Use of polymers containing amino groups modified with acid groups to obtain fountain solutions or concentrates of fountain solutions, as well as in circulating fountain solutions for offset printing

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of polymers as a wetting agent in offset printing. The wetting agent contains at least one polymer P, which is a product of reacting polyethyleneimine with a cross-linking agent obtained by reacting polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 1500 with epichlorohydrin, and acrylic acid and contains amino groups modified with a -CH2CH2COOH group and/or its salts. Described also is an offset printing method which uses the said wetting agent.

EFFECT: wetting agent ensures formation on non-printing parts of the printing plate of a stable water film which prevents movement of printing ink to the said parts during printing.

9 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

 

This invention relates to the use of polymers including modified by acid groups, amino groups, to obtain moisturizing solutions for offset printing. In addition, this invention relates to a method of printing using offset technology, which use a moisturizing solution that contains a polymer containing modified by acid groups of the amino group.

In offset printing using the printing plate, which basically has no height difference. Opposite the image areas and areas nasobrahan offset printing plates have different wetting properties, i.e. hydrophobic and hydrophilic region. Offset printing plate contains, as a rule, the carrier, which is provided with a suitable hydrophobic coating. In areas of nasobrahan the photosensitive layer is removed, so that freed hydrophilic layered media. For offset printing use printing ink oil-based. This hydrophobic region of the printing plate is wetted by the printing ink and the hydrophilic region is not wetted by the printing ink. Further details of the technique of offset printing is described, for example, in Römpp-Lexikon "Lacke und Druckfarben", ed. Georg Time, Stuttgart, new York 1998, s-170.

For printing processes such as offset printing plate on agimat on the plate cylinder. The plate cylinder applies the following two rolling rollers, the so-called colorful roller and the so-called moisturizing rolling roller.

Using colorful roller printing ink oil-based is applied to the printing plate, and using a moisturizing rolling roller so-called fountain solution is applied to the plate surface. In the fountain solution contains water in which dissolved various tools. Fountain solution, as a rule, obtained by dilution of the concentrate of the fountain solution with water. Additional additives can then, if necessary, be added separately to water or hydrating solution.

The task of the fountain solution is getting on napechatala parts of the printing plates of a stable film of moisture, which reduces the adoption of offset printing inks these parts of the printing form. While insignificant, when applying dampening solution and ink to the printing plate during each revolution of the plate cylinder cause if at first fountain solution and then paint or it takes place in the opposite sequence. From the plate cylinder corresponding to the image of the applied ink is printed first on the so-called offset cylinder and thence to the paper.

From moisturizing rolling roller moisturize the second solution is transferred on the print, and apicatus area of the printing plate. The number of portable dampening solution can be adjusted, for example, through the speed computernogo roller in the dampening apparatus. In napechatala areas moisturizing solution provides the hydrophilic areas. The printing areas of the dampening solution and printing ink is formed emulsion paint is water.

Good print result in offset printing pretty much depends on the quantity of dampening solution, which is transferred to the printing plate.

When there is too little dampening solution, the hydrophilic region repel printing ink not in sufficient mass, so also napechatala region at least partially wetted by the printing ink and thus an unwanted way the paint is transferred to the paper. The printer indicates a data breach print as toning or lubrication. If postponed too much dampening solution, then too much water emulsify in a printing ink, which negatively affects the rheological properties of printing inks. This is expressed, for example, decreasing the intensity of the color or the problems of transfer of ink on the offset cylinder or paper.

The area in which you are migrating a sufficient amount of the fountain solution, to finish what I repulsive actions, but on the other hand it is not too much expert in this area called "water window". This "water window" for stable printing should be wide, so that even slight changes in water availability does not result in undesired violation, punishable by a paper stall during the printing process.

In General, it is desirable with the lowest possible quantities of dampening solution to achieve sufficient repulsion, to avoid strong emulsification of ink and, for example, together with the ongoing decrease of the intensity of the color.

It is known that as an aid in moisturizing solutions apply water-soluble film-forming colloids or polymers. The task of the film-forming colloids and water-soluble polymers is the maintenance of building a stable water film on napechataem layer of the printing plate during printing to obtain a constant quality of the printing and stoppage of the machine can immediately print next without much crowding of paper. Next, a polymer such as gum Arabic, used as a protection plate from mechanical damage during storage and archiving printing plates.

In the German patent application DE 19719936 describe the application of gum Arabic to obtain moisturizing solutions. In the European patent applications EP 109956 and EP 1099567 describe gum Arabic, various derivatives of starches, alginates, cellulose derivatives and their modifications, the glycols and their copolymers, polyvinyl alcohol and its derivatives, polyacrylamides, polyacrylic acid, copolymers based on maleic anhydride and simple polivinilovogo ether-based polymers styrelseledamot acid or polyvinylpyrrolidone.

In addition, it is known that use derivatives of cellulose, such as carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, methylcellulose, or combinations thereof. Refer, for example, Japanese patent application JP-A 02-292092, JP-A 07-125472, JP-A 2003-276357 or JP-A 2004-160869.

As the polymer for the dampening solution is the most widely spoken Arabic gum. The gum Arabic is a mixture of different polysaccharides, including L-arabinose, L-ramnose, D-galactose and D-glucuronic acid, and resin extracted from vegetable juices of various species of acacia and Mimosa. However, the application of gum Arabic requires a relatively high amount of water to achieve a stable film of moisture on the offset printing form. The following weak points of gum Arabic are foaming and instabilities properties, its own strong color and its relatively poor solubility. Since we are talking about natural is the product, it is presented in an unstable quality. For the so-called brush moistening apparatus or centrifugal moisturizing apparatus, such, which are often used to print Newspapers, it is imperative to obtain and stabilize the foam dampening solution when applied to the printing plate, as otherwise this can lead to uneven wetting and yet to interference in print.

Negative property other these polymers is that they can leave sticky deposits on the printing plate and blanket cylinder. This leads to the accumulation of paper dust and paint particles, which necessitates regular cleaning of printing plates or offset cylinder and means a loss of time during the printing process. In addition, the polymers do not have any harmful effect on the printing plate, particularly in giving a picture of the place.

In addition, moisturizing solutions for offset printing along with water contain, as a rule, a large number of different accessories such as, for example, buffer systems, surfactants, antifoams, biocides, and corrosion inhibitors.

In addition, as an aid, as a rule, use short-chain alcohols, particularly isopropanol, ethanol and mixtures thereof. Also use simple high-boiling glycol ether as a substitute for isopropanol. Hydrating solutions may contain up to 30 wt.% isopropanol or other short-chain alcohols. Isopropanol, including increases the viscosity of the fountain solution; this facilitates the transfer of large amounts of water on the plate. In addition, it promotes stable relationships emulsification when the emulsification of water in the printing ink. Obviously, the release of organic solvents in the printing shops in General undesirable. Therefore, it is extremely desirable preparation of the fountain solution, which part of isopropanol as low as possible or even completely abandon it.

The objective of the invention is to prepare an improved fountain solution for offset printing, in which a stable water film can get it in a little water transfer and in which, at least, clearly it is possible to reduce the required number of isopropanol or substitutes isopropanol without compromising results.

Accordingly, found the use of polymers, cuchuma modified by acid groups, amino groups, to obtain moisturizing solutions for offset printing. Also, found a way of printing using the offset technique, according to which use is jut fountain solution which contains the polymer, including the modified acid groups, amino groups,

For carrying out the invention must, in particular, the following.

To get a moisturizing solution proposed according to the invention of the offset printing method using the polymer P, which contain modified by acid groups, amino groups. The polymers P contain unbranched or branched polymers.

The polymers P can also be used for obtaining of the fountain solution concentrates, which are diluted before use in the form of the fountain solution, or they can also be used in the circulation of the fountain solution.

In the event modified by acid groups, amine groups we are talking about structural elements of the General formula, which are selected from group (I), (II) and (III).

While the structural elements can be part of a polymer chain, as in the case of (III), or they can be located on the sides or at the end of the polymer chain, as in the case of (I) or (II). The term "polymer chain" can be understood as the main polymer chain, i.e. the longest chain forming the polymer, as well as shorter or more long chain branching in the polymer chain.

The polymer chain is built from carbon atoms bonded via covalent bonds, however, is such that the carbon chain may be interrupted by heteroatoms, in particular a nitrogen atom and, optionally, oxygen or other functional groups. Preferred chain is interrupted by nitrogen atoms, and optionally oxygen atoms.

The polymer along with the structural elements (I), (II) and/or (III) may also include other functional groups. In this case, first of all, we can talk about primary, secondary and/or tertiary amino groups. Can also be used by other functional groups, if presumably when used as a dampening solution does not appear any negative properties. Called here, in particular, the group of ethers, as well as the Oh-group. Preferably in addition to the amino groups and functionalized with amine groups, there is no, or at least mostly no other functional groups.

The group Z means a structural element having an acid group, and R1means hydrogen or an unbranched or branched hydrocarbon residue containing preferably from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which optionally may also have the following substituents or heteroatoms. Preferably in the case of R1we are talking about hydrogen.

Structural element Z having an acid group may include one or more acid groups, R2. Under adamie acid groups contain, for example, in particular, carboxylic group-COOH, sulfonic acid group-SO3N and the phosphonic acid group-RHO3H2but also we can talk about other acid groups. Preferably we are talking about-COOH groups. The acid groups can be represented in the form of free acids, but also we can talk about the salts of the acids, in particular the salts of alkali metals and/or salts of alkaline earth metals.

Acid group, R2as a rule, is connected through a connecting group X with the nitrogen atom. In this case, Z has the General formula XR2nwith X we are talking about the n-atom, organic residue, and when n it comes to natural number greater than or equal to 1. Preferably n is from 1 to 5 and particularly preferably 1 or 2.

At n-atom, organic residue, X it can be unbranched or branched, aliphatic, aromatic or analiticheskoy residue. Preferably we are talking about aliphatic residue, which contains from 1 to 10 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to 5, particularly preferably from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, and entirely preferably 1 or 2 carbon atoms. Especially preferred are 2-atomic debris. Particularly preferred groups are groups of the methylene or 1,2-ethylene.

Preferred structural the ways Z contains for example, -CH2CH2SO3H, -CH2SO3H, -CH2CH2RHO3H2, -CH2RHO3H2, -CH2COOH, -CH2CH2COOH, -CH(COOH)CH2-COOH, -CH2CH(CH2)COOH and-CH2CH(CH2COOH)COOH. Structural elements can be represented in the form of free acids or in the form of salts, such as, for example, salts of alkali metals. In addition, they can be represented in the form of internal salts of acid groups, and modified and unmodified amino groups of the polymer. Especially preferred is-CH2COOH and-CH2CH2COOH.

The number of modified amino groups and/or unmodified amino groups in the polymer is determined by the person skilled in the art depending on the desired characteristics of the fountain solution. However, the number should be at least so large that the polymer concentrations used in the fountain solution are soluble to transparency. In General, the ratio of carbon atoms to nitrogen atoms in the polymer is from 6:1 to 1.5:1 and, for example, about 4:1, however, the invention should not be limited to this scope.

The average mass Mwthe polymer used to obtain the dampening solution is chosen by the person skilled in the art dependent in the tee from the desired characteristics of the fountain solution. In General, the molecular mass Mwchoose from 500 up to 2,000,000 g/mol, preferably from 1,000 to 1,500,000 g/mol, particularly preferably from 2000 to 1200000 g/mol, and entirely preferably from 10,000 to 1200000 g/mol, for example 50000 or 480000 g/mol. The average weight estimated using light scattering.

Described polymers and their reception in principle known. When this reference European patent application EP-A 490231 and international application WO 97/40087.

Used according to the invention, the polymer P can be obtained, for example, by the fact that the polymers having primary and/or secondary amino groups, functionalitywith using suitable reagents. Existing amino completely or partially transformed into structural elements (I), (II) and/or (III). The degree of functionalization can be between 1 and 100%, preferably is between 50 and 100%, particularly preferably between 70 and 100%.

As source material for modification can be used in principle all kinds of polymers containing amino groups. Along with amino groups, they can also have other functional groups, if presumably they do not affect the modification and do not have any negative consequences.

As the source materials are suitable are, for example, polyvinylidine. It can also ID the and homopolymers of vinylamine or also copolymers of vinylamine and other comonomers. Suitable comonomers are, for example, monoolefinic unsaturated carboxylic acids, such as, for example, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, Malinova acid, vinylamide, such as vinyl pyrrolidone, vinylcaprolactam, in addition, vinylimidazole, vinyl acetate, olefins, vinyl alcohol, vinylsulfonic acid and vinylphosphonic acid. However, the number of comonomers should not exceed, as a rule, 30 wt.%, in the calculation of the amount of all monomers. Preferred are homopolymers of vinylamine.

Also suitable are polyalkylene, such as, for example, polypropylenimine, polyethylenimine or copolymers propylenimine and ethylenimine. Preferred are polyethylenimine.

Also suitable are polymers containing amino groups, which include elements of polyalkyleneglycol, such as Diethylenetriamine, Triethylenetetramine, Tetraethylenepentamine, pentametilmelamin, diaminodiphenylamine, Tris-aminopropylation and polyethylenimine, which are connected to each other with another monomer. Polyamidoamine can be obtained, for example, by the fact that the above elements of polyalkyleneglycol associated with dicarboxylic acids having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms. Suitable dicarboxylic acids are, for example, Yang is ary acid, maleic acid, adipic acid, glutaric acid, cork acid, sabotinova acid or terephthalic acid or their derivatives, such as, for example, their esters or anhydrides.

Respectively, can be applied polyetheramines. Compounds of this type are known, for example, from German patent application DE-A 2916356. The polyetheramines can be obtained by condensation of the above elements of polyalkyleneglycol with simple chlorohydrine esters at elevated temperatures.

Can also be used polymers in which one fit the original polymer is subjected to interaction with ethylenimine. The formation of graft copolymers that contain elements of polyethylenimine. Suitable starting materials include, for example, the above polyamidoamine, polyetheramines or polyvinylene.

Polymers containing amino groups can also be modified before use. They may be interacting with, for example, alkylating agents, so that some of the amino groups alkiliruya. Suitable alkylating agent is allylbromide General formula R1-Br, and R1defined above.

The polymers P used as starting material, can also be custom made. Of course, while we can talk about partial crosslinking. Always is to stavitsa a sufficient portion of the amino groups. The degree of crosslinking can be selected by the person skilled in the art depending on the desired characteristics of the fountain solution, presumably not receive any negative properties. In particular, remains a sufficient solubility of the polymer. As a rule, with cross-linking agent should become no more than 2% of the amino groups present in the original polymer. Preferably with cross-linking agent makes less than 1% nitrogen.

Stitching, usually performed as describe here, preferably before the modification. However, should not be excluded in special cases, the conduct of stitching only after modification.

As a cross-linking agent is suitable, for example, at least bifunctional crosslinking agents that are as functional groups have an element of gelegenheden, glycidyl, aziridine or isocyanate or a halogen atom. Suitable crosslinking agents include, for example, epichlorhydrin, such as, for example, epichlorohydrin or α, ω - or vicinal dichloramine, for example 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,4-dichlorobutane and 1.6-dichlorohexane.

Particularly suitable for carrying out this invention are cross-linking agents that can be derived from at least diatomic alcohols. Examples include glycerol, ethoxylated or p is amoxilonline glycerine, polyglyceryl having from 2 to 15 elements of glycerol, ethoxylated and/or propoxycarbonyl polyglycine, and polyalkylene glycols. Suitable polyalkylene glycols are, for example, polyethylene glycol, polypropyleneglycol and polietilenglikoli and blockcopolymers based alkalisation having from 2 to 4 carbon atoms. The average molar masses (Mw) of the polyalkylene glycols are, in General, from 100 to 6000, preferably from 300 to 2000 g/mol.

Cross-linking agents can be obtained from a named, multi-functional alcohols by reacting with epichlorohydrin, which have at least two elements of chlorhydrin, and then by processing the grounds of α,ω-bis(epoxides). More details of such cross-linking agents describe, for example, in U.S. patent US 4144123 or German patent application DE-A 2916356. Simple α,ω-dichlorethene, such as, for example, α,ω-dichloromaleimide can be obtained from these multifunctional polyalkoxyalkyl according to the method described in European patent application EP-A 0025515.

Next are suitable crosslinking agents which contain blocked isocyanate groups, for example trimethylhexamethylenediamine blocked with 2,2,3,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4. Data cross-linking agents are known, for example, from German Savkina patent DE-A 4028285. Further suitable are containing elements of aziridine crosslinking agents based on polyethers or substituted hydrocarbons, for example 1,6-bis-N-aziridines.

Obviously, can also be used a mixture of several different cross-linking agents, presumably they mutually acceptable. Especially preferred as cross-linking agents are epichlohydrin, preferably epichlorohydrin, simple α,ω-bis-(chlorohydrin)polyalkylene glycol ether, α,ω-bis(epoxides) simple polyalkyleneglycol ether and/or a simple bis-glycidyloxy broadcast polyalkyleneglycol.

Crosslinking may occur by way known to the person skilled in the art. In General, the crosslinking occurs at a temperature of from 10 to 200°C., preferably from 30 to 100°C. the Interaction, as a rule, carried out at normal pressure. The reaction time depends containing amino polymers and cross-linking agents. In General, the duration of the reaction is from 0.5 to 20 hours, preferably from 1 to 10 hours. The stitching is done, in General, in aqueous solution.

The resulting product can be selected or directly, without phase separation, modify groups Z.

Methods of modification groups Z are known to the person skilled in the art and described, for example, in European patent application EP-A 490231 and international bid, medium, small the WO 97/40087.

Absolutely it is preferable in the case of applied polymer it comes to water-soluble polymers containing carboxyethylidene amino group. In particular, we can talk about karboksimetilirovaniya groups or karboksimetilirovaniya groups. They can be obtained, for example, by the fact that

a) water-soluble polymers containing amino groups, is subjected to interaction with at least one aldehyde and alkali cyanide or cyanhydrin formed from the aldehyde and alkali cyanide in aqueous solution (see, for example, international application WO 97/40087) or

b) water-soluble polymers containing amino groups, is subjected to the interaction with the α,β-unsaturated compounds according to the accession of Michael (see, for example, German patent application DE 4244194). Examples of suitable α,β-unsaturated compounds include monoethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, dimethacrylate acid, ethylacrylate acid, AllRussia acid, feniluksousna acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, taconova acid, metromanila acid, butyric acid, linolenic acid, but also vinylphosphonic acid and vinylsulfonic.

Preferably used polymers P, which is obtained by modifying polyvinyl is in and/or polyethylenimine.

Modified polymers P can be released after the modification and, if necessary, be purified. The modification is carried out, generally in aqueous solution, but may also apply the obtained polymer solution directly for the preparation of the fountain solution or concentrate fountain solution.

In the case of the solvent used for dampening solution, as a rule, we are talking about water. But, moreover, the hydrating solution may contain more organic, mixed with water, the solvents. When this is used, in particular, monatomic or polyhydric low molecular weight alcohols as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, glycols or simple glycol ethers or glycerol. The preferred organic compound is isopropanol.

The number of such additional solvents in the circulation of the fountain solution, however, should not exceed, as a rule, 30 wt.%, in the calculation of the total number of all used solvents. The concentrate may also have, if necessary, a higher part. A special advantage used according to the invention polymers is that part of the organic components, that is, first of all, isopropanol, can significantly be reduced compared with the prior art. Preferably the amount of organic races is varicela is less than 15 wt.%, in the calculation of the total number of all used solvents. In particular, the amount of volatile organic solvents with a boiling point of not more than 100°C. is less than 10 wt.%.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention a portion of the isopropanol is less than 10%, particularly preferably less than 5 wt.%, quite preferably less than 4 wt.% and, for example, about 3 wt.%. In the following a preferred embodiment of the present invention are we talking about moisturizing solution that does not contain isopropanol.

But, of course, also possible to use mixtures of several different polymers R. Concentration used according to the invention polymers P in the fountain solution is determined by the person skilled in the art depending on the desired properties. The concentration is generally from 10 to 0.05 g/l, preferably from 5 to 0.1 g/l, particularly preferably from 2 to 0.2 g/L.

Preferably use only one or more polymers R. However, moreover, the hydrating solution may also contain other secondary polymers for fine adjustment of the properties. However, the number of such secondary polymers should not exceed, as a rule, 50 wt.%, preferably 20 wt.%, particularly preferably 10 wt.%, in the calculation of the total number of polymer used is. Preferably use only polymers R.

The choice of these secondary polymers are not limited to, presumably, the application does not entail any undesirable properties. Examples of suitable secondary polymers include gum Arabic, high molecular weight polyethylene, high molecular weight polypropylenglycol or mixed polymers of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The person skilled in the art makes a suitable choice among the possible polymers depending on the desired characteristics of the fountain solution.

Moreover, proposed according to the invention hydrating solution may include conventional additives and additives.

Called here, in particular, a conventional buffer systems to adjust the desired pH values. Examples include a fundamentally known manner of a weak acid, organic carboxylic acids, hydroxycarbonate acid or phosphoric acid in a mixture with salts of alkali metals, water-soluble amines or aminoalcohols.

The pH value of the fountain solution used is generally from 3 to 9.

Examples the following additives and additives include

- surfactants and long-chain alcohols or diols to reduce surface tension;

- glycols, simple glycol ester and/or glycerin;

- protivostala ately to reduce foaming, caused by surfactants or other components;

- biocides to inhibit or prevent exposure to fungi, bacteria or yeast;

- corrosion inhibitors to prevent corrosion on metallic materials;

the complexing agents to avoid deposition or depositions of calcium salts or magnesium;

accelerator drying;

- soljubilizatory from the group kilocalorie or kamalalawalu.

The person skilled in the art makes a suitable choice among the additives and auxiliary substances, depending on the desired characteristics of the fountain solution.

Receipt of the fountain solution can occur in a simple way by intensive mixing of the components in the solvent. Preferably, first get the concentrate of the fountain solution, which only later, in particular just before use, dilute with water and, if necessary, isopropanol prior to concentration. Fountain solution is applied according to the invention in the usual ways of offset printing. Conventional methods of offset printing include, as a rule, at least the following stages:

- installation of offset printing plates on the plate cylinder,

- translation of the plate cylinder during the rotation,

- the transfer of dampening solution with moisturizing ro-ro VA the ICA on the printing plate,

- transfer printing ink using the colorful roller on the printing plate,

- the transfer of printing ink from the printing plate on a rotating concerning printing plates offset cylinder

- the transfer of printing ink from the printing cylinder to print media conducted through the plate cylinder related to it.

Speech can go about printing sheet and web offset printing. Especially preferred is the proposed method for hydrating apparatus, which, as a rule, prone to the formation of foam. They are, for example, so-called brush moistening apparatus or centrifugal moisturizing apparatus, such as that commonly used to print Newspapers, Golden set.

Fountain solution can be obtained in advance, if necessary, through the concentrate of the fountain solution, and then injected into the circulation of the fountain solution; however, it can also add one or more polymers (P) are already filled the circulation of the fountain solution, preferably in the form of the fountain solution concentrate.

Proposed according to the invention the use of the modified, containing amino groups, polymers P leads to a noticeable improvement. Plates already at much lower flow reliably wetted, so that you can clearly reduce n is the running of the paper at the start of printing or after the interruption.

These polymers can be prepared, in particular, of the fountain solution concentrates without difficulty. They do not have any foam or instabilities properties. The water window is larger than that adopted in the trade polymer; this ensures a high reliability of the products. The polymers P behave inert relative to the printing areas of the printing plate. However, ensured high mass stability plate.

The following examples illustrate in more detail the invention.

For testing use of the fountain solution concentrate of the following composition:

ComponentsAmount [wt.%]Reduction
Polymer solution (40%solution in water)5,0that is, a 2.0% polymer
Citric acid2,0
The trisodium citrate3,2
Glycerin3,0
Biocide3,0
Wateris 83.8
Amount100,0

Example

Use a modified polymer obtained by the following method.

In chetyrehosnuju flask with a metal stirrer and reflux condenser under nitrogen atmosphere is placed 196 g polyethylenimine (anhydrous, Mw=25000 g/mol, Lupasol® WF, BASF AG) and diluted with 588 g of demineralized water up to 25%. With stirring, the mixture is heated to a temperature of 70°C and at this temperature continuously add 40 ml of a 22%aqueous solution of a crosslinking agent. Cross-linking agent is a product of the interaction of polyethylene glycol with an average molar mass 1500 with epichlorohydrin. After the final addition the mixture is stirred for 5 hours at 70°C. Then heated at a temperature of 80°C and at this temperature is added dropwise 263,2 g of acrylic acid for 3 hours. After completion of addition the solution is stirred further in the next 1 hour at a temperature of 80°C. After cooling, get a viscous solution is yellow-orange with a solids content of 42% (2 hours, the vacuum/120°C) and value (1% in water) 17.

The resulting solution is used without following cleaning to receive the deposits of the fountain solution concentrate.

Comparative example

Instead modified polyethylenimine as polymer used gum Arabic (Agum Z, the firm Eggen).

Concentrate fountain solution, respectively, received by intensive mixing of all components.

The polymer according to the example can easily be processed into concentrate. 't have any problems of solubility or compatibility.

In contrast to the same gum Arabic must swell in water and then diluted or should be applied relatively expensive "instant powder gum Arabic.

Test offset printing

Test printing is performed on the sheet offset printing machine Heidelberger Speedmaster 74 Z. as printing forms use usual in the trade generally accepted positive offset printing plate. Type usual in the trade inks red (K+E Novavit® 2 F 700 Magenta). The amount of the fountain solution (dampening solution) is determined in the usual way through the rotation speed of the moisturizing of the fountain roller. Specifies the number is in relative units (the position of the potentiometer 0 - no rotation moisturizing rolling roller moisturizing apparatus 100 is the maximum variable speed). The higher the value, the more dampening solution neocitran of the plate cylinder.

Hydrating solutions obtained from the above concentrates according to the following structure:

ComponentsNumber, wt.%
Concentrate fountain solution3
Isopropanol3
Water, 8°d94
Amount100

Definition of lower boundary the water window (the so-called "free motion")

First, define the lower boundary of the water window, thus, the minimum quantity of dampening solution, which is necessary to the hydrophilic areas of offset printing plates were specialise so well that they did not take any of printing ink, and thus it was possible for proper printing.

Adjustment of the moistening device (potentiometer position)
Example17
Comparative example29

It is seen that proposed according to the invention wvla the sequence of the solution with the derived polyethylenimine causes a stable water film on the plate already with a much lower water content, than the fountain solution according to the prior art with the use of gum Arabic.

The water content of the plate in water

In the test printing change the amount of water in the paint, i.e. hydrophobic regions, as well as on the plate, i.e. in the hydrophilic regions. Values measured by the so-called equipment Graphometronic. It registers the content of water in relation to the standard of using NIR (laser operating in the near infrared region of the spectrum).

Used for testing of offset printing plates have areas with high adoption of paint, and areas with a low acceptance of paint. "The zone of high adoption paint" means that in this area the part of the printing surface is relatively large, and some napechatala surfaces is relatively small. In contrast, in areas of low adoption of paint in this area part of the printing surface is relatively small, and some napechatala surfaces is relatively high.

Define, respectively, the water content of the print areas in areas of high, and in areas of low adoption of paint. In addition, determine the water content in napechatala areas on the plate next to the printing areas with high adoption of paint and low adoption of paint.

The aim of the composition of the fountain solution is already at a low position sweaty is iometer is to achieve a concentration of water enough for free movement in napechatala areas, also, if they are surrounded by zones of high distribution of ink.

In those areas of the printing form, in which the low distribution of ink are adjacent to large nepechatki areas, there is a slight peremarkirovana paint; along with the loss of stickiness and viscosity is expressed in the loss of intensity of color. In this experiment does not give any indication of the loss of intensity of the color at the high position of the potentiometer.

The results of the measurements made, in particular, in tables 1 and 2.

Table 1
An example of measurement results
Yield : /tilt potentiometer [relative units]The concentration of water in comparison with levelThe density of the full print
Print area
Zones of high adoption paint
Napechatala area
Zones of high adoption paint
Print area
Low adoption paint
Napechatala area
Low adoption paint
Zone in the high adoption paint Low adoption paint
1713,88,8208,41,631,65
2015,111,122,3101,641,63
2316,413,124,412,11,611,59
2617,714,126,513,81,641,55
291914,628,615,31,651,54

Table 2
A comparative example of the measurement results
Yield : /tilt potentiometer [consider the performance communications unit] The concentration of water in comparison with levelThe density of the full print
Print area
Zones of high adoption paint
Napechatala area
Zones of high adoption paint
Print area
Low adoption paint
Napechatala area
Low adoption paint
Zones of high adoption paintLow adoption paint
29138,4to 19.9101,651,61
3215,213,622,6the 13.41,671,60
3516,316,426of 17.51,631,59
3817,417,828,4 19,71,651,53
4118,618,531,5of 21.91,631,52

As an example and the comparative example shows a typical trend that with increasing water content is also a large amount of water in the paint and on the plate can be determined using Graphometronic.

In this case, the water content has not been further increased after the full printing density fell below the value of about 1.6 or of 1.52. At higher values of water affected by the violation of ink transfer on the basis of too high a part of the water in the paint.

When proposed according to the invention the application of the polymers P are already at low water availability get the required amount of water on napechatala areas of the plate (an example of 8.8 at regulation 17 and comparative example 8,4 when adjusting 29), which is necessary for the "free movement" of the plate. Thus, the polymer can produce a stable film on the plate also with a low water content.

The printing areas with high distribution of colors in the example, as in the comparative example, the same amount of water in the paint, and also compares the full density is printed.

In areas of low water availability, on the contrary, a large amount of water on the plate (napechatala areas), as well as in the paint, resulting in a large loss of full density printing.

For a printer is important, relative to the original value (adjustable by potentiometer) to have wide water window. In the case of the example, the size of the water box 70%, based on the original value, in the case of comparative example exclusively 40%.

1. The use of polymers as a moisturizing agent to obtain moisturizing solutions or concentrates moisturizing solutions for offset printing, and the wetting agent is at least one polymer P, which is a product of the interaction of polyethylenimine with a crosslinking agent obtained by the interaction of polyalkyleneglycol with a molecular mass of from 100 to 6000 with epichlorohydrin, and acrylic acid and containing amino groups, modified by a group-CH2CH2COOH and/or its salts.

2. The use of polymers as additives for circulation of the fountain solution for offset printing, and the additive is at least one polymer P, which is a product of the interaction of polyethylenimine with a crosslinking agent obtained by the interaction of polyalkyleneglycol with a molecular mass of from 100 to 6000 with epichlorohydrin, the acrylic acid and containing amino groups, modified group-CH2CH2COOH and/or its salts.

3. The use according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the portion of the volatile organic solvents with a boiling point of not more than 100°C in dampening solution is less than 15 wt.%.

4. A method of printing using offset technology, which includes at least the following stages:
mounting offset printing plate on a plate cylinder,
moving the plate cylinder during the rotation,
the transfer of dampening solution with moisturizing rolling the roller on the printing plate,
the transfer of printing ink with colorful roller on the printing plate,
the transfer of printing ink from the printing plate on a rotating concerning printing plates offset cylinder,
the transfer of printing ink from the printing cylinder to print media conducted through the plate cylinder related to it, characterized in that the fountain solution contains at least water and at least one polymer P, which is a product of the interaction of polyethylenimine with a crosslinking agent obtained by the interaction of polyalkyleneglycol with a molecular mass of from 100 to 6000 with epichlorohydrin, and acrylic acid and containing amino groups, modified by a group-CH2CH2COOH and/or its salts.

5. The method according to claim 4, otlichalis the same time, what part of volatile organic solvents with a boiling point of not more than 100°C in dampening solution is less than 15 wt.%.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that in the beginning a concentrate of the fountain solution that contains a polymer P, and from him by dilution receive a hydrating solution.

7. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the polymer P is dissolved directly in the circulation of the fountain solution.



 

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2 tbl, 2 ex

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