Building for arranging chemical productions
SUBSTANCE: building includes foundations 4, load-carrying central 2 and vertical functional units 3. Units form a polygonal prism along the external outline of the building. Central unit 2 is made in the form of thick-walled reinforced-concrete cylinder in the rooms of which there located is control equipment and instrumentation equipment. Vertical units 3 are installed along the perimeter of central unit 2 coaxially to it. Side walls of vertical units 3 are located radially from cylinder to edges of prism. In vertical units 3 there installed is process equipment. Foundation 4 and coverings 1 are common for all units and made in the form of a bowl for accumulation of spillages and wash-outs of chemicals and atmospheric fallouts. External planes of prism are formed with window crosses. In floorings and walls of functional units 3 there made are holes for passage of communications. Coatings of ceiling and floor of functional units 3 have slopes not more than 5° to floorings in directions of slope from external window to load-carrying cylinder and from load-carrying cylinder to external window.
EFFECT: providing safety and ecological cleanness.
The invention relates to the construction of buildings for industrial purposes, in particular to the building to accommodate chemical industries.
We know the rough-cut universal building to house chemical industries, including foundations and floor beam floor joists, walls, doorways, window frames, equipment, communications, control and instrumentation and control equipment Central bearing and placed on the sides of the vertical functional blocks that form on the outer contour of the building multifaceted prism [Kim NN. Industrial architecture. M: SI, 1988, s-189]. However, each block-box of the building is strictly functional, which does not allow to reconstruct it for other purposes, and the number of cases of space-planning the layout of units in the whole building is small, moreover, the construction of blocks and buildings in General does not create additional opportunity for the development of fire and explosion safety, energy efficiency and high environmental compatibility.
The closest technical solution to the claimed invention (the prototype) is building for chemical production. [Pat. Russia 2053338 C1 6, IN 5/00.] Building for chemical production is an axisymmetric many of the storey building to accommodate chemical industries. Geometrically, the building is a proper polyhedral prism, the number of faces of the prism may be different. Inside the prism is divided into blocks: Central bearing and vertical functional. The blocks are formed as a result of differentiation of the internal space of the building floor coverings with coating, inner bearing cylinder and radially directed from the cylinder wall partitions.
A disadvantage of the known building is the greater vulnerability of the upper and lower coverings and ceiling functional block than at the side walls, in case of an explosion inside the building.
The invention solves the problem of safety and environmental cleanliness when placing chemical industries.
The invention consists in that in the famous building, including the foundations and floor beam floor joists, walls, doorways, window flights, process equipment and control equipment Central bearing and a vertical functional blocks that form on the outer contour of the building multifaceted prism, the Central unit is made in the form of thick-walled concrete cylinder, where is the control equipment and instrumentation, and the OST is performance communications units installed around the perimeter of the cylinder coaxially with the last location of the lateral walls of the radial axes, passing from the center of the cylinder to the faces of the prism, with the formation of the raster form, and their premises, which is equipped with technological equipment provided with the premises of the Central unit through door openings made in the walls of the latter, the base and cover are made common to all blocks in the form of a bowl to collect respectively Straits and washes chemicals and precipitation, and the outer plane of the prism formed window frames, mounted between the beams and the ends of the side walls of the functional blocks, and in the ceilings and walls of functional blocks with holes of different configurations for skip communications, according to the invention the coating of the ceiling and floor functional blocks have a slope of not more than 5° to the ceiling in the directions of descent, respectively, of the outer box to the supporting cylinder and a bearing cylinder to the outer window.
Ha figure 1 presents a General view of the building; figure 2 - view of the building from the side; figure 3 is a covering of floors and ceilings of the building; figure 4 - key design parameters of the building.
Building for chemical production contains the top floor of building 1 (figure 1); bearing the Central cylinder 2 (Fig 1); the functional blocks 3 (figure 1); the Foundation 4 (figure 1); floor 5 (3); floor ceiling 6 (figure 3); the overlap of 7 (figure 3).<> Building for chemical industries operates as follows.
The functional blocks 3 in the appropriate for a given chemical technology equipment processes chemical reactions, separation and purification, oil filling and packing of chemical products. Formed as a result of chemical transformations liquid medium is moved downward by gravity through piping along the trajectory helices, for mounting in which the radial and horizontal partitions 3 blocks during the construction of building structures made special mounting holes of different configurations for the pipelines connecting the apparatuses placed on the floors vertically and horizontally. Liquid and gas medium can be transported in compartments formed between the beams 7 and floor coverings 5 and the ceiling 6 at an angle less than 5°, specially located for this pipeline. In addition, in these niches are elements of the automatic fire extinguishing system, the composition of which is determined depending on the technological process (spray nozzles, tank with inert gas and so on). The staff in the functional blocks 3 is moved from the remote control inside of the cylinder 2 and back by the shortest route, not more than a radius of the building, by the time stay in the area is possible accidents will be minimal. When an explosion in the functional block 3, the inclined floor surface 5 and the ceiling 6 will create a reflective wave directed outward.
Thus, the proposed design of the building allows for comparison with prototype:
1) to minimise the potential devastating impact on the building, sending a blast wave on the walls and ceiling of tangent;
2) create a sealed cavity for communications and equipment in niches formed between the ceiling and the floor or ceiling;
3) to increase the illumination within the function block by increasing the reflectivity of the walls and floor coverings and ceiling;
4) create a slope to drain swabs and Straits in the functional blocks away from the Central cylinder.
Any liquid spilled on the floor of the functional unit 3 due to potential Strait, will flow in the direction of the slope with the bottom cover, where in the corner of the wall, it (the liquid) is collected for further processing or disposal.
The total number of premises can be determined by the formula
where k1=nm is the product of the number of sides (n) of the polygon by the number of floors of the inner cylinder (m);
k2=(m+1) - number of floors of the inner cylinder (m) plus one location on the roof of the building.
Key design parameters of the building are presented in figure 4.
Lu is l tilt coating 5 to the functional blocks of no more than 5° virtually no difficulties in transferring personnel. Hardware installation horizontally is provided by the difference of the heights of the pillars or special technology mounting of the equipment to the walls of the building.
The amount of the functional unit 3 can be determined by the formula
where D is the diameter of the inscribed in the polygon of the circle.
n is the number of sides of the polygon;
d1the external diameter of the supporting cylinder;
N - the maximum height of the functional block;
α is the angle of the floor coverings and ceiling.
Thus, the design of the proposed buildings for the chemical production ensures personnel safety, environmental compatibility and compactness.
The building to house the chemical industries, including foundations and floor beam floor joists, walls, doorways, window frames, process equipment and control equipment, bearing a Central and vertical functional blocks that form on the outer contour of the building multifaceted prism, the Central unit is made in the form of thick-walled concrete cylinder, where is the control equipment and instrumentation, and the remaining blocks are installed around the perimeter of the cylinder coaxially with the last location of the lateral walls of the radiation is Ino axes, passing from the center of the cylinder to the faces of the prism, with the formation of the raster form, and their premises, which is equipped with technological equipment provided with the premises of the Central unit through door openings made in the walls of the latter, the base and cover are made common to all blocks in the form of a bowl to collect respectively Straits and washes chemicals and precipitation, and the outer plane of the prism formed window frames, mounted between the beams and the ends of the side walls of the functional blocks, and in the ceilings and walls of functional blocks with holes of different configurations for skip communications, characterized in that the coating ceiling and floor of functional blocks have a slope of not more than 5° to the ceiling in the directions of descent, respectively, of the outer box to the supporting cylinder and a bearing cylinder to the outer box.
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of heat insulated structure from polymer materials, including assembly of frame, mounting of its shaping lining, sputtering of material layers onto lining. Besides mountable-and-dismountable frame is used, which is installed with the possibility of rotation around its axis, and frame lining is arranged in the form of closed shell from material selected for finishing of internal side of structure. Shell is connected by means of air duct to pneumatic discharge device, and excessive pressure is pulled in its internal cavity. Afterwards polymer material is sputtered onto rotary shell, alternating a layer of foamed polymer material with reinforcing layer until certain thickness of structure wall is achieved, providing for its specified properties, and after hardening of the last layer, opening is cut, and frame is disassembled through it.
EFFECT: reduced duration and labour intensity of technological process and production of light mobile structure.
4 dwg, 3 cl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: electric power plant consists of modules in form of blocks of frame with equipment secured in them. A bigger part of modules is made with their height exceeding their width in a working position. Units of equipment in a working position are arranged vertically. Secured in modules equipment is designed so, that modules can be turned over at their transfer from a transport into working position and vice versa. The modules are made with positive floatability in the transport position. Power plant is constructed by implementing the modules with equipment secured therein. The modules are delivered from manufacturers by water. The power plant is reconstructed by replacing equipment in the modules or by replacing modules in whole. A bigger part of the modules is turned over at transfer from the transport into working position and vice versa.
EFFECT: simplification of construction and reconstruction of coastal power plant.
SUBSTANCE: making of panel walls, partitions, ceilings is carried out directly near places of house construction. Melting of rocks and product casting are combined and executed simultaneously in rock mass. Collection and displacement of melted liquid rock mass from bottom to casting dies are carried out with the help of tray, reservoir, foundry ladle pump, hoists of gantry crane telfer. Casting is carried out in casting containers on conveyor line, heat removal from casting dies is executed with the help of pump by means of cold water supply and steam generation at the outlet. Powder of mineral dyes and titanium or zirconium hydrides, etc, are added to melted rock mass. In open foundation pit walls are cast with the help of casting dies and wall shapers. Leveling and evening of pits, recesses of open foundation pit cavities are carried out by means of filling with liquid melted rock mass. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen are produced at the place of house construction. Hydrogen and oxygen are produced by means of electrolysis or decomposition of water into hydrogen, and nitrogen is produced by means of burning of air with oxygen and hydrogen.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced labour intensity, energy saving, reduced transport costs, improved labour conditions, reduced contamination of environment.
1 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to livestock farm microclimate using energy saving elements. The technical result is achieved in natural heat exchanging drying system of livestock farm ventilation which comprises an intake section including an air-to-fluid heat exchanger, an air-to-air heat exchanger with an air distributor and a flute, a pipe, a trickle off sheet and a condensate collecting funnel as well as at least one exhaust section including an air-to-fluid heat exchanger with flutes and a condensate collecting pipe and a heat-insulated exhaust vent shaft with a valve in the upper part and a cowl; the air-to-fluid heat exchangers of the intake and exhaust sections are connected to each other by pipes and the loop of the heat exchangers and pipes is filled with non-freezing liquid.
EFFECT: providing for high positive heat balance in livestock farm buildings in winter time.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to storage of agricultural production, in particular to storage of frozen foodstuff with application of accumulated natural cold. The cold refrigerator/accumulator contains an underground part embedded in the ground having a floor, ceiling, walls reveted with water ice, the said underground part being equipped with a system of natural ventilation. The cold refrigerator/accumulator also contains a thermo-waterproof contour and a ground part. The underground structure accommodates a file of ground, the thermo-waterproof contour being combined with lateral walls of the underground structure.
EFFECT: simplified design of the thermo-waterproof contour and reduced load exerted by the refrigerator/accumulator ground part on the load-carrying construction of the underground structure.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction of buildings for industrial purposes, in particular, to the building for location of chemical productions. Building for location of chemical productions includes footings and coated beam intermediate floors, walls, doorways, window crosses, production equipment, and controlling equipment, bearing central and vertical functional units forming polygonal prism along the outline of the building, central block made as a thick wall reinforced concrete cylinder, in the premises whereof controlling equipment and controlling-measuring equipment are set. Other blocks are set along the entire perimeter coaxially to the last one with their side walls placed radial to the exes stretching from the center of the cylinder to the edges of the prism with creation of raster form, and their premises wherein production equipment is installed are connected with the premises of the central block through doorways made in the walls of the latter. Whereat footing and coverings are made shared for all blocks in the form of a bowl for collection of spills and wash-outs of chemical products and atmospheric precipitation; external cavities of the prism are formed by window crosses embedded between the floorings and butt ends of side walls of functional blocks, whereat in the floorings and in the walls of functional blocks there are openings of various configurations for services passing through. Bowl of the footing part of the building is separated by vertical baffles into separate sections for independent collection of wash-outs and spills from different functional units.
EFFECT: ensuring safety and ecological purity in location of chemical productions.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to aquariums and life ensuring systems of their inhabitants, namely to tanks-aquariums. Main tank of the oceanarium contains bottom, wall enclosures, at least, one whereof is made with a port equipped with sealed fenestration. Tank accommodates fixed in its volume full - passage observation device having an entrance and exit. Observation device consists of not less than one observation tunnel. Tunnel includes arched elements, preferably of single curvature and tapered in the plan, at least in the curve zone. Tank is equipped with environmental support system including devices and systems of preparation and/or making, supply, removal, clarification and recirculation of water including water distributing collector and introduced into the tank water distributing atomisers.
EFFECT: decreased material consumption and operational costs through combination of functions of enclosing and bearing structures of the tank and the building accommodating oceanarium.
21 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of construction and renovation of buildings, reservoirs, sedimentation reservoirs and other structures of basically round cross-section in terms of layout, such as cooling towers. The cooling tower reinforcement structure consists of slanting beams arranged in radial directions of the confusor, their upper ends attached to the structure bearing elements and via the backing block connecting strips resting on the base ring. There is a engirdling belt fixed onto the base ring with the external ends of the slanting beams attached immediately to it with the help of equally slanting bracing pieces (two per each beam).
EFFECT: ensuring the structure rigidity; minimisation of the structure elements cross sections; optimisation of transfer of force and torque to the supports; structure seismic resistance enhancement.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly buildings or groups of buildings for industrial or agricultural purposes.
SUBSTANCE: building comprises foundations and central load-bearing and vertical functional modules. The modules are covered with beam floor slabs and are provided with walls, door openings, window crosses, technological equipment and control equipment. Vertical functional modules are located at central module sides and create multihedral prism along outer building perimeter. Central module is made as thick-walled reinforced concrete cylinder including control equipment and test equipment installed in central module rooms. Other modules are installed along cylinder perimeter and are coaxial thereto so that side walls thereof are built along radii extending from axes aligned with center cylinders towards prism faces. The modules form predetermined pattern. Module rooms provided with technological equipment are communicated with central module rooms through door openings made in central module walls. Foundation and coverings are common for all modules and are shaped as bowl, which accumulates spills and washed-out chemical substances, as well as rain water. Outer prism planes are defined by window crosses mounted between floor slabs and functional module side wall ends. Orifices having different shapes are created in covering slabs and in functional module walls. Said orifices are adapted to lay service lines. Floor slabs are arranged along helical line defined by adjacent functional modules. Gutter used to remove atmospheric precipitations from building wall is mounted on outer building perimeter. The gutter is used for emergency people evacuation with the use of rescue evacuation module.
EFFECT: increased safety and ecological protection.
1 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: stores facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for loading bags in container and to keeping said containers. Bag container and container are furnished with cradles for one-by-one, layer-by-layer filling with cylindrical articles. Container can be furnished with means for loading bag containers with use of roller hoists and fire fighting system both for single container and great number of sealed containers forming product stores. Such store can be arranged in pit.
EFFECT: provision of safety of cylindrical articles at loading, shipment and storage.
25 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: block is composed of transparent cylindrical cups produced by cutting off of throats from used plastic bottles. Columns of cups are positioned tightly one aside the other into frame equipped with device for attachment to other similar frame. Frame has plates arranged in lower and upper part of frame and provided with beads. Restricting plates are arranged at both sides of frame. One of plates is made movable and connected by side couplers to immovable plate.
EFFECT: simplified building of hothouses and greenhouses of different shape and sizes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly for heat-and-power engineering, namely for performing repair-and-renewal operations of reinforced concrete structures.
SUBSTANCE: colonnade comprises columns with support rings and protective ferrule made of shells. Shells form telescoping collars enclosing the columns and provided with discharge plates. The shells are connected to welds. Gaps between columns and protective ferrule are filled with nonshrinking mix. Protective ferrule is provided with connection pipes located at least in one level and used for nonshrinking mix pumping. Protective ferrule also has support plates for jacks and vibratory means installation. Method of cooling tower reinforcing is also disclosed.
EFFECT: extended time of protection against concrete erosion, increased reliability of air-tightness and waterproofing, increased load-bearing capacity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: cooling-tower has frame with casing held on it, made of polymer sheets, mated with each other along vertical side edges using lock connection, while inner contours of connection on right edge of sheet are identical to outer contours on left edge of adjacent sheet. Lock connection is made in form of open hexahedron as shown on fig. 2, pos. 4,5. sheets are bent with curvature radius appropriate for curvature of external contour of frame, and width of sheets is 410...420 mm.
EFFECT: decreased space between casing sheets and frame, rigid connection of casing sheets, excluded air influx from environment, increased rigidity of construction and higher efficiency of heat exchange.
1 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: industrial building structure for industrial plant, for instance for power generation plant, comprises pump chamber for cooling water pump receiving and cleaning chamber adjoining the pump chamber. The pump chamber is connected with sewage chamber through inlet orifice and front area of at least one wall, which abuts the orifice. The front area is inclined with respect to side wall of pump chamber. Throat for cooling liquid entrance into the pump chamber is constricted with pump installed in it, wherein the cooling liquid has flow velocity of 2-3 m/c at pump chamber inlet to prevent parasitic turbulence generation. Method for above industrial building structure use is also disclosed, wherein the building structure includes pump chamber with cooling water pump and sewage chamber abutting the pump chamber and adapted to clean the cooling water.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability of industrial plant operation along with reduced costs.
16 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, covering used for farm crops on home ground or farm, as well as in agricultural collective farms.
SUBSTANCE: covering for plants consists of uniform parts, that is, flat flexible arched members, which are mounted on base in pairs one above another in intersecting relationship, at an angle to each other. Flat flexible arched members are connected with one another through flexible members at points of intersection of arched members and between adjacent pairs.
EFFECT: simplified construction, reduced number of different-type completing parts, improved unification, and reduced costs for manufacture of covering construction.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of aluminum by electrolysis in cryolite - alumina melts, namely structures of housings for electrolysis of aluminum.
SUBSTANCE: housing includes carcass made of building constructional members, roof rested upon building constructions, aluminum cells arranged inside carcass; aeration system having exhaust apparatus and influent ports provided in building constructions. Carcass is in the form of cylinder or regular prism. Roof also rests at least upon one column. Aluminum cells are arranged at least in one row in circle along building constructions.
EFFECT: possibility for providing improved labor conditions, enhanced efficiency of aluminum cells in housing.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: industrial buildings forming part of cooling plants, particularly cooling towers for enterprisers and power plants.
SUBSTANCE: air flow control device comprises air-guiding deflector and rotary jalousie gate sections installed on pile foundation base or on water catchment basin wall and extending at 45-135° angles to horizontal surface. Gate position is regulated by means of manual drive or with the use of automatic drive installed inside air-guiding deflector. Rotary jalousie gates are made of thin sheet material and have individual drives, which provide independent upper and lower gate section operation, arranged within the limits of each section. Air flow control method involves regulating gate opening through angle, which provides design specific air flow rate; closing upper and lower gates of rotary jalousie gate sections in dependence of change of atmospheric air temperature and hydraulic and heat load of cooling tower.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of air flow regulation in dependence of atmospheric air temperature and hydraulic and heat load.
6 cl, 5 dwg