Method for formation of dumps for technical recultivation in open development of mines
SUBSTANCE: surface of dumps is formed by technological or loose combs with level depressions between them, closed on both sides with technological passages, without earthing of dump surface by fertile layer of soil.
EFFECT: accelerated process of pit-run fines formation and development of optimal agrotechnical conditions by heat and moisture parametres for biological recultivation.
The invention relates to mines mining industry, in particular for the remediation of anthropogenic disturbed areas, mainly in the arid steppe areas of Central Siberia. Existing technologies for the extraction of coal by open method provide for the removal of overburden rocks and placing them on the internal and external piles with further technical and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation prescribed by GOST (17.5,304-83, 17.502-65), provides for selective or gross capital formation dumps, gaining them after precipitation and cooling of rocks, causing potentially fertile layer of overburden PPP capacity of 1-2 m, application of topsoil SRP with a capacity of 1.1 to 1.2 m and the planning surface. The process is time-consuming time and cost ineffective. For this reason, reclamation of disturbed areas is mining on an abbreviated program mainly gross formation of dumps, followed by a plateau and a training area for the broadening. In the arid conditions of Central Siberia the process of broadening the mining dumps, complicated crowded the surface layer and the dry continental climate, lasts for many years. Since flattened square dumps, sown grasses and planted with shrubs, the trees, issued high solar radiation and winds.
Closest to the invention is a technical solution offered Lpparameter and Elastolefin (Kemerovo scientific center SB RAS) "Environmental problems of the coal industry in the region in the transition to sustainable development." Kemerovo 1999, reducing pereprodannosti topsoil, with technical reclamation, due to partial levelling dumps - cutting peaks and ridges, some storm steep slopes.
However, this technical solution in the dry steppe zone of Central Siberia does not reduce the energy intensity of the process and its effectiveness, since the formation of fine-grained deposits, fundamentals of empysema occurs more efficiently in sloping areas dumps.
The purpose of the invention is to reduce the cost of technical reclamation of dumps, to accelerate the formation of fine-grained deposits and to create optimal thermal and moisture parameters agronomic conditions for biological reclamation.
This goal is achieved by the fact that technical reclamation of dumps is carried out by forming the surface of the dumps technological or bulk crests with bezuslovnymi hollows between them, closed on both sides technological passages, without earthing surface dumps of ploder denim layer of soil.
The invention is implemented as follows. Train dumps form with walking excavators technological bezuslovnymi crests at a predetermined height and step, followed by filling the ends of the basin, the car dumps form a flat flared perimeter and filling ridges to the specified height and pitch (distance between crests) by filling in one or more body truck; bestransportnye dumps form similar car; technological passages teach, train, bestransportnye and car dumps by the closed ends of the troughs.
Conducted by the Institute for research and accumulated knowledge gives the possibility to formulate technology as technical terms, and held in landfills coal mines Khakassia practical experiments and economic calculations confirm the possibility of using the method in arid coal mining areas. The method makes it possible to reduce 7-10 times costs and reduce for 7-9 years time biological reclamation.
The method of forming dumps for technical reclamation in open quarrying, characterized in that forming the surface of the dumps technological or bulk crests with bezuslovnymi hollows between them, closed on both sides technological passages, without the land the project surface dumps fertile soil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and processing industries and may be used to recover disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and power engineering industry. Method consists in the fact that after open pit has been exhausted, its space is filled in layers first with construction waste, and then filled with overburden to the elevation of pit bottom for foundation of future structure, at the same time layer of overburden is leveled with a layer of sand having medium size with further compaction. Then future structure foundation axes are laid, as well as future solid reinforced concrete elements according to accepted design structural scheme relative to axes of foundations. Along each of laid longitudinal axes of future solid reinforced concrete elements, at the pit bottom panel forms are erected, evenly filled with concrete mix of grade not less than B 15 by quarter of panel form height, laid concrete mix is compacted by rodding, then reinforced frames are installed onto freshly laid concrete mix, and panel forms are fully filled with concrete mix. After concrete mix poured into panel forms gains strength, panel forms are removed, and space between produced longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements is filled with crushed slag. Afterwards soil foundation is filled, which includes two layers: intermediate layer of dry mix of soil and crushed slag, and above a layer of crushed stone from solid rocks of medium size to the elevation of foundation level of constructed structure, besides soil foundation thickness equals height of cross section of longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements, and thickness of intermediate later from mix of soil and slag stone makes one third of foundation level thickness, besides, the last level is flattened and compacted, and then foundation is erected.
EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of recovery works.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction and may be used in tier stocking of grain wastes into ash dumps, tail pits and sludge collectors. Method includes creation of reservoir of the first tier of sludge pond by erection of primary dam, inwash of wastes into reservoir of the first tier with arrangement of beach zone upstream primary dam, and a settling pond is developed at the distance, creation of reservoirs of upper tiers in sludge pond by erection of previous tier of raised dam each time on the beach from wastes developed in beach zone pit, and inwash of wastes into tier reservoir every time with arrangement of beach zone and preservation of settling pond. Development of wastes in pit is carried out by dragline excavator, which moves at a safe distance from pit on road made of filtering material under upstream prism of raised dam intended for erection, and lays wastes into body of this raised dam. On the rod dragline excavator lays wastes according to "after itself" pattern and with provision for outlet of water from wastes of raised dam body along filtering material of road into pit. After dehydration and compaction of laid wastes, raised dam is shaped accordingly.
EFFECT: reduction of costs and simplification of works.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction, more precisely to stocking of granular waste into section of sludge pond and into body of conservation. Method includes tiered inwash of waste to a design level with development of pond and beach zone into section, capacity of each tier of which is created with levees. In upper part of section, on tier of beach, drainage is arranged, which is installed at the distance from levee of tier and along it and is equipped with facility for water removal from it. Drainage in plan is arranged under foot of open pit selected for development in process of tier guarding element arrangement, intended for creation over section of conservation body filled with wastes. Then inwash of the first tier of conservation body is carried out, and external side surface of tier guarding element is matched with external surface of this tier within its limits, which is coated with a layer of recultivation.
EFFECT: reduced costs and improved reliability.
6 cl, 2 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and processing industry and may be used to restore disturbed lands in construction and power industries. Method consists in the fact that after pit exhaustion, space of barrow pit is partially filled in layers: first with debris, and then filled with overburdens till elevation of foundation pit bottom for foundation of future structure. Squeezing plant is mounted onto even and compacted layer of overburdens, which is used to reinforce boards along perimetre of pit intended for construction, at the depth of at least 1.8 metre by means of horizontal squeezing of reinforcement elements with formation of end sections beyond the borders of pit walls. Then along perimetre of pit bottom, under each of protruding end sections of reinforcement elements, drilled piles are arranged with reinforcing frame and high foundation grill intended for installation of column that connects drilled pile with end sections of reinforcement elements, besides reinforcement elements are laid on calculated distance from each other, afterwards mass of soil is extracted in pit walls between reinforcing elements and initially installed drilled piles, after extraction of calculated amount of soil and reinforcement of walls in produced space, further drilled piles are installed with columns and fixed, and further amount of soil is extracted, cycle is repeated until calculated volume of premise is available in pit walls, after final equipping of underground premise, foundation is erected on manmade base, and ground structure is constructed.
EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of restoration works.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, mostly to open mining works, and may find application in reclamation of shallow borrow cuts after performance of open mining works. Method includes separate excavation, movement and stacking of soil layer and overburdens into separate band dumps, excavation of mine pit, filling of excavated space with construction wastes, composition of which is close to natural materials, layerwise, with compaction of each layer of construction wastes by compactor machines and mechanisms. At the same time soil layer and overburdens are transported into temporary band dumps located near mine pit borders on its inoperable sides. After mine pit excavation, construction wastes are laid at its bottom, starting from its centre. Then overburdens are dumped onto the last compacted layer of construction wastes, with preservation of hill surface of dump. After complete filling of excavated space of mine pit field, upper part of overburden dump combs are cut, and soil layer is placed into depressions between them, besides surfaces of cut combs are treated with binding material, and tree saplings are manually planted.
EFFECT: reduced distance of soil layer and overburdens transportation, synchronisation of processes on performance of getting and reclamation works, reduced area of lands alienation for development.
FIELD: soil cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating excessive damping of surface of milled field. Also complete near-bottom peat layer is preliminary removed; further there are successively performed topographic surveying, mapping of elevations, geographic mapping followed with geological mapping and hydro-geological boring; after that part of layer of mineral sediments is cut off; its thickness is calculated by mathematic formula.
EFFECT: renewal of peat bog generation process on worked out fields of peat production for a shorter period of time.
1 tbl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, to open developments of coal deposits, particularly to re-cultivation of anthropogenic territories, mainly in arid step zones of Middle Siberia. The procedure consists in total or selective piling of overburden, in assembling screening layers, in rough and finish reclamation leveling of dump surface, in flattening or terracing of side slopes, in covering anthropogenic surface with fertile soil, in pre-sowing treatment, and in performing anti-erosive arrangements on the territory. Also forming dump to total height is performed by simultaneous piling at the southern part of the coal pit starting from the west and finishing at the east part making 20-100 metres terraces with gulley from the side of the pit as its continuation, but 3-6 times narrower and with incline to the body of dump from the opposite side of dump. Further, a zero terrace is arranged on the day surface of the border of the pit, whereon humus layer of soil cut from the planned territory is stacked; piled soil is simultaneously watered with solutions of clayish and pyrogenic conglomerates and other overburden rock in drainage and waste water of concentration plants; also a root-inhabited layer of dumps and terraces is formed with water solution of cut soil, with biologically active overburden, bio-dynamic preparations and other components.
EFFECT: cost reduced by 5-7 times and time for re-cultivation of anthropogenic territories reduced at 10-15 years.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at underground development of potassium deposits for eliminating salt dumps piled on the ground surface. The procedure consists in boring pressure boreholes near salt dumps to the roof of salt thickness, further in performing trial pumping out via the boreholes, in trial filling and in trial pressurising salt containing water. Hydraulic-dynamic parametres and capacity potential of brine horizon is determined. Further an immersed pump is installed into a pit constructed in the most immersed peripheral part of salt dump bed filled with salt containing water; this water is pumped out via pipes connected with pressure boreholes.
EFFECT: reduced pollution of environment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention can be used for recovery of disturbed lands in agriculture and in construction and power engineering. The proposed method comprises filling the barrow pit space with, first, construction waste, layer by layer, then dumping overburden rocks to future foundation ditch bottom mark lever. Note here that an average-grain size sand is laid on the overburden rocks layer to make a leveling layer to be compacted. Then reinforced-concrete elements are laid on the compacted leveling layer so that their end faces make a butt joint their ends fall beyond geometrical sizes of the future foundation and overlap completely the foundation perimeter. Note also that the said reinforced-concrete elements are laid in parallel to each other and ad a certain distance from each other. Now an intermediate layer of average-size broken hard rock is laid onto aforesaid reinforced-concrete elements to the mark of the base of future foundation, the intermediate layer thickness making at least half the diametre of reinforced-concrete element or half its height. Finally the intermediate layer is leveled and compacted for the foundation to be made.
EFFECT: reduced labor input of recovery works.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is applicable to the oil producing industry and can be of use for reclaiming earth storages containing drilling waste generated during well drilling. The method includes cleaning storage water by coagulation, precipitating and pumping it out; building up generated sediment and removing it to cluster site and motor road slopes; backfilling storages with earth and subsequently sowing grass. Cement is used as coagulant at 20-50 kg/m3 of storage water; sediment is built up by encapsulating and holding it for at least 20 hours; and storages are backfilled with earth after being completely emptied.
EFFECT: more efficient earth storage reclamation and improved environment.
FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.
EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.
EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.
SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.
EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.
EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.
EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.
FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.