Method of applying properties of three-dimensional formed components through electrons and application of said method

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of changing properties of a three-dimensional formed component (2) using electrons, having an electron accelerator (3a; 3b) for generating accelerated electrons and two electron outlet windows (5a; 5b). Both electron outlet windows (5a; 5b) are opposite each other. Both electron outlet windows (5a; 5b) and a reflector (7a1; 7a2; 7b1; 7b2) bound the process chamber in which the surface or outer layer of the formed component (2) is bombarded with electrons. Energy density distribution in the process chamber is recorded from spatial measurement using a sensor system.

EFFECT: uniform modification of the entire surface or outer layer of a formed component, increased efficiency of the installation.

25 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device and method of modifying the properties of substances on the surface and in the marginal zone of the three-dimensional shaped parts by means of the energy of the electrons. Indicated is also the possibility of applying the method.

By means of electron energy in the spatial relation and with a precise definition can be entered in the materials to change the properties of their substances on the surface in the boundary layer or in volume. The required electrons are generated, are formed and accelerated in the electron accelerators before they through in most cases the flat window of output electrons will be directed from high vacuum to a higher level of pressure in the processing chamber. When it is desired for the most part constant electron density along the entire length of the window function of electrons. After threading the gas layer (e.g., air) at a distance between the exit of electrons and product electrons reach the workpiece, the surface of the product.

As electron accelerators are used planar electron gun, also called band emitters, or axial electron gun. Made in the form of an axial electron gun electron accelerator according to the prior art includes the additional camera beam deflection with deflection systems is th, through which the generated electron beam is deflected periodically throughout the window function of electrons and in the mean time all the parts of a window with about the same duration of stay.

Three-dimensional shaped parts, such as container packing, medical implants, medical kits operating instruments, prostheses of various materials (for example, synthetic material, paper, metal, ceramics)that are used in various fields (e.g., industrial packaging materials, pharmacy, medical technology, plastics industry). For certain applications you want to change properties (for example, sterilization, surface functionalization, structuring, hardening) of the entire surface or boundary layer fittings.

The level of technology

Known effects on the properties of the entire surface of the three-dimensional shaped parts by means of electron energy due to the fact that fitting a few runs (DE 199 42 142 A1) and in a modified position is conducted past the window of output electrons. The known device for generating electrons for modification of the properties of fittings designed so that the entire window exit of electrons is generated and is given approximately the same density, the electron energy.

By changing the position of the fittings supplied energy of the electrons to the entire surface of the fitting. The disadvantage of such devices is that multiple mileage associated with a relatively large expenditure of time. Changing the position of the fittings between the individual runs could not be done arbitrarily, but must be chosen so that the individual parts of the surface in the aggregate was not bombardopolis different density electron energy, which would lead to different properties.

Prior art the entire surface of three-dimensional fitting for only one run is modified with electron energy due to the fact that several (at least two or three) boxes of output electrons are arranged so that they surround the cross-section of the fitting while the fitting is carried out by these Windows release electrons and thus all three-dimensional surface is bombarded with electrons.

From the company LINAC Technologies (technical description “ELECTRON BEAN SURFACE STERILISATION SYSTEM 200 KeV - The Ke VAC S) known device sterilization surface fittings with energy electrons, in which three electron accelerator are arranged so that their respective open output electrons cover volume with a cross section of ravnos is implemented triangle through which one mileage are sterilized fittings. Although by means of such devices, in comparison with the known solutions, in which the molded part is bombarded with electrons for multiple runs, reduced time, however, the technical costs due to the use of three electron accelerators are very high.

Known such systems from three Windows release electrons, which, however, electrons are generated only by one electron accelerator and using one system deviation divided into three Windows of electron output.

All known solutions with three Windows release electrons use the advantage that the electron accelerators due to their location in the triangle is not affected or only slightly affected by each other, that is, accelerated electrons, one electron accelerator does not transmit significant energy share on the relevant other electron accelerators. This is required so that the percentage of energy absorbed in the output window of the electrons, and thus its operating temperature limit to subcritical size. Otherwise, the temperature of use of the materials would have destroyed legkoobratimy the coating material of the window in the mechanical load of the supplied Sarug the atmospheric pressure compared to the high vacuum inside the electron gun. For titanium foil commonly used in the Windows release of electrons, the maximum temperature in any case should not exceed about 400°C. For continuous operation rely on the temperature, which is the maximum of 200-250°C.

Also known only from two Windows release electrons, which are located against each other. While technically required small distance between the Windows of output electrons significant proportion of energy is introduced into the opposite window exit of electrons, resulting, depending on the design, is the temperature rise by 2-5 times. Necessary maximum temperature limit can be attained only by the proportional limit the current of the electron beam. However, this measure limits the effective power of the entire system.

Another possibility for limiting the temperature of the two located against each other boxes of output electrons is extra absorber, such as (at least translucent) conveyor belt between the Windows of electron output (US 2741704). A significant proportion of energy falls on the absorber, which limits the ingress of additional energy to the opposite window of electron output.

It is also known solution, in which two Windows release electrons RA is placed against each other and with a lateral offset in the conveying direction of the products. Through this prevents power in the opposite electron accelerator and thereby overheating.

In known installations in which two or more Windows of output electrons surround the fitting and through the window exit of electrons transferred is approximately equal to the density of the electron energy and the molded part is bombarded with electrons, only one mileage, individual parts of the surface of fittings depending on its geometrical dimensions and the resulting different distances from the surfaces to the open exit of electrons filling with different doses (energy per unit area or energy per unit mass) energy of the electrons.

In order to achieve a certain property on the fittings, a dose of electron energy. Appropriate power generator of electrons set in such a way that those parts of the surface that receive the lowest dose incoming dose exactly or at least would be consistent with the dose required for modification of properties. All other parts of the surface of the fittings inevitably loaded higher dose. This higher dose of energy referred to as overdose. The higher overdose on separate sections of the molded detail is, the more properties in these areas differ from the targets. However, overdose energy electrons not only negatively affects the modifiable properties of the fittings, but may lead to negative or completely disrupting the technology side effects due to the formation of undesirable reaction products (e.g., ozone) in the process gas (such as air).

Parameter is characterized as the ratio overdose, shows how many times exceeded the dose required to establish the desired properties. Using the known plants, depending on the geometric dimensions of the modified fittings in separate parts of the surface are obtained coefficients overdose not acceptable for many applications to implement fairly uniform properties across the surface, which also leads to the already mentioned unwanted side effects.

For achieving high performance requires consistently high transport speed fittings. Because of the proportionality between the speed of transportation and current of the electron beam reaching technologically specified minimum dose (for the operation of sterilization it is, for example, about 25 KGy) requires increasing current of the electron beam, is proportional to the speed that the children to a disproportionately high increase in the operating temperature window of output electrons. For the case of systems of two electron accelerators located against each other, without additional absorber or lateral displacement of the system there is not currently suitable for practice decisions.

Statement of the problem

The basis of the invention is therefore the technical problem to create a device and method which overcome the disadvantages inherent in the prior art. In particular, the apparatus and method should be suitable in order thus to modify the properties of three-dimensional shaped parts with a small investment of time and low technological effort to make a fairly uniform modification of the entire surface or boundary layer fittings and nevertheless did not have the shortcomings of the entire system of the electron accelerator, the performance-limiting. While the ratio of overdose must be so small to fit the technical/technological requirements fittings.

The solution of the technical problem detected due to objects with signs of paragraphs 1 and 19 of the claims. Other preferred embodiments of the invention follow from the dependent claims.

According to the prior art is still assumed that required at least two Windows of escape of electron from the side the new offset or placed between the absorber or with a limited current of the electron beam or three Windows release electrons that it was possible for one run completely bombard electrons transverse coverage of three-dimensional fitting and to achieve desired changes in the properties. According to the invention is detected that does not require current limiting electron beam, resulting from the placement of the Windows release of electrons against each other, and optionally an inlet for surface fittings approximately uniformly distributed dose of energy.

According to the invention the device for changing the properties of three-dimensional shaped parts by means of electrons contains at least one electron accelerator for generating accelerated electrons and two Windows release electrons, both open output electrons are placed against each other. Together with at least one reflector both Windows release electrons limit the technological chamber in which the fitting is bombarded with electrons. When this window output electrons are so far apart that the impact on one window of the output electron energy radiated from the opposite window of the output of the electrons is negligible. The required distance depends essentially on the accelerating potential of the electrons, the thickness and density of the foil window output is and electrons and the density of the gas between the Windows release of electrons. The disadvantage is that when this distance is already not all parts of the surface (in particular, areas that are mostly perpendicular to the surface of the window function of electrons) modified fittings sufficiently bombordiruyut electrons is compensated by the fact that the reflector is made and installed in such a way that the electrons (in particular, from the marginal areas of the Windows release of electrons), which were not included would be fitting, reflected by the reflector to the surface of the fittings, which are deficient in the bombardment of electrons.

The device according to the invention also includes a sensor system, by means of which may be registered in the distribution of energy density in the processing chamber at least in three dimensions. Depending on the acquired data, the energy density given through the window of output electrons can then be adjusted so that the inside of the chamber in which was recorded the distribution of energy density, was made uniform bombardment by the electrons of the surface of the fittings.

A device of this type is particularly suitable for fittings that are mostly round, oval or trapezoidal cross section. But it mouthbut also modified fittings, having a cross-section of another type.

For generating accelerated electrons can be applied to the accelerator of electrons, which electrons through a corresponding deflection of the switchgear are distributed on both Windows release electrons. Alternatively, however, each window exit of electrons can also be given a separate electron accelerator. As electron accelerators suitable as a planar electron gun, also called band emitters and axial electron gun.

Side-by-side installation of two located against each other flat window of escape of electron from the optimal distance and placement of the reflective system according to the invention for electronic processing fittings with mostly trapezoidal cross-section could be implemented coefficients overdose lying when the value is lower than 4, whereas when these same fittings in the devices of the prior art containing three Windows release electrons or two placed one against the other window exit of electrons and placed between the absorber, it was necessary to come to terms with coefficients overdose with a value much higher than 4. Thus, compared with the known solutions with high performance, first, it saves energy, and secondly, the surface of the three-dimensional product is protected against radiation damage, and thanks to low emissions of ozone decrease side effects that violate the process.

The embodiment of the invention covered by the two reflector limiting process chamber and arranged mirror-symmetrically against each other. Each of the two reflectors may consist of a large number of private reflectors.

In a preferred embodiment, the reflectors are both part of the sensory system for recording the distribution of energy density. Thus, for example, multiple reflectors or private reflectors, which are made from a material with a high serial number (for example, gold, tungsten or molybdenum), through a resistor electrically connected to electrical earth or other electrical potential. The electrons reflected by the reflector/private reflector form then generated by the current magnetic flux, so that in a given reflector/private reflector resistor, you can register voltage. The values registered voltage on a separate reflectors/private reflectors can then be judged accordingly on the density of electrons, reflected on the him reflector, and take appropriate measures for the adjustment in respect of uniform distribution of energy density.

Particularly preferably, if thus the distribution of energy density is logged and respectively measured at the x-, y - and z-coordinates of a rectangular coordinate system.

Using this combination of reflectors and sensor systems can also, for example, to register, is fitting into the processing chamber. Depending on this, you can regulate the generation of electrons, so that the power of the electron accelerator, for example, in the case where the fitting is located in the processing chamber is regulated to a technologically specific values and otherwise reduced or reduced to zero.

When the installation according to the invention, the maximum appearing coefficient overdose or uniform bombardment of the surface of the fittings of electrons can be further optimized due to the fact that both the output of electrons depending on the geometric dimensions of one of the machined fittings set at an angle to each other, so that in many parts of the surface of the fittings in approximately equally distant from the open exit of electrons radiating energy.

Along with flat form OK the n exit of electrons they can also be made, for example, the concave shaped part or can also be aligned with the geometrical dimensions of the fittings, which also contributes to the fact that in many parts of the surface of the fittings in approximately equally distant from the open exit of electrons radiating energy, due to what can be achieved with smaller ratios of overdose.

In the embodiment of the invention the generator of electrons includes installation, whereby the energy density of the electrons donated from the surface of the at least one window function of electrons, can be adjusted so that individual sections of the window function of electrons is given to the different density of the electron energy. For example, in some parts of the Windows that are in front of the window there are areas of the surface of the fittings at a great distance, the energy density of the electrons is increased in comparison with individual parts of the window, in which in front of the window there are areas of the surface of the fittings on a smaller deletion, so that all parts of the surface of the fitting absorb equal dose and thereby over the entire surface on the modified depth (surface or boundary layer) are formed homogeneous properties. As a means of modifying the density is the power of electrons parts of the open exit of electrons inside the planar electron gun (without electromagnetic deflection of the beam) can be used horizontal constructive, included in the electronic optics system, such as the diaphragm, an auxiliary electrode or affecting the temperature of the cathode structural elements that affect the flow of electrons.

Another possibility is the placement of the funds outside of the electron accelerator, in particular, magnetic and/or electrical systems, influencing the direction of the accelerated electrons.

Another variant embodiment of the invention differs in that the at least one window output posted by electrons can move. So, this window function of electrons, for example, initially, when the fitting is placed in the processing chamber between the two Windows, tipped to the mechanical side of the fitting, in order to improve the mechanical side of the bombardment of electrons. Subsequent movement of the fitting through the process chamber window can then lean in the direction of parallel arrangement to the opposite window and when the output from the process chamber in the direction of the back side of the fitting. However, you can also perform other kinds of movements. For example, the window may periodically take place simultaneously in the direction of the fittings.

Another optimization with the goal of modifying the properties evenly over the entire surface of the moulded detail is possible with the installation, which by a magnetic and/or electric deflecting system controls not only the point at which the electron leaves the window function of electrons, but also on the direction of the electron at this point. Due to this, certain parts of a surface fitting more precisely can bombardirovwika electrons.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention at least one window of output electrons is made in the form of a vacuum-tight foil, and thus, as the final barrier between the camera control beam and technological camera. Alternative window function of electrons can be performed as well as gas-permeable degree of pressure between the generator of electrons and technological camera.

How to change the properties of three-dimensional fitting via electrons according to the invention differs by at least one electron accelerator, electrons are generated, accelerated and emitted from the area located two against each other, out of electrons, both open exit of electrons and at least one reflector electrons limit the technological chamber in which the surface or boundary layer fittings bombordiruyut electrons, while using the touch system is the distribution of energy density GNC the ri process chamber at least in three dimensions and the distance between the Windows of electron output is set so that the impact on one window of the output electron energy radiated from the opposite window of the output of the electrons is negligible.

Preferably the distance between the Windows of output electrons is determined depending on the accelerating potential of the electron and the thickness and density of the Windows release of electrons.

In the embodiment of the invention, a distance between the Windows of the output of the electrons set in the range of the following formula

a - the distance between the electron accelerators;

Ub - accelerating potential;

ρwis water density;

ρGthe density of the medium between the Windows release of electrons;

ρF- density foil window;

dFthe thickness of the foil window;

k1 =1∗V-1;

k2 =1∗(g/m2)-1;

f is the factor of distance (0,5<f<1,5).

The range for the distance and is obtained here from a range of values of the coefficient of the distance f, the coefficient of distance with a value of 1 is optimal estimated value for the distance.

For irradiation of the fittings inside the process chamber between the two Windows release electrons there are various alternative possibilities.

Thus, the fitting can be held constant speed through the process chamber and this is the time subjected to bombardment by electrons.

There is also an alternative possibility, namely, that fitting is introduced into the process chamber in a stationary mode by one or multiple irradiation process is subjected to bombardment by electrons.

The following variant of the invention, the molded part is bombarded with electrons through the so-called method of successive stepper exposure. Under this it should be understood that the fitting is thus introduced into the process chamber and at least part of the fitting is in the process chamber. In stationary mode fitting then bombarded with electrons from a Windows release electrons. This is followed by re-stage movement, for which the fitting is moved at a regular distance in the processing chamber or through it. Stationary then again the stage of irradiation, at which the fitting again bombarded with electrons. Thus the move steps and irradiation alternate up until the fitting is fully moved through the process zone. The corresponding phase displacement can be carried out in such a way that the individual parts of the surface, after the appropriate stages of moving subjected to bombard rouke electrons, are adjacent to each other or, alternatively, overlap.

Finally, you can also modify the fittings due to the fact that the shaped part is rotated in the processing chamber around the axis passing between the two Windows release electrons, and during this time, for a single or multiple irradiation process is bombarded with electrons.

The methods according to the invention can be applied, for example, for sterilization of container packages and products of the pharmaceutical industry and medical equipment, sterilization/disinfection or disinfection products such as fruit, eggs or other natural products, for modification of synthetic materials, curing of coatings or for sterilization/disinfection of objects.

An example of carrying out the invention

The invention is explained below on the basis of a preferred example implementation.

Fig. 1 is a schematic depiction of the cross-section of the device according to the invention.

Fig. 2 is a graphical image of the cross-sectional distribution of the depth dose of electrons emitted Windows 5A and 5b release of electrons from Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 - schematic representation of the sensory system, which includes reflectors a and 7b1 of Fig. 1.

In Fig. 1 in schematic form of the device is in 1 for electronic processing for sterilization of the surface of the shaped part 2 in cross section. Fitting 2 is an oblong object with a trapezoidal cross-section. The device 1 consists of two electron accelerators 3A, 3b, made in the form of a planar electron guns, each of which contains the camera 4A, 4b acceleration of electrons and the window 5A, 5b of the output electrons. When this window output electrons is made in the form of a titanium foil having a thickness of 11 μm. Electron accelerators 3A, 3b are made in such a way that the flat window 5A, 5b of the output electrons are installed in parallel along one axis against each other. Between the two Windows 5A, 5b of the output electrons fitting 2 is continuously performed on the tape transporting system 6, is suspended at the height of the window 5b of the output of the electrons, and the dotted line shown in Fig. 1, and thus the whole of its surface is electron energy. On the sloping side surfaces of the fitting 2 and consequently would be transferred, the lowest dose of energy to the points furthest from the Windows release of electrons, which is compensated by placing the e reflectors a, 7b1, a, 7b2 of gold. This is due to the fact that missing edge beams a, a, 8b1, 8b2 of the corresponding electron beam both accelerators 3A, 3b, electrons are respectively the nearest electronic reflector, is reflected there and thanks a corner is the placement of reflectors are directed into the zone of the lowest dose on the molded part. This link should dose of energy on the entire surface or in the boundary layer, the fittings with a minimum factor overdose, maximizing the flow of electrons and at least formed in the air gap of the reactive ozone.

The system the distance between the two Windows 5A and 5b of the output electrons corresponds substantially the following dependencies:

a - the distance between the electron accelerators;

Ub - accelerating potential;

ρwis water density;

ρGthe density of the medium between the Windows release of electrons;

ρF- density foil window;

dFthe thickness of the foil window;

k1= 1∗V-1;

k2= 1∗(g/m2)-1;

f is the factor of distance (0,5<f<1,5), and f=1 specifies the optimal distance.

When a titanium foil with a thickness of 11 μm as a Windows 5A, 5b of the output of the electrons and the environment from air (here presumably g/m3between these Windows release electrons obtains the optimal distance of 196 mm

In Fig. 2 shows as an example of the dose distribution in the depth of the arrangement according to the invention two electron accelerators in Fig. 1 with the thickness of the foil (titanium) window function of electrons, part 11 μm, at an accelerating potential of 150 kV and optimally is the distance between the Windows of electron output 196 mm. Curve 10 shows the dose distribution of the energy developed by the accelerator 3A of electrons, the penetration depth of the electrons. The energy of the electrons at the point 11 when the weight per surface unit, 280 g/m2(at a density of 1000 g/m3corresponds to the penetration depth in mm, corresponding to the numeric value - that is, in this case 280 mm), reduced to zero. Only at this distance there is a window 5b of the output of the electrons, the weight per surface unit which is shown in Fig. 2 in the shaded boxes. Such conditions are for accelerator 3b electrons produced dose of energy which is represented in the form of the curve 13, the point 14 is reduced to zero (in the image of Fig. 2 at about 50 g/m2). The distance between the points 11 and 14 represents the distance between the two Windows 5A and 5b of the output electrons and corresponds to a weight per surface unit of about 230 g/m2that corresponds multiplied by the air density (here taken 1188 g/m3), about 196 mm Thus, according to the invention under the assumed conditions obtains the optimal length 196 mm with no absorption capacity in the respective opposite the window of output electrons. The distance may vary according to the remoteness factor.

In Fig. 2 also shows a point 16 with nebalsuoti energy, worked out at about 100 g/m2accelerator 3A of electrons. About this point posted by electronic reflectors a and a. Considering represented as the shaded boxes 15 weight per surface unit of the window 5A of output electrons of about 50 g/m2turns out in the lumen of the optimal distance of the reflectors a and a from the window 5A of output electrons, approximately 42 mm, the same ratios apply to the accelerator 3b electrons with reflectors 7b1 and 7b2.

In Fig. 3 shows in detail the reflective system, which includes reflectors a and a of Fig. 1, which is simultaneously executed as an integral part of the sensory system. It is evident from Fig. 3 it can be seen that the reflectors a and 7b1 in the y-direction, i.e. in the direction of movement of the fittings 2, subdivided into partial reflectors a and a. Each partial reflector mounted electrically isolated from all other partial reflectors. Similar to the partial reflector a attached to the measuring device a, and each of the following partial reflector attached to the measuring device through which can be registered flows of electrons falling on the corresponding partial reflector.

As was just described in connection with reflectors a and 7b1, reflectors a and 7b2 placed mirror is the super-symmetric reflectors a and 7b1, also subdivided into partial reflectors a and 7b2, which at the same time together with attached measuring devices are integral parts of the sensory system.

Thus, in each case in the directions x, y and z are at least two points of measurement with the corresponding measurement results, whereby it is possible to draw conclusions about the density distribution of the electron flow in the direction of x, y and z. It should be recognized that the output of the density distribution of the electron flow can be made more accurate, the higher the number of partial reflectors formed in the directions x, y and/or z.

Depending on the thus obtained distributions of the density of electron flow device 1 therefore suitable for continuous process control by monitoring and, if necessary, regulate the density distribution of the electron flow both opposite accelerators 3A and 3b electrons. Therefore, through the device 1 according to the invention can, firstly, with full coverage of the bombarding electrons entire surface of the fittings 2, despite only two Windows 5A, 5b of the output electrons, secondly, the process may be adjusted so that all the surface areas are impacted mainly equal dose of energy.

In addition to the, by combining reflective and sensory systems in relation to space and time to control the presence fittings 2 in the processing zone. In the absence fittings 2 regional threads 8 are respectively on opposite reflector (for example, regional flow a on the reflector a and then on the reflector a) and registered in the sensory system as increasing the value of the flow of electrons. When fitting 2 in the processing zone, opposite the molded part 2 absorbs the reflected boundary flows and the recorded signal is reduced. Additionally decreases the share of other scattered electrons, which are trapped on the touch system. Thus, it is possible to conclude whether the fitting 2 in the processing zone.

1. Device for changing the properties of three-dimensional shaped parts (2) through electron containing at least one accelerator (3A, 3b) of electrons for generating accelerated electrons and two Windows (5A, 5b) of the output electrons, with both Windows (5A, 5b) of the output electrons are placed opposite each other, wherein both Windows (5A, 5b) of the output electrons and at least one reflector (7a1; 7a2; 7b1; 7b2) limit process chamber in which the surface or boundary layer fittings (2) bombordiruyut electrons, the ri through this sensory system is the distribution of energy density in the processing chamber at least one spatial dimension.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the said electron accelerator is designed as a planar electron gun or axial electron gun.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one window (5A, 5b) of the output electrons is made in the form of a vacuum-tight foil or gas-permeable degree of pressure between the generator of electrons and technological camera.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the window surface (5A, 5b) of the output electrons is made flat.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the window surface (5A, 5b) of the output electrons are placed parallel to each other.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the window surface of the output electrons form an angle with each other.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the at least one window of output electrons is made concave to the fittings.

8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the at least one window of output electrons aligned with the geometrical dimensions of the fittings.

9. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that at least two reflector (a relatively a and 7b1 relatively 7b2) placed mirror-symmetrically on opposite sides of the process chamber.

10. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that the reflectors (a; a; 71; 7b2) are the parts of the sensory system for the registration of the density distribution of energy within the process chamber.

11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that on at least two reflectors or partial reflectors is logged voltage relative to the electrical supply or other electrical potential.

12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the distribution of energy density is registered in the direction of x, y and/or z rectangular coordinate system.

13. The device according to item 12, characterized the first installation, whereby the energy density of the electrons donated from the surface of the at least one window (5A, 5b) of the output electrons is adjusted so that individual sections of the window (5A, 5b) of the output electrons is given different density electron energy.

14. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that at least one window of output electrons is made with the possibility of movement depending on the geometric dimensions of the fittings and/or position of the fitting between the Windows release of electrons.

15. The device according to claim 3, characterized sensory system, whereby the power generator of electrons depending on whether fitting into the processing chamber, is adjusted to a technologically specificity the ski values.

16. The device according to claim 3, characterized by the second setting, through which is regulated by the direction of an electron exit window exit of electrons.

17. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the window (5A, 5b) of the output electrons are farther from each other at a distance and lying in the range of the following formula

Ub - accelerating potential;
ρwis water density;
ρGthe density of the medium between the Windows release of electrons;
ρF- density foil window,;
dFthe thickness of the foil window,;
k1=1·V-1;
k2=1·(g/m2)-1,
factor distance f(0,5<f<1,5).

18. How to change the properties of three-dimensional shaped parts (2) by means of electrons, in which by means of at least one accelerator (3A, 3b) electrons electrons are generated, accelerated and emitted from the surface of the two opposite each other Windows (5A, 5b) of the output electrons, characterized in that both Windows (5A, 5b) of the output electrons and at least one reflector (7a1; 7a2; 7b1; 7b2) electrons limit the technological chamber in which the surface or boundary layer shaped part (2) is bombarded with electrons, while using the touch the systems detect the density of the energy distribution inside the process chamber at least one spatial is the dimension and the distance between the Windows of electron output set so the impact on one window (5A, 5b) of the output electron energy radiated from the opposite window (5b, 5A) output electrons is negligible.

19. The method according to p, characterized in that the distance between the Windows of electron output set depending on the accelerating potential of the electron and the thickness and density of the window (5A, 5b) of electron output.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the distance between Windows and exit of electrons set in the range of the following formula

Ub - accelerating potential;
ρwis water density;
ρGthe density of the medium between the Windows release of electrons;
ρF- density foil window,;
dFthe thickness of the foil window,;
k1=1·V-1;
k2=1·(g/m2)-1,
factor distance f(0,5<f<1,5).

21. The method according to p or 20, characterized in that the fitting is carried out with a constant speed through the process chamber and at this time is bombarded by electrons.

22. The method according to p or 20, characterized in that the molded part is introduced into the process chamber in a stationary mode by one or multiple irradiation process is bombarded by electrons.

23. The method according to p or 20, characterized in that the molded part is bombarded by electrons through the so-called method p is consistent stepper exposure.

24. The method according to p or 20, characterized in that the fitting rotates in the processing chamber around the axis passing between the two Windows release electrons, and during this time, for a single or multiple irradiation process is bombarded by electrons.

25. Application of the method according to one of p-24 for modification of synthetic materials, sterilization of products/semi-finished products of the pharmaceutical industry, disinfection and/or sterilization container packaging, curing coatings or disinfection and/or sterilization of items, fruits or other natural products.



 

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EFFECT: method allows for simple way of relief pattern formation, which elements have gently sloping surface with acute angle of 89° raise; creates gently sloping patterns of hologram-type.

22 cl, 27 dwg, 1 ex

The invention relates to plasma technology and is designed for vacuum ion-plasma deposition of thin films of metals and their compounds on the surface of solid bodies

The invention relates to radiation materials science and used to modify the mechanical, chemical, electrical properties of the surface layers of metals, alloys, semiconductors, insulators and other materials by coating or changes in the composition of the surface layers by ion implantation

The invention relates to the field of electron-beam processing of objects

The invention relates to vacuum ion-plasma technologies for coating at their simultaneous irradiation with accelerated ions and used to modify the surfaces of materials and products in machine building and instrument making, tool making and other areas

The invention relates to plasma technology and is intended for the application of different coatings on the surface of dielectric materials, mainly sheet with a large surface area

The invention relates to the field of electronic technology and may find application in the manufacture of integrated circuits with a large information capacity of lithographically, and other precision processes of surface treatment materials ion beam, for example, coating the substrate of the drawings with the change of surface properties of materials, in particular the change of the conductivity type in the semiconductor material by introducing doping ions, changes in other physical properties of the material due to the introduction of the same name, and foreign ions, creating new surface layers by deposition of atoms from the surrounding vapor clouds under the influence of incident ions, removal of substances from the surface of the substrate in the diffusion
The invention relates to the technical physics and can be used in any industry to improve the electrical, chemical and mechanical properties of the product surface

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, plasma chemistry and diagnostic measurements. The method of making an electron beam involves igniting high-voltage discharge in a gas-discharge cell by applying power supply voltage between a cathode and an anode. Additional flow of ions is provided in the space between the cathode and the anode, which provides additional ionisation of gas with an auxiliary electron beam whose electrons are accelerated in the strong field of the high-voltage discharge. The auxiliary electron beam is generated on the perimetre of the cathode surface on the inner wall of an annular electrode. The device for generating an electron beam has a cathode and an anode placed in a gas-discharge cell, and a high-voltage power supply which is connected to the cathode and the anode. On the inner surface of the cathode there is an annular electrode on the inner wall of which an auxiliary electron beam is generated. In order to reduce discharge current, the flat part of the annular electrode on the anode side is covered by a dielectric plate with an opening whose diametre coincides with the inner diametre of the annular electrode.

EFFECT: wider operating pressure range of gas, as well as provision for high discharge stability with respect to sparking.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: high-voltage electrovacuum engineering; arc-control vacuum chambers, including direct-current ones, for various switches used in power engineering, industry, and transport.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum current switch incorporating proposed vacuum chamber with magnetic field that serves as OFF-operation factor applied to high-voltage gap formed by axisymmetrical electrodes disposed in insulating shell, at least one of electrodes being made movable due to connection to shell through bellows affording high-voltage circuit closing and opening during its reciprocation, has electrode system built of two basic parts: (a) contact part proper with electrodes held in one of two states (open or closed) and (b) permanently open electrode part (arc-control chamber) separated from contact members and made in the form of two electrodes (such as coaxial ones) installed so that as they move away from part (a), discharge current path increases and currents in adjacent electrodes flow in opposite directions, and direction of magnetic field set up due to them affords arc movement from part (a) to arc-control chamber. Such design of arc-control chamber provides for disconnecting currents ranging between 300 and 10 000 A at voltages up to 10 kV.

EFFECT: facilitated manufacture, reduced size and mass of chamber.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: quantum electronics, spectrometry, and plasma chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for firing sparkless discharge in solid gases includes ignition of main charge between first and second electrodes by applying high-voltage pulse minus across first electrode and its plus, across second one, gas being pre-ionized with aid of low-energy electron beam, photons, and plasma electrons produced directly within main-discharge space; low-energy electron beam is produced by means of open barrier discharge with high-voltage pulse applied between first electrode made in the form of grid disposed on insulator surface and additional electrode disposed on opposite side of insulator; main charge is fired not earlier than ignition of open barrier discharge; the latter and main discharge are ignited within one gas-filled chamber. Device implementing proposed method has first and second electrodes forming main discharge gap, and high-voltage pulsed power supply; first electrode is made in the form of grid disposed on insulator surface whose opposite side mounts additional electrode; high-voltage pulsed power supply is connected through minus terminal to first grid electrode and through plus one, to second electrode; it functions to ignite main discharge; additional high-voltage pulsed power supply for open barrier discharge is connected through plus terminal to first grid electrode and through minus one, to additional electrode; first grid electrode, second electrode, additional electrode, and insulator are mounted in same gas-filled chamber.

EFFECT: enhanced main-charge stability due to enhanced efficiency of gas pre-ionization in main discharge gap from pre-ionization source disposed within main discharge space.

4 cl, 5 dwg

The invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, rechentechnik, spectroscopy, plasma diagnostic measurements

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: detergent composition has pH ranging from neutral to alkaline and contains an aqueous solution. The solution contains 0.005-10% surfactant with low foaming capacity; 0.005-10% corrosion inhibiting compound selected from C4-C16 alkylpyrrolidones and C1-C18 alkylamines and 0.01-15% modifying additive for preventing precipitation when metal ions react with the said surfactant. The cleaning solution contains a corrosion inhibitor and leaves a small amount of residue. The compositions are used not only at the washing stage of the cleaning cycle, but at one of the subsequent stages of the rinsing cycle in order to optimise cleaning and prevent rusting.

EFFECT: improved anti-corrosion and cleaning properties.

14 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the novel tri-indolylmethane derivatives of general formulae I and II. The compounds can be used during bacterial or fungal infection and for protecting different products from harmful effect of bacteria or fungi, particulary as antiseptics or for disinfection. In general formulae

I

or II , where R1; R7; R13 independently represent hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, R2; R8; R14 independently represent hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, -OH, -OR, C1-C4acyl, where R is alkyl or substituted alkyl, R3-R6; R9-R12; R15-R18 independently represent hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl, -OH, -OR, C1-C4acyl, where R represents alkyl or substituted alkyl, Y is an anion of a pharmacologically acceptable organic or inorganic acid; R19 is hydrogen, alkyl, substituted alkyl acyl, metal ion. The invention also relates to methods of obtaining compounds of formulae I and II, a pharmaceutical composition and use. The invention relates to a method for synthesis of tri-indolylmethane of formula III mono-substituted in the methane group which is an intermediate compound.

EFFECT: obtaining tri-indolylmethanes of general formulae I or II having antibacterial and antifungal activity.

17 cl, 4 dwg, 4 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of polymer chemistry and medicine, namely to method for obtaining thromboresistant polymer materials which have widespread application in medical industry for manufacturing workpieces on blood contact, for example blood-vessels prostheses, parts of bioartificial organs implanted into living body, bloodlines for artificial blood-circulation apparatus, storages for storage and blood transfusion etc. Method for obtaining thromboresistant polymer materials implies mixture polymer with extender, and is inert to blood coagulation water-soluble compounds in amounts of 0.3-3.5 wt % used as extender.

EFFECT: invention enables to produce thromboresistant polymer materials with lowered tendency to adhesion of platelets and lowered ability to formation of fibrinous thrombs on the surface of material in the absence of influence of whole blood coagulation system, as evidenced by increase of buildup time of fibrinous clod from 60-80 seconds to 110-240 seconds.

3 tbl, 36 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of polymer chemistry and medicine, namely to method for obtaining thromboresistant polymer materials which have widespread application in medical industry for manufacturing workpieces on blood contact, for example blood-vessels prostheses, parts of bioartificial organs implanted into living body, bloodlines for artificial blood-circulation apparatus, storages for storage and blood transfusion etc. Method for obtaining thromboresistant polymer materials implies mixture polymer with extender, and is inert to blood coagulation water-soluble compounds in amounts of 0.3-3.5 wt % used as extender.

EFFECT: invention enables to produce thromboresistant polymer materials with lowered tendency to adhesion of platelets and lowered ability to formation of fibrinous thrombs on the surface of material in the absence of influence of whole blood coagulation system, as evidenced by increase of buildup time of fibrinous clod from 60-80 seconds to 110-240 seconds.

3 tbl, 36 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of polymer chemistry and medicine, namely to method for obtaining thromboresistant polymer materials which have widespread application in medical industry for manufacturing workpieces on blood contact, for example blood-vessels prostheses, parts of bioartificial organs implanted into living body, bloodlines for artificial blood-circulation apparatus, storages for storage and blood transfusion etc. Method for obtaining thromboresistant polymer materials implies mixture polymer with extender, and is inert to blood coagulation water-soluble compounds in amounts of 0.3-3.5 wt % used as extender.

EFFECT: invention enables to produce thromboresistant polymer materials with lowered tendency to adhesion of platelets and lowered ability to formation of fibrinous thrombs on the surface of material in the absence of influence of whole blood coagulation system, as evidenced by increase of buildup time of fibrinous clod from 60-80 seconds to 110-240 seconds.

3 tbl, 36 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to manufacturing wrappings for packaging and transportation of foodstuff: milk, juice and other beverage foods. The device (1) for bacterial purification of packing-sheet fabric (2) contains a bath (6), contact rollers (12), distributing rollers (13), power supply unit (16) and transportation system (5, 7, 9, 17), which contains transfer tank (5) and transfer unit which is the first pump (9) for transportation sterilising fluid from transfer tank (5) into the bath (6). The bath (6) is equipped with device of self-draining (11) for return of sterilising fluid into the transfer tank (5) when the fabric (2) is still in the bath (6). The way of bacterial purification of fabric is characterised by the process when sterilising fluid is conveyed into the transfer tank, then into the bath with the first pump (9), thereby the bath (6) is designed as self-draining for return of sterilising fluid into the transfer tank (5) when the fabric (2) is still in the bath (6). Hydrogen peroxide is used as sterilising fluid.

EFFECT: invention of more reliable device, avoidance of risk of adsorption sterilising fluid by fabric edge also during short stops and power outage.

15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and sanitation, specifically to a remedy for nucleic acid destruction containing ethidium monazide as the active component. The nucleic acid destroying remedy containing the monazide which destroys nucleic acid at exposure to light irradiation within visible spectre, as the active component. Antibacterial remedy containing the nucleic acid destroying remedy based on ethidium monazide. Method for destroying nucleic acid including stages of ethidium monazide being added to a nucleic acid sample, and of exposure of the nucleic acid sample to light irradiation within the visible spectre. Method for destroying nucleic acid inside the cell including stages of ethidium monazide being added to a sample containing the cell, and of exposure of the sample containing the cell to light irradiation within the visible spectre.

EFFECT: remedy based on ethidium monazide is beneficial as an antibacterial remedy, such as bactericidal or disinfecting remedy.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex

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