50)6,3 (0,16)6,2 (0,15)
17 (0,43)4,7 (0,12)35 (0/89)
#216,9 (0,43)4,7 (0,12)7,6 (0,19)0,6 0,015)4 (0,01)
19,4 (0,49)5,7 (0,15)25 (0,63)
#319.5cm (0,49)6,1 (0,15)9,2 (0,23)0GW
22,2 (0,56)7,1 (0,18)21,5 (0,55)
#417,7 (0,45)5,4 (0,14)9,2 (0,23)0,9 0,023)0,8 (0,021)
18 (0,46)6,5 (0,16)19,7 (0,50)
#518,4 (0,47)5,6 (0,14)8,1 (0,21)GW0
16 (0,41)8,2 (0,21) 19,3 (0,49)
Environment18 (0,46)5,7 (0,15)17,4 (0,44)1,6 (0,04)1,5 (0,038)
GW = weight gain

In General, the results in table. 3 shows that the samples welded by melting, may be less suitable than the samples welded by inertial welding in high temperature/high pressure, because the samples welded by melting, relatively high corrosion rate. Visual examination of fusion welded correlated samples with autogenous welds showed the presence of the corrosion film on the titanium source metal, which was easily removed. Heavy white oxide was also observed on the titanium side of the weld, which in the beginning was easily removed, but became stronger with increasing duration of the test. General corrosion was discovered near the sites in the field of autogenous weld, where the white oxide was not detected. Visual examination of fusion welded correlated samples formed of zirconium filler metal showed that the welds were not for rooty colorless oxide film. Titanium side was dark grey with thin white stripe on the strip of melting of the weld. More severe corrosion was found on the strip of melting zirconium side of the weld. Visual inspection of correlated samples welded by fusion using titanium filler metal showed that the area of the weld was completely covered with a layer (oxide) solid white fat. Titanium fitting weld deposits was gray, but lighter in color than zirconium side. Titanium formed easily removable light grey-white film on the samples during each period of the test. Calculated average corrosion rate significantly differed during the two test trials.

Significant difference between the results of corrosion tests for the zirconium-titanium samples welded by melting using zirconium filler metal, relative to the zirconium-titanium samples welded by fusion using titanium filler metal (or samples with autogenous welding), as expected, largely due to the higher corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys relative corrosion resistance of titanium alloys. Also zirconium filler metal covers much of the area to be welded. Therefore, 5,7 mpy (0,15 the m/year) corrosion rate was at least partially based on the size of the border of the outer surface of the weld, which was the formation of the alloy on the welding area.

It is difficult to assess the characteristics of erosion in the laboratory. In General, however, it is known that titanium has a lower erosion resistance than zirconium. Essentially, providing original equipment or replacement conductive liquid flow parts, obtained mainly from zirconium, and not titanium, or comprising an inner layer of zirconium in addition to other layers in one aspect of the present invention, should inhibit erosion. In addition, provision coextruding multilayer tube comprising inner liner of zirconium, as described above, in which the end of the tube is welded in a solid state to zirconium of the tube, will protect the entire length of the tube desorber as from erosion and corrosion.

Metallographic and microscopic examination

The metallography was used to study the surface characteristics section of the weld zirconium-titanium. Fig is a cross-section of the boundary surface of the zirconium-titanium welded seam in the wall of the sample tube, welded inertial welding. The outer material is removed from the welding point, but the boundary surface between dissimilar metals is RCA and distinct. Figure 9 is a greatly enlarged view of the same surface section of the weld. The shaded area of each of the metals, which is located near the welding site, is an area of heat exposure. The darkening caused by the input of heat at the junction of the surface of the partition and is not associated with the fusion. Even with a strong increase in the surface boundary between the zirconium and titanium is visible clearly and distinctly and finds no evidence of fusion.

To better characterize the surface section of the weld when the inertial welding, used a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SAM used to better investigate whether the proceeds fusion at any scale on the surface area of the partition, and to assess whether any of the areas on which the two metals would not be fully connected. Figure 10 is a greatly enlarged SEM image of the surface area of the section that was previously investigated metallographically. Plots fusion is not visible in the image. Energy dissipating x-ray analysis of the surface section of the same sample confirmed the absence plots fusion inside surface section when the inertial welding. Instead, the area of the junction of two metals included a mechanical mixture or a spiral trail of pure zirconium and the number of the CSOs titanium.

General observations on the results of the test

Thus, the above test results showed that the zirconium-titanium samples welded by inertial welding, manifest themselves much better than the samples welded by melting, in terms of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, and inertia welded welded samples are essentially free from plots fusion within the weld zone. Obvious increase in corrosion was not observed in welded inertial welding samples that were observed in samples welded by melting. Samples welded by melting, have a high corrosion rate of more than 15 mpy (0,38 mm/year), while the inertial welding showed a corrosion rate of less than 2 mpy (0.05 mm/year) testing conducted to evaluate the rate of corrosion in nitric acid and urea.

Example 2 - production of multilayer pipes

One variant of implementation of the metallurgical composition of the reactive metals, such as, for example, titanium and zirconium, to form a multilayer tubular conductive liquid flow element includes three separate ways. The first path method aims at making the external procurement or major component. The second way the method is directed to the manufacture of the component inside the th liner. On the third path main component and a component of the inner liner combine in a complex workpiece, and the workpiece then ekstragiruyut, is subjected to cold working and heat treatment to provide a multilayer tube. In the following paragraphs three way methods are described with more details for special application in the production of laminated tubes, including titanium grade 3 (UNS R50550) for the main component and Zircadyne 702™ (Zr702) (UNS R60702) for the inner liner. Zr702 alloy available from ATI Wah Chang, Albany, Oregon, and has the following chemical composition (in mass percent of the total mass of the alloy): 99,2 min Zirconia + hafnium; 4,5 Max. hafnium; 0,2 max iron + chromium; 0,005 max hydrogen; 0,25 Max. nitrogen; 0,05 max carbon; and 0.16 Max. oxygen.

The stage included in the first path method, shown schematically on the left side 11. Titanium grade 3 (TiGr3) was cast in ingots using conventional techniques consumable electrode vacuum arc melting. The ingot was heated in the region of the beta phase and was forged to an intermediate diameter followed by successive restorations in areas of the alpha and alpha+beta phase to provide a cylindrical stamping with a diameter of approximately 210 mm (8,27 inches). Stamping was cut into individual blanks. Each billet was processed on the machine to get estately cylindrical workpiece, having the approximate size of 201 mm (to $ 7.91 inches) outside diameter and 108 mm (4.26 deaths inch) inner diameter. For best guarantee acceptable metallurgical connection between the cylindrical TiGr3harvesting and zirconium inner liner inner diameter TiGr3blanks were processed on the machine until the surface finish of 63 micro inches (0,0016 mm) RA maximum. The relative smoothness of the surface of the polishing better ensures adequate Stripping peaks and grooves of the profile of the surface roughness. The absence of significant grooves and scratches on the surface better ensures a permanent metallurgical connection between the main and internal components that do not suffer from delamination.

The stages of the second track of the method is shown schematically on the right side 11. This way associated with the manufacture of Zr702 alloy inner liner laminated tube. Zr702 alloy was cast into ingots and forged in a manner analogous to alloy TiGr3 above. The insert was machined out of 115 mm (4.53 inch) cylindrical forgings (in one non-limiting alternative method liners can be formed by extrusion of a tube of larger size and then sawn into individual liners for sequential processing on the machine). Machined liner from Zr702 alloy had the roughly 108 mm (4.26 deaths inch) outer diameter × 54 mm (2.13 inches) internal diameter with a surface roughness of the outer diameter of 63 micro inches (0,0016 mm) RA maximum.

The surface roughness of the outer diameter was maintained with such limits for the purposes mentioned above relative to the surface roughness of the inner diameter of the TiGr3cylindrical billets. The liner was fitted on the machine with precise tolerance to slip inside TiGr3the workpiece. The preferred tolerance for the gap between the inner diameter of the base and the outer diameter of the liner is about 0.25 mm (about 0.010 inch).

In the third path method, shown schematically in Fig, TiGr3external component and Zr702 alloy component of the liner were installed in the workpiece and then metallurgically mn is connected and reduced to a smaller diameter multi-layer tube. Before Assembly of the outer component and the component of the liner cleaned ice purge to remove foreign contaminants such as dirt and oil. Clean surfaces are important for obtaining high-quality metallurgical connection.

Clean and dry the components of the blank and liner connected together in team preparation. Connection of the ends of the workpiece was welded in a vacuum, equal to at least 1×10-3Torr (of 0.133 PA), using e-beam guns. An electron beam was focused on the connections of the ends for receiving weld bead penetration 10-40 mm workpiece width of the weld, IU the greater extent, equal to 5 mm, the integrity of the weld is important to protect the atmosphere from pollution and inhibiting formations in metallurgical connection during extrusion of the national procurement. Fig schematically shows a view of end welded team workpiece 310, 312 which is an external main component of the TiGr3, 314 is a component of the inner liner of Zr702 alloy, 316 represents the area of the weld, comprising a mixture containing titanium and zirconium, and 318 is a cylindrical conductive liquid flow cavity, passing through the workpiece.

Any spray welding were removed from the welded assembled workpiece. The workpiece is then induction heated in a cylindrical helix to 650-775°C (1202-1427°F) with the intended temperature of 700°C (1292°F) and taken to the 3500-ton Lombard hydraulic press for extrusion. The workpiece was placed in a cylindrical container with a core inserted into the inner diameter of liner components for sizing extruded inner diameter. The rod presses for the extrusion of pushing the workpiece through the conical mold using pressure precipitation is about 1500 tons (8,896×103N)to ekstradiroval the workpiece in a seamless multilayer tube. The ratio of elongation of the extrusion was approximately 11:1, and the purpose of the pre is accounted a receiving extruded tube, having an outer diameter 3,100±0,010 inch (78,74±0,254 mm) and a wall thickness of approximately 0,525 inch (13,4 mm). Interacted dissimilar metals and were joined metallurgically mn during extrusion due to the conditions, including the temperature of the way, time at temperature, pressure, purity of connected surfaces. A few inches of the beginning and end metallurgically mn United multilayer extrusion were removed by sawing off to ensure uniform thickness of the liner in the remaining part.

The extruded tube was protravlivanie in HF/nitric acid for a time sufficient for removal of 0.001-0.002 inches (0,0254-0,508 mm) from the wall. The tube was then subjected to cold working at piligrimages rolling mill for further reduction of the tube diameter and wall thickness. On piligrimages rolling mill the tube longitudinally spinning in grooved, constricted by the end of the matrix, which is extruded over a similarly narrow core. The tube has entered the matrix and rotated around the longitudinal axis for essentially the same reduction of the circumference of the tube during each stroke of the rolling mill. Multilayer tube was reduced using the first pass of the rolling mill to intermediate size 44.5 mm (1.75 inch) outer diameter and 6.3 mm (0.25 inch) wall thickness. The treated tube is Stili using alkaline cleaner, washed with water and with a solution of 70% nitric acid and then subjected to heat treatment by annealing in vacuum for recrystallization and softening of the material. The heat treatment consisted of annealing the tube at a temperature of 621±28°C (1150±50°F) for 1-2 hours. Other possible modes of annealing includes heating at other temperatures in the range from 500°C (932°F) 750°C (1382°F) for 1-12 hours. The heat treatment should be adapted to minimize the growth of intermetallic particles or gradients songs that are harder and more brittle than the alloys of the base or liner. The fragility and/or wide area diffusion can lead to delamination of the layers of the tube.

Consistently with the annealing of the tube was protravlivanie in 70% acetic acid to remove any stains during vacuum annealing and then straightened during the rotation. Pipe then once again warmed up and subjected to the secondary passage of the rolling mill to reduce the tube to the final dimensions 27.0 mm (1.06 inch) outside diameter and 3.5 mm (was 0.138 inch) wall thickness. The final thickness of the zirconium liner was approximately 0.9 mm (0.035 inch). Fig represents a micrograph of a section of the metallurgical connection of one of the multi-layer tubing made this way. The picture shows fine-grained structure (which provides, in essence, one is the same mechanical properties) and continuous metallurgical connection between titanium and Zirconia layers. Metallurgical connection prevents crevice corrosion observed in known constructions of tubes with a mechanical connection (sliding fit).

The mechanical strength of the alloy TiGr3/Zr702 multilayer tubes, fabricated using the method in this example was evaluated and compared with the properties TiGr3 Monotube. Properties of samples of each type with an external diameter of 27.0 mm × 3.5 mm internal diameter shown in the table. 4, below. Mechanical properties, which is the same show that Zicradine 702 liner slightly affects the estimated mechanical properties TiGr3 base material.

Table 4
Tube typeSamplePP (MPa)PT (MPa)Elongation (%, min)
T-Gr3/Zircadyne 702™177,9 (537)59,5 (410)32
Multilayer tube281,6 (562)59,6 (411)35
TiGr3 Monotube180,1 (552)63,3 (436)37
281 (558)61,1 (421)35

Part of the tube formed by the method described in the present example, can be welded in the solid state to the ends along the length of the conductive liquid flow tube containing zirconium or other corrosion resistant metal or alloy for the formation of the composite tube, suitable for use in the modification of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea. In case, such as those described above, the multilayer material of the outer layer tube can be chosen in such a way that the fusion welding of the outer layer with a partition wall for fastening tubes will not cause a significant decrease in corrosion resistance in the weld area. For example, TiGr3/Zr702 alloy multilayer tube obtained in the present example, will have certain advantages when used in the modification of desorber, including plakirovannyy titanium wall for fastening tubes.

Multilayer pipes and other conductive who idci thread portion, obtained in this example can also be used without welding in the solid state with a monolayer of conductive liquid flow part. In such scenarios, the implementation of the material of the outer layer of the multilayer tube or other part may be selected so that, when the material is welded by melting with partition for mounting pipe or other part mounted equipment, there are no problems with the alloy, which could, in fact, adversely affect corrosion resistance, mechanical or other important properties of the pipe/part of, or mounted parts.

Of course, it should be clear that, although the present discussion focuses on the use of multilayer tubes obtained in the present example, for desorption apparatus, tubes can also be used as a conductive liquid flow part of other devices, including those noted here.

It should be clear that the present description illustrates the aspects that are essential for understanding of the text. Certain aspects, obvious to a person skilled in this field and which therefore do not facilitate a better understanding, have not been introduced to simplify the present discussion. Although this statement was written in connection with certain variants of implementation, the experts in this field at rassm the friction of this report recognize, that can be applied to many variations and modifications. It is assumed that the preceding description and the following claims cover all such variations and modifications.

1. The method for replacing at least one part of the item of equipment, with the site of attachment, the conductive liquid flow, the method includes:
provision of spare parts, containing the first area of the conductive liquid flow, comprising the corrosion resistant first material and the conductive liquid flow, the second section comprising a second material which is a material that is identical or essentially identical to the material of the site of attachment, and the first segment and the second segment is directly or indirectly connected end to end by welding in the solid state for the formation of a single spare part, a conductive liquid stream; and
mount the spare parts to the item of equipment by a method containing the fastening of the second material of the second segment of the spare parts to the site of attachment of the hardware item.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which replacement part is selected from the group consisting of the part cylindrical, tube, pipe, nozzle, pin end of the pipe connector, connector pipe, tube desorber for the equipment of the technological process of synthesis of urea, pipes and heat exchanger and the conductive liquid flow part.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the corrosion resistant first material is at least a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium, niobium alloys, and in which the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the item of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, a spare part is a tube of desorber, and the site of attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes desorber.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which the welding in the solid state of the first section, directly or indirectly, with the second section contains the technology of welding in the solid state, selected from the group consisting of cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, comprising an inertial welding, welding by hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.

6. The method according to claim 1, in which the second section contains an inner layer of a corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of the second material.

7. The method according to claim 6, in which the second segment is formed by the connection of the extrusion so that the inner layer and the outer layer of the second segment are fused.

8. The method according to claim 1, in which the ohms the second section contains an inner layer of material, selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

9. The method according to claim 8, in which the second segment is formed by a method containing metallurgical connection of the inner layer with the outer layer of the second section.

10. The method according to claim 9, in which the metallurgical connection of the inner layer with the outer layer of the second segment contains at least one technology selected from the group consisting of compounds extrusion, connections, explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting.

11. The method according to claim 1, in which:
the item of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for synthesis of urea;
replacement part is a tube of desorber;
the site of attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes;
the first section spare part made of Zirconia;
and the second section spare part contains an inner layer of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which the inner layer is a layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn connected to the outer layer.

13. The method according to A12, in which area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state of the first section, directly or indirectly, with the second section, essentially free from alloys combining the first material and the second material.

14. The method according to claim 11, in which the first section indirectly welded in the solid state to the second section such that at least one third material is located between the first section and the second section.

15. The method of replacing the tube desorber node, desorber for the synthesis of urea spare tube desorber, the method includes:
providing a spare tube desorber containing the conductive liquid flow, the first section including a corrosion resistant first material and the conductive liquid flow, the second section comprising a second material that is identical or essentially identical to the material from which made the partition for mounting tubes desorber, with the first section and the second section is directly or indirectly connected end to end by welding in the solid state with the formation of a single conductive liquid flow of spare parts; and
the fusion welding of the second material in the second section of identical or essentially identical partition material for fastening tubes.

16. The method according to item 15, in which the corrosion resistant first material performance is possessing a, at least one material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys, and in which the second material is at least one material selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

17. The method according to item 15, in which the welding in the solid state of the first section, directly or indirectly, with the second section carry out the welding in the solid state, selected from the group consisting of cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, inertia welding, hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.

18. The method according to item 15, in which the first section is entirely made of the same material, and the second section is entirely made of the same material.

19. The method according to item 15, in which the second section contains the inner layer of material resistant to corrosion, and the outer layer of the second material.

20. The method according to claim 19, in which the second section contains an inner layer of a corrosion resistant material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer of the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

21. The method according to claim 20, in which the second section form the Rowan compound extrusion, so the inner layer and the outer layer of the second segment are fused.

22. The method according to item 15, in which the welding area formed by welding in the solid state of the first section directly or indirectly with the second plot, essentially free from alloys combining the first material and the second material.

23. The method according to item 15, in which the first section indirectly welded in the solid state to the second section such that at least one third material is located between the first section and the second section.

24. Part of the item of equipment, the piece contains:
conductive liquid flow, the first tubular section, which includes corrosion resistant first material; and
conductive liquid flow of the second tubular section comprising a second material; and
in which the first section and the second section are areas that are directly or indirectly connected end to end by welding in the solid state using a technology selected from the group consisting of cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding to form a unified conductive liquid flow in a cylindrical part.

25. The part at point 24, and a part selected from the group consisting of the part cylindrical, tube, pipe, nozzle, pin is the once, pipe connector, connector pipe, tube desorber for the equipment of the technological process of synthesis of urea and tube heat exchanger.

26. The part of paragraph 24, in which the corrosion resistant first material is at least a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys, and in which a second material selected the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

27. The part of paragraph 24, in which the second section contains an inner layer of a corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of the second material.

28. The part of item 27, in which the inner layer and the outer layer of the second segment are connected by extrusion together.

29. Part item 27 in which the second section contains an inner layer of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

30. The part of paragraph 24, in which the area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state of the first section part, directly or indirectly, with the second section, essentially free from alloys corrosion resistant first material and the second material.

31. The part of paragraph 24, in which the first section indirectly welded in solid SOS is the right to the second field, that at least one third material is located between the first section and the second section.

32. How to replace a conductive liquid flow parts of an item of equipment spare conductive liquid flow part, the method involves replacing the existing conductive liquid flow portion of the tube desorber item of equipment of conductive liquid flow part having a structure according to point 24.

33. The method according to p, in which a conductive liquid flow portion is selected from the group consisting of the part cylindrical, tube, pipe, nozzle, pin end of the pipe connector, connector pipe, tube desorber for the equipment of the technological process of synthesis of urea and tube heat exchanger.

34. The method according to p in which the piece of equipment selected from the group consisting of equipment for the chemical process, node desorber, site of the refrigerator and heat exchanger.

35. Item of equipment containing part at point 24.

36. The method for replacing at least one of the conductive liquid flow parts of an item of equipment, with the site of attachment, the method comprises:
provision of spare conductive liquid stream portion containing the inner layer of the corrosion resistant first material surrounding a passage for liquid flow through the conductive liquid flow portion, and the outer SL is th second material, moreover, the inner layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer by a method that includes at least one technology selected from the group consisting of compounds of the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting; and
mount the spare parts to the item of equipment by a method containing the fixing of the outer layer of spare parts to the site of attachment of the hardware item.

37. The method according to p, in which the area of the fastening includes a third material that is identical or essentially identical to the second material, spare parts, and, moreover, in which the mounting of the spare parts to the piece of equipment contains a fastening area of the outer layer to the third material of the site of attachment.

38. The method according to p, in which the mounting of the spare parts to the piece of equipment contains a welding area of the outer layer with the third material of the site of attachment.

39. The method according to p, in which the corrosion resistant first material is a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

40. The method according to p in which the item of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, a spare part is a tube of desorber, and the Astok attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes desorber.

41. The method according to p, in which
the item of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for synthesis of urea;
replacement part is a tube of desorber;
the site of attachment represents a portion of a bulkhead for mounting tubes;
the inner layer part is selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys;
and the outer layer part is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

42. The method according to p, in which the mounting of the spare parts to the piece of equipment contains a fusion welding area of the second material of the outer layer with the third material of the site of attachment, and in which the area of the weld, thus formed, essentially free from alloys which have much lower corrosion resistance relative to the first material and the second material.

43. The method according to p, in which the inner layer is a layer, indirectly metallurgically mn connected to the outer layer by a method that includes at least one technology selected from the group consisting of compounds of the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting, so that at least one layer includes a third material that is different from the first material and the second material and is located between the internal is nim layer and outer layer.

44. The method of replacing the tube desorber node, desorber for the synthesis of urea spare tube desorber, the method includes:
providing a spare tube desorber containing an inner layer of a corrosion resistant first material surrounding a passage for liquid flow through a tube of desorber, and the outer layer of the second material, and the inner layer is a layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn connected with an outer layer method, containing at least one technology selected from the group consisting of compounds of the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting, and the second material is a material that is identical or essentially identical to the material from which constructed the partition for mounting tubes desorber; and
the fastening of the second material of the outer layer to identical or essentially identical to a material of the partition for mounting tubes.

45. The method according to item 44, in which the corrosion resistant first material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and in which the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

46. The method according to item 44, in which the fixing of the outer layer to identical or essentially identical to a material of the partition for mounting tubes contain what it welding of the second material of the outer layer, essentially identical to the material of the partition for mounting tubes.

47. The method according to item 44, in which the fastening of the second material of the outer layer to essentially identical to a material of the partition for mounting tubes contains a fusion welding area of the second material of the outer layer with a partition for mounting tubes, and in which the area of the weld, thus formed, is essentially free from alloys which have much lower corrosion resistance compared to the second material.

48. The method according to item 44, in which the inner layer is directly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer without the formation of substantial mutual diffusion layer.

49. The method according to item 44, in which the inner layer is indirectly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer such that at least one layer containing a material different from the first material and the second material is located between the inner and outer layers.

50. Part of the piece of equipment selected from tube desorber and tube heat exchanger, a specified part includes: an inner layer of a corrosion resistant first material surrounding a passage for liquid flow through the conductive liquid flow portion, and the outer layer of the second material; in which the inner layer is a layer directly or indirectly metallurgically mn coupled with outside the it layer by application, at least one selected from the group consisting of compounds of the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting.

51. The part of item 50, and the part is a replacement part and the original part of the hardware item.

52. The part of item 50, in which the corrosion resistant first material is at least one material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

53. Part item 50 in which the item of equipment is a host of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, and the replacement part is a tube of desorber.

54. The part of item 50, in which the inner layer directly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer.

55. Part item 54, in which no significant mutual diffusion layer between the inner layer and outer layer.

56. The part of item 50, in which the inner layer indirectly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer such that at least one layer comprising a third material different from the first material and the second material is located between the inner and outer layers.

57. The tube of desorber equipment for the synthesis of urea, the tube of desorber contains:
conductive liquid flow, the first tubular section, VK is uchumi in itself corrosion resistant first material; and
conductive liquid flow of the second tubular section comprising a second material;
moreover, the first section and the second section are areas that are directly or indirectly connected end to end by welding in the solid state with the formation of a single conductive liquid flow replacement part.

58. The tube of desorber on § 57, in which the first material is selected from the group of zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys, and in which the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

59. The tube of desorber in § 58, in which the first section and the second section are areas that are directly or indirectly connected by welding in the solid state technology selected from the group consisting of cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, inertia welding, hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.

60. The tube of desorber on p, in which the first section is entirely vyponenaya from the same material, and the second section is entirely made of the same material.

61. The tube of desorber on p, in which the second section contains an inner layer of a corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of the second material.

62. The tube of desorber on p, to the Torah, the second section contains an inner layer of material, selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

63. The tube of desorber according to item 62, in which the second segment is formed by the connection of the extrusion so that the inner layer and the outer layer of the second segment are fused.

64. The tube of desorber on § 57, in which the area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state the first section of the tube desorber directly or indirectly with the second plot, essentially free from alloys corrosion resistant first material and the second material.

65. The tube of desorber on § 57, in which the first section indirectly welded in the solid state with the second section, so that at least one third material is located between the first section and the second section.

66. The reactor for the synthesis of urea, comprising at least one tube of desorber contains:
conductive liquid flow, the first tubular section, which includes corrosion resistant first material; and
conductive liquid flow of the second tubular section comprising a second material;
moreover, the first section and the second section are areas that are directly or indirectly connected end to end by welding in the solid state with the formation of a single conductive liquid flow for what asnau part.

67. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p in which the first material is selected from the group of zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium and niobium alloys, and in which the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

68. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p, in which the first section of tube desorber and the second section of the tube desorber are areas that are directly or indirectly connected by welding in the solid state technology selected from the group consisting of cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, inertia welding, hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.

69. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p, in which the first section of tube desorber entirely made of the same material, and the second section is entirely made of the same material.

70. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p, in which the second section of the tube desorber contains an inner layer of a corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of the second material.

71. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by item 70, in which the second section of the tube desorber contains an inner layer of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer of material selected from the group, with the standing of titanium and titanium alloys.

72. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p, in which the second section of tube desorber the inner layer is connected by extrusion with an outer layer.

73. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p, in which the area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state the first section of the tube desorber directly or indirectly with the second section of tube desorber essentially free from alloys corrosion resistant first material and the second material.

74. The reactor for the synthesis of urea by p, in which the first section indirectly welded in the solid state with the second section, so that at least one third material is located between the first section and the second section.

75. A method of manufacturing tubes of desorber reactor for the synthesis of urea, the method includes the connection of the end of the first hollow cylinder that includes a corrosion resistant first material, with the end of the second hollow cylinder comprising a second material, for the formation of conductive liquid flow tube, in which the connection of the first cylinder and the second cylinder includes a direct or indirect welding in the solid state the end of the first cylinder with the second end of the cylinder.

76. The method according to item 75, in which the corrosion resistant first material is at least a material selected from the group consisting of the zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium, niobium alloys, and in which the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium, titanium alloys and stainless steel.

77. The method according to p in which welding in the solid state, directly or indirectly, of the end of the first cylinder with the second end of the cylinder contains the technology of welding in the solid state, selected from the group consisting of cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding, friction welding, comprising an inertial welding, welding by hot pressing, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.

78. The method according to p, in which the second cylinder includes an inner layer of corrosion resistant material and an outer layer of the second material.

79. The method according to p, in which the second cylinder includes an inner layer of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and the outer layer material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

80. The method according to p, in which the second cylinder formed by the method containing direct or indirect metallurgical connection of the inner layer with the outer layer of the second section.

81. The method according to item 80, in which the metallurgical connection of the inner layer with the outer layer of the second segment contains at least one technology, you the early group, consisting of compounds extrusion, connections, explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting.

82. The method according to p, in which the inner layer is directly or indirectly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer.

83. The method according to p, in which the area of the weld formed by welding in the solid state of the first cylinder directly or indirectly with the second cylinder, essentially free from alloys combining the first material and the second material.

84. The method according to p in which the first cylinder is indirectly welded in the solid state to the second cylinder so that at least one third material is located between the first cylinder and the second cylinder.

85. A method of manufacturing tubes of desorber reactor for the synthesis of urea, the method comprises, at least, direct or indirect metallurgical connection of the inner layer of the corrosion resistant first material with the outer layer of the second material to provide a conductive liquid flow tube desorber containing multi-layered wall of the tube, and metallurgical connection includes connecting the extrusion, the connection explosion, hot isostatic pressing or centrifugal casting.

86. The method according to p, in which the corrosion resistant first material is at least material, vybrannyi group, consisting of zirconium and zirconium alloys, and in which the second material is selected from the group consisting of titanium and titanium alloys.

87. The method according to p, in which the inner layer is indirectly metallurgically mn is connected to the outer layer by a method that includes at least one technology selected from the group consisting of compounds of the explosion, hot isostatic pressing, and centrifugal casting, so that at least one layer comprising a third material that is different from the first material and the second material is located between the inner layer and outer layer.

88. A method of manufacturing a conductive liquid flow parts of an item of equipment, the method includes:
providing a first hollow cylinder made of corrosion resistant first material, and the first cylinder has an outer surface;
providing a second hollow cylinder made of a second material different from the first material and the second cylinder has an inner surface, and the first cylinder can be accommodated in the second cylinder;
receiving at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder, at least, reduced surface roughness and removal of foreign contaminants;
the location of the first cylinder in PR the Affairs of the second cylinder so as the outer surface of the first cylinder is located opposite the inner surface of the second cylinder to receive the workpiece; and
heating and extrusion billet for connection metallurgically mn thus the outer surface of the first cylinder with the inner surface of the second cylinder with obtaining a multi-layer seamless tube, and between the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder no mutual diffusion layer.

89. The method according to p in which the first material and the second material are individually selected from the group consisting of zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, niobium, niobium alloys, tantalum, tantalum alloys, and stainless steel and in which the first material is different from the second material.

90. The method according to p in which obtaining at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder, with at least a reduced surface roughness and removal of alien contamination with resulting surface facilitates the formation of a continuous metallurgical connection between the external surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder and inhibits delamination of the United surfaces.

91. The method according to p, in which the obtaining, by the men whom she least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder contains a reduced surface roughness of at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder.

92. The method according to p, in which reduction of the surface roughness of at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder contains a reduced surface roughness to no more than about 63 microinches Ra.

93. The method according to p, in which reduction of the surface roughness of at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder contains a processing machine, at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder to reduce the surface roughness to no more than about 63 microinches Ra.

94. The method according to p in which obtaining at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder includes a decrease of alien contamination on at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder.

95. The method according to p, in which the reduction of alien contamination on at least one the th of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder contains the use, at least one of machining, acid etching, cleaning solvent and purification of the alkali on the surface.

96. The method according to p, in which the reduction of alien contamination on at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder includes cleaning at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder using cleaning methods, in which the remnants of the cleansing agents do not remain on the surface.

97. The method according to p, in which the reduction of alien contamination on at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder includes an ice blowing at least one of the outer surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder.

98. The method according to p in which ice blowing involves the movement of crystalline water against the surface, thereby mechanically cleaning and rinsing fluid to the surface.

99. The method according to p additionally contains up to warm-up and extrusion billet welding together sections of the first cylinder and the second cylinder to obtain a multilayer preform suitable for extrusion and includes a sealed space between the opposite is the present surface of the first cylinder and the inner surface of the second cylinder.

100. The method according to p further comprises:
possible heat treated seamless tube; and
cold worked seamless pipe and, thus, reducing the wall thickness of the seamless tube.

101. The method according to p, in which a conductive liquid flow portion is a tube of desorber apparatus for synthesizing urea.



 

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3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and the devices for production of carbamide from ammonia and carbon dioxide.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the methods and the devices for production of carbamide from ammonia and carbon dioxide. The method of production of carbamide includes the interaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the zone of synthesis at the heightened temperatures and pressures with formation of the melt of the carbamide containing carbamide, water, ammonium carbamate, ammonia and carbon dioxide. The carbamide melt distillation conduct at the heat feeding on the two stages of pressure preferentially at 15-25°C and 2-5 kgf/cm2. The carbamide melt distillation on the first step of the pressure conduct sequentially in two zones. In the first zone the distillation is conducted adiabatically or at the heat feeding, and in the second zone - at the heat feeding in the stream of carbon dioxide. The condensation-absorption process at refrigeration of the gases of the distillation is conducted with utilization of the aqueous absorbers. The formed aqueous solutions of the carbon- ammonium salts are recycled from the stage of the condensation-absorption of the gases of the distillation of the second step to the stage of the condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the first step, and also from the stage of the condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the first step into the zone of the synthesis. The evaporation of the aqueous solution of carbamide is exercised in some steps at the heat exchange between the gases of the distillation of the first step and the aqueous solution of carbamide at the stage of the preliminary evaporation. The installation for production of carbamide consists of: the reactor of the carbamide synthesis; the device with the heat feeding from the external source for distillation of the carbamide melt produced in the reactor of the carbamide synthesis at the first step of the pressure and consisting of the column of distillation melt of the first step and the film-type heat exchanger; the device with the heat feeding for the distillation of the carbamide melt on the second step of pressure; apparatuses for evaporation at heating of the aqueous solution of the carbamide produced on the second step of distillation. The devices for condensation-absorption at refrigeration of the gases of the distillation of the both steps switch on the heat exchanger-recuperator for heat interchange between the gases of the distillation of the first step and the aqueous solution of carbamide. The installation also contains a means for feeding of ammonia and carbon dioxide into the reactor of synthesis of carbamide, feeding of the carbamide melt from the reactor of synthesis into the column of distillation of the first step, from the column of distillation of the first step into the film-type heat exchanger and from the film-type heat exchanger into the device for distillation of the second step, the aqueous solution of carbamide from the device for distilling of the second step into the heat exchanger-recuperator and from the heat exchanger-recuperator - into the apparatus for the subsequent evaporation; the gases of distillation from the device for distilling of the first step - in the heat exchanger-recuperator and from the heat exchanger-recuperator - into the device for condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the first step; the gases of distillation from the apparatus for distillation of the second step - into the device for condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the second step; the solution of the carbon-ammonium salts from the device for condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the second step - into the device for condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the first step and from the device for condensation-absorption of the gases of distillation of the first step - into the reactor of synthesis, a means for feeding of carbon dioxide into the film-type heat exchanger. The technical result of the invention is the increased degree of the heat recuperation of the production cycle and reduction of he quantity of the heat exchangers using the heating steam from the external sources.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of the heat recuperation of the production cycle and reduction of he quantity of the heat exchangers using the heating steam from the external sources.

8 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; devices and methods of production of carbamate.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to carbamatecondenserof the sinking type used in the installation for production of the synthesized carbamide from the gaseous carbon dioxide and the liquid ammonia. The condenser (1) of the sinking type contains the bundle (5) of pipes, in which the condensation of the gaseous compounds is exercised and as a result of the interaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide the carbamate is formed. The condenser differs from others by availability the condensate circulating pipe (19, 23) structurally not connected with the bundle (5) of pipes and designed for circulation of the components in the closed contour of the condenser (1)of the part of the condensed inside it gaseous compounds. The availability of the separate circulating pipe structurally not connected with the bundle of the condensation pipes and communicating with the upper and the lower parts of the condenser ensures the possibility of circulation of the carbamate passing over of the bundle of the condensation pipes, what allows to increase essentially the output of carbamate gained as a result of condensation.

EFFECT: the invention allows to raise essentially the output of carbamate gained as a result of condensation.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing urea. Method involves interaction of pure ammonia and carbon dioxide in reaction space to obtain reaction mixture containing urea, carbamate and free ammonia in an aqueous solution that is treated in evaporator (1) to obtain partially purified mixture that is fed to section for isolation of urea. Diluted solution of carbamate removing from the urea isolating section is subjected for treatment in evaporator (2) and at least part of vapors formed in it is recovered to the reaction space and/or into evaporator (1). Significant part of carbamate in aqueous solution is subjected for decomposition under pressure that corresponds essentially to pressure value in reaction space. Part of decomposition products including ammonia and carbon dioxide in vapor phase is recovered into reactor and/or into the first evaporator (1) and carbamate after its partial decomposing is fed into section for isolating urea. Device for preparing urea consists of the synthesis reactor, evaporators (1) and (2) for partial decomposition of carbamate and for separation of free ammonia and carbon dioxide in vapor phase, apparatus for condensation of vapor flow, pipe-line for recover of carbamate part in aqueous solution into reactor and section for isolation of urea from its aqueous solution. Preferably, pipe-line is fitted with ejector and evaporators are fitted with apparatus for feeding carbon dioxide as a evaporating agent. Invention provides enhancing yield of urea, reducing energy consumptions and investment due to updating the technological schedule of the process.

EFFECT: improved preparing and updating methods.

30 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to producing urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. Method involves preparing products of reaction in the synthesis zone as a solution containing urea, ammonium carbamate and unreacted ammonia. Part of solution obtained in synthesis of urea (preferably 10-60 wt.-%) is fed from the synthesis zone to additionally assembled zone of treatment under mean pressure at 1-4 MPa wherein gas flow is separated and subjected for absorption with ammonium carbamate solution of low pressure supplying from the section for isolation and treatment of urea. As a variant of method the invention proposes to use the combined reactor in the synthesis zone representing vertically installed or combined reactor. Enhancement of output of existing processes in synthesis of urea is achieved by feeding part of urea solution synthesized in the synthesis reactor to additionally installed zone for treatment of mean pressure including the dissociation zone, desorption zone of mean pressure and the condensation zone of mean pressure. Invention provides enhancement of output of unit for producing urea being without modification of section of high pressure.

EFFECT: improved method for producing urea.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: industrial inorganic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous carbamate solution leaving urea recovery section at a certain temperature is decomposed by indirect heat exchange with flowing heat carrier having specified temperature. Temperature difference between aqueous carbamate solution and heat carrier is thus decreased to a value not exceeding 70°C, preferably to a value within a range of 20-40°C. Aqueous carbamate solution, prior to be fed into decomposition apparatus, is preheated in heat exchanger by stream produced in evaporation zone containing ammonia and carbon dioxide in vapor phase.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of apparatuses designed for decomposition of recycled carbamate solution.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of increasing life-time and wear resistance of plates of drive leaf chains of mechanisms of water gate and gate valves of hydraulic structures, which are manufactured with specified thickness by die forming or plasma cutting from steel st45 or steel st65G, and can be used at manufacture of new chains and reconstruction of used ones. Method involves application of "Св"-08 steel layer to the surfaces of pre-ground or cleaned plates by plasma spraying. After that, in one hour maximum, the plates are subject to sulphocyaniding at temperature of 570-590°C during 3-4 hours with further cooling of plates together with furnace to indoor temperature. As sulphocyaniding medium, there used is gaseous medium containing gaseous carbon, sulphur and nitrogen, which is formed with pyrolysis products of sulphourea of carbamide with additional introduction of gaseous nitrogen and sulphur evaporation product to the environment of air-proof muffle of heat-treatment furnace.

EFFECT: increasing wear resistance of plates in friction couple 'plate material-bobbin material' at standard operation in river water in presence of suspended mud and sand under influence of tensile stresses, increasing corrosion resistance and strength limit of plate material at tension, relative elongation and hardness.

5 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: in surface sections of thin-walled shell, in which holes shall be made, there formed are closed cavities made with restricting devices in the form of a housing and matrix arranged inside the closed cavity. There used is matrix with sharp edge along its contact line with thin-walled shell, and closed cavity is filled with elastic medium. Proper directed force impact is applied with local pressure differential in the zone restricted with the closed cavity in order to make a hole. Holes are made in several sections of the shell per a cycle.

EFFECT: reducing labour input and facilities production costs.

2 cl, 2 ex, 6 dwg

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