Catalyst, method of its preparation and method of methane oxidation
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to complete methane oxidation catalysts and can be used in industries using diesel fuel. Invention covers complete methane oxidation catalysts based on strontium hexaferrites of the following composition: SrMnxFe12-xO19, where x=0, 1, 2, 6. Proposed method comprises settling catalyst components with the help of NH4HCO3 solution at constant pH equal to (7.1 to 8.0) and temperature not lower than 70°C with subsequent stages of filtration, rinsing, drying and roasting. Proposed method comprises also the stage of heat treatment at 800° to 1000° C and is realised in the presence of above described catalysts.
EFFECT: high degree of methane conversion at relatively low temperatures.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 14 ex
The invention relates to catalysts for complete oxidation of methane and the method of their derivation to protect the environment from pollution due to untreated emissions of various enterprises, characterized by high activity and thermal stability.
Today proved to be catalytic method for the neutralization of various gas emissions production, containing carbon monoxide, flue gases, hydrocarbons, including methane, and other components.
In recent years, developed processes for the catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons, which have found industrial application in the form of chemical heaters, catalytic combustors, catalytic converters and volatile organic compounds, etc. [R.Kikuchi, Y.Tanaka, K.Sasaki, K.Eguchi, High temperature catalytic combustion of methane and propane over hexaaluminate catalysts: NOxemission characteristics. Catal. Today 23 (2003) 223-231], which are carried out in the presence of heat-resistant catalysts.
Among the various hydrocarbon oxidation of methane has received increased attention as the most clean way of producing energy without any harmful emissions of CO, NOxand unburned hydrocarbons [J.Wang, Zh.Tian, J.Xu, Yu.Xu, Zh.Xu, L.Lin, Preparation of Mn substituted La-hexaaluminate catalysts by using supercritical drying. Catal. Today 23 (2003) 213-222]. The inert nature of methane requires for its oxidation regard is sustained fashion high temperatures. In addition, for post-combustion gas effluent containing low concentrations of CH4also require the active catalyst, since the reaction of methane oxidation is highly exothermic [V.V.Alegre, M.A.P. da Silva, M.Schmal Catalytic combustion of methane over palladium alumina modified by niobia. Catal. Commun. 7 (2006) 314-322] and proceeds according to the equation:
CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O; ΔH298=-802,7 kJ/mol.
Therefore, one of the main problems in the development of catalytic oxidation of methane is the search for suitable catalysts having high activity and high thermal stability (800-1000°C).
It is known [P.Artizzu-Duart, J.M.Millet, N.Guilhaume, E.Garbowski, M.Primet, Catalytic combustion of methane on substituted barium hexaaluminates. Catal. Today 59 (2000) 163-177}that system on the basis of Mn(Fe)-substituted exalumnos characterized by high thermal stability, due to their unique layered structure [G.Groppi, C.Cristiani, P.Forzatti, Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of pure and substituted La-hexaaluminate systems for high temperature catalytic combustion. Appl. Catal. B.35 (2001) 137-148; US 7442669, B01J 23/00, C01F 7/02, 28.10.2008], are widely used in the oxidation of methane. Among one-deputizing of exalumnos BaMAl11O19(M=Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni), according to [L. Lietti, C.Cristiani, G.Groppi, P.Forzatti, Preparation, characterization and reactivity of Me-hexaaluminate (Me=Mn, Co, Fe, Ni, Cr) catalysts in the catalytic combustion of NH3-containing gasified biomasses. Catal. Today 59 (2000) 191-204}, the most active are Fe - and Mn-content is Asia samples. The conversion of methane at these catalysts begins at a temperature of 550-600°C and the temperature at which achieved 50% conversion is 700°C. Reactivity Co-, Cr - and Ni-substituted exalumnos somewhat lower. Since the Mn - and Fe-containing sexuality are characterized by a higher activity in the oxidation of methane, they devoted more research. Comparison of temperatures, corresponding to 50% conversion of methane at different exhalent showed (table 1), which is more active BaMn3Al9O19for which T50is 560°C. Thus, the catalysts based on substituted exalumnos allow to oxidize methane, however, the temperature corresponding to 50% conversion, changes within 560-776°C.
To reduce these temperatures the conversion of methane may be of interest-based system of hexaferrite alkaline earth elements - MFe12O19(M=Ca, Sr, Ba).
Closest to the claimed technical essence is a catalyst for the oxidation of methane-based hexaferrite barium, described in [G.Groppi, C.Cristiani, P.Forzatti, BaFexAl12-xO19system for high temperature catalytic combustion: physico-chemical characterization and catalytic activity. J. Catal. 168 (1997) 95-103].
|Activity exalumnos in the oxidation of methane.|
|BaAl12O19||810||G.Groppi, M.Bellotto, C.Cristiani, P.Forzatti, P.L.Villa, Preparation and characterization of hexaaluminate-based materials for catalytic combustion. Appl. Catal. And 104 (1993) 101-108.|
|BaAl12O19||770||P.Artizzu-Duart, J.M.Millet, N.Guilhaume, E.Garbowski, M.Primet Catalytic combustion of methane on substituted barium hexaaluminates. Catal. Today 59 (2000) 163-177.|
|LaFeAl11O19||702||X.Ren, J.Zheng, Y.Song, P.Liu, Catalytic properties of Fe and Mn modified lanthanum and should be hexaaluminates for catalytic combustion of methane. Catal. Commun. 9 (2008) 807-810.|
The catalyst was prepared by deposition of nitrate salts of barium and iron in an aqueous solution of (NH4)2CO3at pH 7.5 and a temperature of 60°C. Precipitates obtained after filtration and washing, was dried at 110°C. the Dried samples were progulivali at 500, 700, 900, 1000°C. One of the characteristics of the catalyst is the value of specific surface area for the catalyst calcined at 700°C, it is 7.5 m2/g, and the catalyst calcined at 900°C - 5.0 m2/year
Catalytic activity was determined in the mode light is off and characterized by the temperature (T50and T90), in which the conversion of methane is 50 and 90%, respectively. The reaction mixture containing: CH4/sub> - 1 vol.%, the rest of the air was passed at a pressure equal to 1 ATM., and flow rate equal 48000 h-1through the catalyst bed, the volume of which was 0.5 cm3ratio Vcat./Vinert=2 (as the inert diluent used quartz). Catalyst BaFe12O19, calcined at 700°C, T50=533°, T90=600°C., the temperature of annealing up to 900°C resulted in the decrease of activity: T50=575°, T90=649°C.
The disadvantage of this catalyst is relatively low activity in the oxidation of methane, possibly due to the relatively low value of specific surface area. In addition, because the process of oxidation of methane in water is formed, it can influence the catalytic properties of the catalyst, however, no evidence of such effects. Of particular interest are the results of testing catalysts in less concentrated methane gas mixtures, since the concentration of methane emissions from different companies does not exceed 0,1÷0,5 vol.%, however, as noted above, for the oxidation of methane in such concentrations require more active catalysts.
The invention solves the problem of obtaining an active catalyst for the oxidation of methane to reduce temperatures that meet suitable the m degrees of methane conversion.
The problem is solved by using a catalyst based hexaferrite strontium composition: SrMnxFe12-xO19where: x=0, 1, 2, 6.
The task is also solved by a method of preparation of the catalyst, which is prepared by precipitation of a mixed solution of salts of strontium and iron and manganese, preferably nitric acid, taken in the right ratio, in an aqueous solution of NH4HCO3at a pH of 7.1 to 8.0 and a temperature of not lower than 70°C. with vigorous stirring, followed by maintaining the suspension for a specified time under specified conditions. After that, the precipitate is filtered and washed with distilled water, dried in air, then at 110-120°C for 12-14 h, and then calcined at 700÷900°C.
The calcined catalyst is subjected to additional heat treatment - heat ageing at a temperature of 800-1000°C in a mixture containing not more than 10 vol.% H2O, rest nitrogen, for 14-16 hours
The task is also solved by way of the oxidation of methane concentration in the reaction mixture is not higher than 0.1 vol.%, in the presence of the above catalyst.
Distinctive features of the proposed catalyst and method of its preparation are:
1. The composition of the catalyst on the basis of hexaferrite strontium - SrMnxFe12-xO19where: x=0, 1, 2, 6.
2. The method of preparation of the catalyst including deposition of its components in an aqueous solution of NH 4HCO3and temperature of not lower than 70°C, providing the catalyst with the higher value of specific surface area: catalyst, calcined at 700°C, is characterized by a specific surface equal to 30÷60 m2/so
4. A method of producing a catalyst, comprising a stage heat "aging" at 800-1000°C in a gas mixture containing not more than 10 vol.% H2O nitrogen for 14-16 hours
5. Method of methane oxidation in the presence of the above catalyst, the methane concentration in the reaction mixture is not more than 0.1 vol.%.
The essence of the invention illustrated in figures 1, 2, 3 and the following examples, showing activity change (temperature achieving the appropriate degree of conversion of methane) depending on the catalyst composition, method of its preparation and thermal "aging", when the methane concentration in the reaction mixture, 0.1%vol.
The main characteristics of the catalysts and the temperature corresponding to the corresponding values of methane conversion, are shown in table 2.
Figure 1 shows the diffraction patterns of Sr-Fe-O sample, different processing temperatures.
Figure 2 presents theoretical diffraction pattern of hexaferrite strontium.
Figure 3 presents the IR spectra of Sr-Fe-O sample calcined at different temperatures.
According to XRD (Figure 1) specimen is, calcined at 700° (example 1), containing mainly phase SrCO3and Fe2O3; in the samples promoted with manganese, is also the phase Mn2O3. The increase of treatment temperature to 900°C. (example 2) promotes crystallization phase hexaferrite - SrFe12O19(Figure 1) and the decline in the share of excess phases: α-Fe2O3, Mn2O3when this phase strontium carbonate disappears completely.
Comparison of theoretical [K.Kimura, M.Ohgaki, K.Tanaka, H.Morikawa, F.Marumo // J.Solid State Chem. 87 (1990) 186] and experimental diffraction patterns (Figure 1 and 2) shows that the annealing of the samples at 900°C leads to the formation of phase hexaferrite strontium - SrFe12O19. For the dominant phase of hexaferrite parameters are equal: a=5.88,=22.99 Å, which coincides with tabular data: a=5.886,=23.03 (ICDD PDF-2, [00-33-1340]).
To identify the phase composition of the samples calcined at 700°C. (example 1), was applied the method of IR-spectroscopy in the frequency range 250-2000 cm-1. According to the results (Figure 3), the IR spectrum of the sample calcined at 900°C. (example 2), there are PP, 304, 359, 396, 438, 548, 591 and 779 cm-1related to the phase SrFe12O19[Wen-Yu Zhao, Ping Wei, Hai-Bin Cheng, Xin-Feng Tang, and Qing-Jie Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90 (7) (2007) 2095; J.Jiang, L.Ai, L.Li, J. Phys. Chem. In 113 (2009) 1376], and low intensity PP, 377, 458 and 799 cm-1typical α-Fe2O3[ENU the Marchenko that ğthe Gnesta, Say. Vibrational spectra of inorganic compounds. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1981 p.52; Onari S, Ari T., Kudo K. Phys. Rev., 16 (1977) 1717]. Thus, the obtained results are consistent with the results of phase analysis, according to which the sample contains phase SrFe12O19and α-Fe2O3.
Testing of catalysts in the oxidation of methane is carried out in conditions termoregulirovanija increasing the reaction temperature (light-off test) from 100 to 625°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min. the Reaction mixture, vol.%: CH4- 0.1, O2- 20, Ne - 0.5, He - balance, is passed at a speed of 30 l/h through the catalyst bed, which amounts to 0.6 cm3, fractional composition of 0.25-0.50 mm with flow rate equal to 50000 h-1. Analysis of the reaction gas mixture is performed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Stanford Research Systems, QMS 200 Gas Analyzer).
Examples 1-7 illustrate the composition and method of preparation of catalysts on the basis of strontium hexaferrite, the oxidation reaction of methane is carried out in the mode light-off from 100 to 625°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min
Examples 8-14 illustrate thermal aging of catalysts on the basis of hexaferrite at 800-1000°C in reaction mixtures containing not more than 10 vol.% H2Oh, rest nitrogen, within 14÷16 PM
In the reactor, placed in a thermostat, the hall is live 600 ml of distilled water, set the pH meter and include the heating of the reactor and the stirrer; when the temperature reaches 70°C in the reactor dispense a mixed solution of nitric acid salts of strontium and iron, containing 4.9 g of SrO and 45.1 g of Fe2O3with a speed of 30 ml/min, while adding 395 ml NH4HCO3to maintain the pH of the deposition, is equal to 7.5. The resulting suspension is maintained at these conditions for 2 h, then filtered and washed with distilled water. The precipitate is dried in air, then at 110°C for 12-14 h, after which he progulivali at 700°C for 4 h the resulting catalyst composition SrFe12O19corresponding to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 1, the difference is that the catalyst calcined at 900°C for 4 h the resulting catalyst composition SrFe12O19corresponding to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 1, the difference is that in the reactor dispense a mixed solution of nitric acid salts of strontium, manganese and iron containing 4.9 g of SrO, 3.7 g Mn2O3and 41.4 g of Fe2O3. The resulting catalyst composition SrMnFe10O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 1, the difference is that in the reactor dispense the mixed solution and otacilia salts of strontium, manganese and iron containing 4.9 g of SrO, 7.5 g Mn2O3and 37.6 g of Fe2O3. The resulting catalyst composition SrMn2Fe10O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 1, the difference is that in the reactor dispense a mixed solution of nitric acid salts of strontium, manganese and iron containing 4.9 g of SrO, 22.5 g Mn2O3and 22.6 g of Fe2O3. The resulting catalyst composition SrMn6Fe6O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 1, the difference is that in the reactor dispense a mixed solution of nitric acid salts of strontium, manganese, iron and aluminium, containing 5.2 g of SrO, 23.7 g Mn2O3, 16.0 g of Fe2O3and 5.1 g of Al2O3. The resulting catalyst composition SrMn6Fe4Al2O19corresponding substituted manganese, aluminium hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 1, the difference is that in the reactor dispense a mixed solution of nitric acid salts of strontium, manganese and aluminum containing 6.7 g of SrO, 10.3 g Mn2O3and 33.0 g of Al2O3. The catalyst of comparison composition SrMn2Al10O19corresponding substituted manganese to exhalent strontium.
is nological example 1, the difference is that the calcined catalyst composition SrFe12O19was aged at 800°C in a reaction mixture containing 10 vol.% H2O, rest nitrogen, for 16 hours
Similar to example 8, the difference lies in the fact that he was aged calcined catalyst composition SrMnFe11O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 9, the difference lies in the fact that thermal aging was carried out at 1000°C in a reaction mixture containing 10 vol.% H2O, rest nitrogen for 14 hours
Similar to example 8, the difference lies in the fact that he was aged catalyst composition SrMn2Fe10O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 8, the difference lies in the fact that he was aged catalyst composition SrMn6Fe6O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 8, the difference lies in the fact that he was aged catalyst composition SrMn6Fe4Al2O19corresponding substituted manganese to hexaferrite strontium.
Similar to example 8, the difference lies in the fact that he was aged catalyst comparison composition SrMn2Al10O19corresponding substituted mA what Ganz exhalent strontium.
Indicators of methane oxidation in all examples shown in table 2.
As seen from the above examples and tables, the proposed catalysts allow to solve the problem of the effective oxidation of methane at its concentration in the reaction mixture, equal to 0.1 vol.%: the use of strontium hexaferrite as unsubstituted and substituted manganese can reduce the temperature in accordance with the relevant degrees of methane conversion of about 100°C, compared with substituted manganese by exalumnos strontium. The temperature of calcination hexaferrite strontium up to 900°C leads to decreased activity in the oxidation of methane, but it remains higher than the catalyst of comparison, calcined at 700°C. Even large differences in activity observed at the proposed catalysts and catalysts comparison after thermal ageing at 800-1000°C in a mixture containing water vapor, for 14-16 hours
1. The catalyst for the oxidation of methane containing metal oxides II, III, and VIII groups of the Periodic system, characterized in that it is a composition based hexaferrite strontium composition: SrMnxFe12-xO19where x=0, 1, 2, 6.
2. The preparation method of catalyst for the oxidation of methane containing metal oxides II, III, and VIII groups of the Periodic system, academies subsequent stages of filtration washing, drying and calcination, wherein it is prepared by precipitation of a mixed solution of salts Sr, Mn and Fe at constant pH values of 7.1 to 8.0 and a temperature not lower than 70°C in an aqueous solution of NH4HCO will get a composition based hexaferrite composition: SrMxFe12-xO19where x=0, 1, 2, 6.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the annealing is carried out at a temperature of 700-900°C.
4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the calcined catalyst is subjected to additional heat treatment at 800-1000°C.
5. Method of methane oxidation in the presence of a catalyst, characterized in that it is carried out in the presence of a catalyst according to claim 1 or prepared according to claim 2 to 4.
6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the concentration of methane in the reaction mixture is not higher than 0.1 vol.%.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polyolefin synthesis method and more specifically to a polyethylene synthesis method. Polyethylene is a copolymer of ethylene with 1-alkenes. The invention also relates to polyethylene synthesis catalyst systems. The catalyst system is a mixture of metallocenes: hafnocene and an iron-based complex, an activating compound and a support. The invention also relates to films made from polyethylene and packets made from the said films.
EFFECT: disclosed catalyst system enables production of polyethylene with given molecular weight distribution in a single reactor.
16 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing iron (II) oxalate by directly reacting metal with acid in the presence of atmospheric oxygen and a liquid phase while stirring. The process is carried out in a bead mill. The liquid phase solvent used is water with mass ratio of the liquid phase to glass beads equal to 1:1, content of oxalic acid in the initial load is between 0.5 and 2.0 mol/kg, and content of stimulating sodium chloride additive is between 0.02 and 0.10 mol/kg. Crushed grey cast iron which is stirred by a blade mixer is taken in amount of 30% of the mass of the rest of the load. The process is started and carried out at temperature in the interval from (50±2) to (93±2)°C while bubbling air under conditions for stabilising temperature using a heated liquid bath and controlling using a sample taking method and determination of content of iron (II) and (III) salts in the samples, and residual quantity of acid up to virtually complete conversion of the latter into salt. After that air bubbling, external heat supply for stabilising temperature and stirring are stopped. The suspension of the reaction mixture is separated from the glass beads and particles of unreacted metal alloy and filtered. The filtration residue is washed with distilled water and taken for further purification through recrystallisation, while the filtrate and the washing water are returned to the load for the repeated process. Iron (II) oxalate, which is separated from the reaction mixture by traditional filtering, is virtually the only product of conversion.
EFFECT: liquid phase used together with the sodium chloride additive can be repeatedly returned to the process.
10 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: iron (II) fumarate can be used in different fields of chemical practice, in analytical control and in scientific research, through direct reaction of iron with fumaric acid in the presence of a catalyst, where the catalyst used is molecular iodine in amount of 0.025 to 0.1 mol/kg of the initial load, iron is taken in large excess in form of shells on the entire height of the reactor, false bottom and blade mixer, as well as in form of crushed cast iron and(or) reduced iron powder, the liquid phase solvent used is butylacetate, in which iodine and fumaric acid are at least partially dissolved, where fumaric acid is taken in amount of 0.8 to 1.2 mol/kg of the initial load, loading is done in the sequence: glass beads, liquid phase solvent, fumaric acid, iodine, and then crushed cast iron and(or) reduced iron powder; the process is started at room temperature and is carried out in a vertical type bead mill with ratio of mass of beads to mass of crushed cast iron and(or) reduced iron powder equal to 4:1, at temperature ranging from 18 to 45°C while bubbling air with flow rate of 0.95 l/min-kg of the liquid phase and using forced cooling and controlling using a sampling method until complete exhaustion of the loaded acid for formation of salt, after which stirring and cooling are stopped, the reaction mixture is separated from glass beads and unreacted crushed cast iron and(or) reduced iron powder and filtered, the residue is washed with butylacetate and taken for recrystallisation, and the filtrate and washing butylacetate are returned to the repeated process. Amount of acid used in extracting the product (without loss during purification) ranges from 89 to 96.5%, which depends on conditions for carrying out the process.
EFFECT: improved method of producing said product.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to coordination chemistry: specifically, to improved method of producing heterometal neodymium (III) and iron (III) malate of formula 1 to be used for synthesis of mixed oxides of perovskite composition. . Method is enabled by electrolysis of concentrated aqueous solution of neodymium (III) nitrate and malic acid in ratio 1:3 with pyridine or lithium perchlorate with anode added, pressed from recovered iron, and inert cathode from graphite with using pulse current of variable porosity. Thereafter the solution is evaporated with precipitation then washed with ethanol and dried.
EFFECT: method is cost-effective, controlled and productive.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: as catalyst substituted iron phthalocyanines of general formula ,
where R=[CH2N+(CH3)2CH2CH2OH]Cl-, L=(CH3)2NCH2CH2OH (I);
R=[CH2N+(CH3)2CH2CH2N(CH3)2]Cl-, L=(CH3)2NCH2CH2N(CH3)2 (III);
are used. Oxychlorination is carried out with mixture of H2O2 and HCl in water-alcohol medium in presence of suggested catalyst.
EFFECT: simplification of technology of obtaining chlor-derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons with good yield and quality of product.
2 cl, 19 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns improved method of obtaining mevalonic acid derivatives of the general formula I or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt with base, or lactone, where -CH2-CH2- or -CH=CH-, R is heterocyclical residual of interaction of compound of the general formula IIa , where R1, R2, R3, R4 meanings are described in the invention, with compound of the general formula IIb: R-CH(=O) where R is cyclical residual. Obtained compound is recovered in the presence of recovery agent, preferably a compound of the formula IId , where M is Ru, Rh, Ir, Fe, Co, Ni, L1 - H, L2 - aryl, R5 is aliphatic residual, R8 and R9 are C6H5 or form cyclohexane ring or cyclohexane or cyclopentane ring combined with C atom, to which they are bound, with a number of further stages.
EFFECT: high product output.
4 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: salts of iron and organic acid producing processes, namely production of salt of iron (III) and acetic acid.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized by relation of metallic iron with acetic acid at presence of oxidizing agent; using molecular iodine, iron oxides such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and oxygen of air as oxidizing agent for converting impurity of iron (II) acetate to basic iron (III) acetate. Process is performed in beads mill at temperature 80°Cand at mass relation of liquid charge and glass beads 1 : 1. Iron is used in the form of shell abutted to lateral surface of reactor housing. Initial molar relation of iron oxide and iodine is 10 : 1. Molar relation of acetic acid, its anhydride and iron oxide is in range 100 : (2 - 5.99) : (2 - 2.5). In time moment of practically complete consumption of iron oxide, solid phase of reaction mixture is taken off by filtering. Simultaneously consumed reagents are replenished and filtrate is returned to reactor for repeating process. Number of processes to be repeated is no more than 5. At second stage residues of iron (II) salt are after-oxidized to basic iron (III) acetate due to drying up taken off solid phase of product in filter by means of blowing air at environmental temperature. Preferably, hematite, γ-oxide or minimum is used as Fe2 O 3 and magnetite and Fe3O4 x 4H2Ois used asFe3 O4.
EFFECT: simplified process, usage of available reagents.
3 cl, 9 notes, 2 tbl
FIELD: coordination compound chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of complexes of iron with salicylic acid suitable for use in a variety of technical areas and in medicine. Title complex is obtained via interaction of metal with acid using air oxygen as oxidant. Salicylic acid is used in butyl acetate or n-butyl alcohol solution with dissolved molecular iodine or potassium iodide. Iron is provided in the form of steel or cast iron shell, shaft, and blade of mechanical mixer as well as, agitated by the mixer, reduced iron powder fractions, broken cast iron or broken steel cuttings, cast iron or steel filings. Process is carried out at stirring with high-speed mechanical stirrer and air bubbling allowing self-heating of reaction mixture to 70-80°C until 1.72-1.85 mole/kg iron compounds is accumulated in reaction mixture in the form of suspension, whereupon mixing is stopped. Suspension is freed of unreacted fine iron and/or alloy(s) thereof and subjected to hot filtration, Filtrate is warmed to eliminate precipitated solid phase and then slowly cooled to ambient temperature. Precipitated solid phase is filtered off, dried, and recrystallized, while filtrate is recycled.
EFFECT: improved technology required only accessible starting materials and increased yield of desired product.
2 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: technology of production of iron and salicylic acid complexes used in various fields of engineering and medicine.
SUBSTANCE: proposed iron (III) complex with three anions of salicylic acid is produced due to interaction of iron and its alloys with salicylic acid dissolved in dimethyl formamide in vertical bead-type mill provided with high-speed mechanical blade-type agitator at bubbling of air and spontaneous heating of reaction mixture to 80-90C. Iron is presented in form of steel or cast-iron ferrule over entire height of bead-type mill, steel shaft and blade of mechanical agitator, as well as in form of iron powder, fraction of broken cast iron, broken steel chips or cast-iron shot. Process is completed at accumulation of iron salts in reaction mixture of 1.12-1.30 mole/kg; 95% of these salts are in target compounds of iron (III). Hot suspension is filtered immediately and filtrate is cooled down for crystallization of main mass of iron (III) complex. Precipitated product is filtered and is directed for re-crystallization, if necessary. Filtrate is returned for repeated process.
EFFECT: updated technology; high yield of product.
FIELD: medicine, pharmacy.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes water-soluble iron-carbohydrate complexes containing 10-40 wt.-% of iron. Complexes can be prepared from ferric (III) salt aqueous solution and oxidation product aqueous solution of one or more maltodextrins with hypochlorite aqueous solution at alkaline pH value. In using one maltodextrin its dextrose equivalent is from 5 to 20, and in using mixture of maltodextrins the dextrose equivalent is from 5 to 20 and dextrose equivalent of each maltodextrin as component of mixture is from 2 to 40. Also, invention describes a method for preparing this complex and medicinal agents used in treatment and prophylaxis of states associated with iron deficiency.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable medicinal properties of complexes.
15 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of the environment from toxic components of exhaust gases, and specifically to catalytic oxidation treatment of exhaust gases which contain hydrocarbons. The proposed catalyst which contains a noble metal and oxidised stainless steel also contains rhenium in amount of 0.05-0.25 wt % combined with platinum or palladium in the same concentration interval, and oxidised stainless steel constituting the remaining percentage. Reduction of platinum or palladium and rhenium with ammonia takes place at high temperature with their reaction with precursor compounds in accordance with the chemical equation: 3[Pt(NH3)4]Cl2+6NH4ReO4+6KOH→3Pt°+6Re°+8N2↑+2NH3↑+6KCl+30H2O.
EFFECT: given catalyst provides for high degree of purity at low temperatures, high thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at low cost.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the improved method for oxidising of aromatic hydrocarbon such as para-xylol, meta-xylol, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene or pseudocumene with forming of corresponding organic acid. The oxidation is implemented by the source of molecular oxygen in liquid phase at temperature range from 50°C to 250°C in the presence of catalyst being a) oxidation catalyst based on at least one heavy metal representing cobalt and one or more additive metals being selected from manganese, cerium, zirconium, titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, nickel and hafnium; b) bromine source; and c) unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The invention refers also to the catalytic system for obtaining of organic acid by the liquid-phase oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons representing: a) oxidation catalyst based on at least one heavy metal representing cobalt and one or more additive metals being selected from manganese, cerium, zirconium, titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, nickel and hafnium; b) bromine source; and c) unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
EFFECT: activation of the aromatic hydrocarbons oxidation increasing the yield of target products and allowing to decrease the catalyst concentration and the temperature of the process.
45 cl, 4 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to catalyst production, particularly to catalysts for making aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H2 (Fischer Tropsch synthesis). Described is a catalyst for producing aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H2, containing cobalt and two promoters on a carrier - aluminium oxide. The catalyst contains rhenium and a metal, chosen from a group consisting rhodium, palladium and platinum as promoters, taken in the following ratio, wt %: 0.5:(0.05-0.3) respectively.
EFFECT: increased activity and efficiency of the catalyst.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst. Oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst contains insertion metal hydride based on alloy including metal of VIII group and lanthanide with catalyst having response surface and monoatomic hydrogen thereon. Oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst contains insertion metal hydride based on alloy including metal of VIII group and metal of II group with catalyst having response surface and monatomic hydrogen thereon. Oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst contains: radio-frequency or microwave carrier/absorber; and catalytic active phase including insertion metal hydride. Catalytic active phase thereof retains and produces monatomic hydrogen form. Oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst contains: metal hydride with response surface; radio-frequency or microwave carrier/absorber; monatomic hydrogen on response surface; and at least one hydroprocessing component, cracking component and their combinations. Besides oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst includes catalyst combination under p.2, where insertion metal hydride is produced by reaction of hydrogen and metal alloy A2T, where general formula A2T represents: A2-xMxT1-yBy, where x=0.0-0.5; y=0.0-0.5; A=Mg; T = at least either Ni or Cu; M=La; B = at least either Fe or Co with catalyst under p. 1 in with insertion metal hydride is produced by reaction of hydrogen and metal alloy chosen from group including AT5 and A2T14B and their combinations, where general formula for AT5 represents A1-xMxT5-y-zByCz, where x=0.0-1.0; y=0.0-2.5; z=0.0-0.5; A=Mm (misch metal); T=Ni; M = at least either La, Pr, Nd or Ce; B=Co; C = at least either Mn, Al or Cr; and where general formula for catalyst A2T14B represents A2-xMxT14-yCyDzB, where x=0.0-2.0; y=0.0-14; z=0.0-3.0; A=Nd; T=Fe; M = at least either La, Pr or Ce; B=boron; C=Co; D = at least either Cr, Ni or Mn. Besides oil fraction hydroprocessing catalyst includes catalyst combination under p. 2, where metal hydride contains Mg(2.05) Ni(0.95) Cu(0.07) with catalyst under p.1 with metal hydride containing at least either Mm(1.1)Ni(4.22)CO(0.42)Al(0.15)Mn(0.15) and Nd(2.05)Dy(0.25)Fe(1.3)B(1.05), and their combinations.
EFFECT: production of new organic compound processing catalyst.
25 cl, 7 ex, 10 tbl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes contact of oil factions with catalyst, which contains hydride of embedding type of metal, having reaction surface, with obtaining mixture catalyst-oil fractions; supply of radio-frequency (RF) or microwave energy, at least, to one from catalyst and mixture catalyst-oil fractions; formation of single-atom hydrogen on reaction surface of hydride of embedding type of metal; and interaction of oil fractions with single-atom hydrogen. In other version method includes: contact of oil fractions with catalyst, containing hydride of embedding type of metal, which has reaction surface, with obtaining mixture catalyst-oil fractions; where hydride of metal of embedding type is obtained by introduction of hydrogen into metal alloy, selected from group consisting of 1) A1-xMxT5-y-zByCz, where x=0,0-1.0; y=0.0-2.5; z=0.0-0.5; A=Mm (mishmetal); T=Ni; M= at least one from La, Pr or Ce; B=Co; C= at least one from Mn, Al or Cr; 2) A2-xMxT14-yCyDzB, where x=0.0-2.0; y=0.0-14; z=0.0-3.0; A=Nd; T=Fe; M= at least one from La, Pr or Ce; B=boron; C=Co; D= at least one from Cr, Ni or Mn; 3) A2-xMxT1-yBy, where x=0.0-0.5; y=0.0-0.5; A=Mg; T= at least one from Ni or Cu; M=La; B= at least one from Fe or Co; and 4) their combinations; and supply of microwave or RF energy to, at least, one from catalyst and mixture catalyst-oil fractions. In third version method includes: contact of oil fraction with catalyst, containing hydride of embedding type of metal, which has reaction surface, forming single-atom hydrogen; and interaction of oil fractions with single-atom hydrogen; where hydride of metal of embedding type is obtained by introduction of hydrogen into metal alloy, selected from group consisting of 1) A1-xT5-y-zByCz, where x=0.0-1.0; y=0.0-2.5; z=0.0-0.5; A=Mm (mishmetal); T=Ni; M= at least one from La, Pr or Ce; B=Co; C= at least one from Mn, Al or Cr; 2) A2-xMxT14-yCyDzB, where x=0.0-2.0; y=0.0-14; z=0.0-3.0; A=Nd; T=Fe; M= at least one from La, Pr or Ce; B=boron; C=Co; D= at least one from Cr, Ni or Mn; 3) A2-xMxT1-yBy with x=0.0-0.5; y=0.0-0.5; A=Mg; T= at least one from Ni or Cu; M=La; B= at least one from Fe or Co; and 4) their combinations.
EFFECT: increase of method efficiency.
31 cl, 8 ex, 10 tbl, 13 dwg
FIELD: oxidation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption engineering and can be used for regeneration of different kinds of hopcalite lost catalytic activity during long-time storage. Regenerated sorbents can be used un respiratory masks and in processes or removing carbon monoxide from industrial emissions. Invention provides a method for activating carbon monoxide oxidation catalyst involving heat treatment thereof and characterized by that activation is conducted by heating catalyst bed 2-3 cm thick to 180-380°C at temperature rise velocity 10-20°C/min while constantly carrying away reactivation products.
EFFECT: enabled restoration of catalytic activity.
FIELD: oxidation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oxidation catalysts that can be, in particular, used for complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds into CO2 and H2O. Catalyst according to invention contains mixed copper, manganese, and lanthanum oxides, wherein metals can assume multiple oxidation states and whose chemical analysis expressed for metals in lowest oxidation states is the following: 35-40% CuO, 50-60% MnO, and 2-15% La2O3.
EFFECT: enhanced stable catalytic activity and resistance to caking.
11 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex