Steam gas plant with coal pyrolysis

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering. Steam gas plant with coal pyrolysis includes steam turbine unit, gas turbine unit, waste-heat boiler of gas turbine unit. Steam turbine unit includes steam boiler operating on solid fuel, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump. Gas turbine unit includes combustion gaseous fuel chamber, compressor and gas turbine using heated compressed air as working medium. At that, steam gas plant includes a group of independent operating pyrolysers, pyrolysis gas coolers, separator and fine filter. Pyrolysers are installed above burner tier of steam boiler and equipped with pulverised coal and air supply branch pipes. Each pyrolyser is connected by means of coal char supply channel at least to one boiler burner and pyrolysis gas cooler, one of the outlets of which is connected to separator. Coolers and separator is connected via resin and liquid hydrocarbon outlet pipeline to the boiler burners. Separator is connected via pyrolysis gas supercharger by means of supply channel of that gas to fine filter, one of the outlets of which is connected through booster compressor to combustion gaseous fuel chamber, and its other outlet - to the boiler burners through char coal supply channel. Outlets of coolers are connected to regenerative air heaters.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing economy, operating reliability, ecological properties of steam gas plant.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used to create energy combined-cycle plants (CCGT), using solid fuel.

Known combined-cycle plant coal-fired plant with a parallel scheme of work, including gas turbine unit with a combustion chamber of the gaseous fuel compressor and gas turbine, the HRSG exhaust gas heat of the gas turbine unit, steam turbine unit with solid fuel steam boiler, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump, connected together as a couple and relevant water piping and shut-off valves (gas Turbine and combined cycle gas turbines of thermal power plants: a manual for higher education. Ed. Svetaeva - M.: MPEI Publishing house, 2002, s-492). Schema specified gasification of solid fuels involve the installation of stand-alone equipment (generators, heating arrangements dust, high-pressure steam)used for preparation of the fuel burned in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. All of these separate systems have the following disadvantages:

1. Considerable dimensions and footprint of the installation area, and also requires a separate source of heated air to provide the air (gas) turbine and wirab the weave of the working fluid for a steam boiler.

2. A significant length of production lines.

3. The cooling of the coke during its transportation.

4. Loss of fuel during transport.

5. Poor cleaning gas.

6. Desulphurization of flue gases (disulfite) is performed for the steam boiler, which significantly affects environmental performance.

The technical object of the present invention is to provide a combined-cycle plant, allowing to increase the efficiency, the reliability of its work, flexibility, constructive simplicity with improved environmental performance, due to the excretion of the technological cycle of production condensable liquid products, as well as eliminating the need to allocate space to accommodate large-sized apparatus for thermal treatment of coal and cooling of the coke during its transportation.

For the technical solution and technical achievements of the known combined-cycle power plant including a steam turbine unit with solid fuel steam boiler, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump, gas turbine unit with a combustion chamber of the gaseous fuel compressor and gas turbine, is used as the working fluid heated compressed air, boiler exhaust gas heat of the gas turbine b is an eye, according to the invention contains a group of independently functioning of Pyrolyzer with nozzles supplying pulverized coal and air and installed above the burner zone of a steam boiler, cooling the pyrolysis gas separator, fine filter, with each Pyrolyzer associated feed char, at least one burner of the boiler and chiller pyrolysis gas, one of the outputs which is connected to the separator, while the cooler and separator through the pipe the output of tar and liquid hydrocarbons associated with the burners of the boiler, in addition, the separator through the pyrolysis gas blower is connected by a feed channel of this gas with the filter, one of the outputs through which the booster compressor associated with the combustion of the gaseous fuel and the second output - with burners of the boiler through the channel inlet char, while the outputs of the coolers associated with regenerative air heaters.

In addition, pyrolizer installed vertically.

Installing a compact group, independently operating devices for heat treatment of coal dust with obtaining fuel gas for gas turbines and char for steam boiler (Pyrolyzer)installed above the burner zone of the steam boiler and associated pipe output char through the channel inlet char with burners of the boiler, pozvolyayuschimi the need to allocate space to accommodate oversize vehicles heat treatment of coal, extended high-temperature carsoprodol to burners (at a temperature of coke, close to the process temperature in the apparatus), cooling of coke for the reliable operation of its transportation system, which can significantly reduce the cost of their own needs, and thus to increase the efficiency of the installation.

The execution of pyrolyzers vertical with the upper input of fuel and the heating environment allows switching mode pyrolysis mode transit pulverized coal in the burner of the boiler without heat treatment. Technologically, this scheme is much more easy, flexible, simpler with increased reliability.

Termination of the pyrolysis process one of pyrolyzers, in the case of a defect in the heating system will not affect the performance of the boiler, since the corresponding burner or group of burners will automatically switch to burning coal dust, without preliminary heat treatment. This ensures the reliability of the proposed CCGT and excluded the loss of fuel during transport.

To ensure deep cleaning of pyrolysis gas combined-cycle power plant includes a cleaning unit. For transporting the cooled pyrolysis gas from Pyrolyzer to the cleaning unit fuel gas combined-cycle power plant includes a gas cooler mounted on the output is e of each of pyrolyzers. The pyrolysis gas cleaning unit includes a separator for separating condensable liquid products and a fine filter pyrolysis gas. Before it enters the combustion chamber of the gas turbine, the pressure of the cooled gas increase in booster compressor to a pressure of 1-1,5 kg/cm2above the pressure of the combustion chamber.

The inclusion PSU group of Pyrolyzer can significantly improve environmental performance, because in the process of pyrolysis in an oxygen-free environment, nitrogen-containing compounds of coal as a result of disintegration pass into molecular nitrogen oxide. The release of "fuel" oxides during the combustion of coke in the furnace of a steam boiler is virtually eliminated. Disulfite pyrolysis gas is carried out by injection Saraswathi reagents directly into the working area of Pyrolyzer, where small volumes of gas medium more effectively organized the binding of sulfur in comparison with the process of desulfatsii total volume of flue gases for steam boiler (as in the prototype). Temperature pyrolysis (800-900C) is optimal for the process of desulfatsii, so this method of gas purification from sulfur appears to be the most acceptable.

The invention is illustrated by the schema.

Figure 1 is a flow diagram of the claimed combined-cycle plant with the pyrolysis of coal; figure 2 - scheme of the pyrolysis of coal in the composition of the combined-cycle plant.

Combined-cycle power plant with pyrolysis of coal (figure 1) contains steam turbine unit with solid fuel steam boiler 1 steam turbine 2, a group of regenerative air heaters 24 and condensate pump 22 and a gas turbine unit with a combustion chamber 4 of the gaseous fuel compressor 12 and the gas turbine 3, using as the working fluid heated compressed air. The source node PSU is a group of independently functioning of Pyrolyzer 5 for heat treatment of coal dust with obtaining fuel gas for gas turbines and char for the steam boiler. The number of Pyrolyzer is determined by the number of burners steam boilers. Pyrolyzer 5 made in the form of vertical devices with top inlet of air and coal dust through the pipes 25 and 26 to allow mode switching pyrolysis mode transit pulverized coal in the burner of a steam boiler without heat treatment. To enter this mode, just disable the node preheating of Pyrolyzer (to block the flow of auxiliary fuel to generate heat environment).

Pyrolyzer 5 is installed above the burner zone of the steam boiler 1 and connected granted by the char burners 9 steam boiler through the pipes 27 output char channel 8 supply of coke to the burners 9 of the boiler. The number of such vehicles pyro is iza may be from 4 to 8 when the diameter of each of Pyrolyzer 500-900 mm, height 6-8 meters. Termination of the pyrolysis process one of Pyrolyzer 5, in the case of a defect in the heating system of Pyrolyzer will not affect the performance of the boiler, since the corresponding burner or group of burners will automatically switch to burning coal dust, without preliminary heat treatment.

The output of each of pyrolyzers installed the cooler 28 gas to be transported chilled gas to the fuel gas treatment unit. The gas cooler 28 is designed for cooling the gas chemically purified water to condense from it oily impurities, phenols, ammonia, paragenetically moisture. Pyrolyzer 5 is connected with the cooling channel 28 6 inlet of the pyrolysis gas. Each of the coolers 28 is connected with the fuel gas treatment unit, comprising a separator 29 and the filter 7 for fine purification of the pyrolysis gas. The separator 29 is designed to separate gas from the liquid and the condensed product (oily impurities, phenols, ammonia, paragenetically moisture). On channel 6 pyrolysis gas supply between the separator 29 and the filter 7 can be installed supercharger 36 pyrolysis gas. The filter 7 is connected by a channel with booster compressor 30, United gas pipeline 11 to the combustion chamber 4 of the gas turbine unit. Booster compressor 30 is designed to increase the gas pressure on 1-1,5 kg/s the 2above the pressure of the combustion chamber 4. In addition, the coolers 28 pyrolysis gas, condensate pump 22 of the steam turbine and HRSG 31 are connected by piping the output of heated condensate 32, 33, 34 through the steam pipe 20 with a group of regenerative air preheaters 24 of the steam turbine 2. The separator 29 is connected by a pipe 10 o resin and liquid hydrocarbon burners 9 steam boiler 1. The filter 7 is connected by piping the output of trapped particles through the supply channel 8 char burners 9 steam boiler 1. Included in the combined-cycle installation of pipelines are fitted with shut-off valves 37.

Works combined-cycle power plant with the pyrolysis of coal, as follows. The process of pyrolysis of the coal in the composition of the proposed combined-cycle plant is illustrated by the scheme shown in figure 2. Coal dust from pulverized-coal boiler through the hopper dust and dust feeders (not shown in figure 1) is sent to the nozzles 26 of Pyrolyzer 5 (figure 1). Simultaneously with the filing of coal dust through the nozzles 25 of the air supply in Pyrolyzer 5, air is injected. In Pyrolyzer 5 occur, the heating of the coal volatile matter, the separation of the gas-vapor and solid fractions, the sulfur capture by entering the apparatus Cerevesiae reagent gas cleaning from dust. Pyrolysis gas from the group of Pyrolyzer 5 channel feed pirolyzin the gas 6 is sent to a group of gas coolers 28, where cooling chemically treated water from it condenses oily impurities, phenols, ammonia, paragenetically moisture. From the coolers 28 pyrolysis gas enters the separator 29, which separates the condensed products from the gas. The pipeline 10 o resin and liquid hydrocarbons condensed products are displayed in the burner 9 steam boiler 1 for fire recycling and pyrolysis gas channel inlet 6 is sent to the filter 7, which is fine cleaning. Caught in the filter 7 of the particle in the pipe 35 through the supply channel 8 char appear in the burner 9 steam boiler, and received a fine purification of the pyrolysis gas is fed to the booster compressor 30. After increasing the pressure in the booster compressor 30 for 1-1,5 kg/cm2above the pressure of the combustion chamber 4 of the gas through the pipeline 11 is fed into the combustion chamber 4 of the gas turbine plant gas turbine unit.

The char obtained in the process of thermal separation of coal dust in Pyrolyzer 5, through pipe 27, is fed through the channel 8 to the burner 9, where the flow of the transporting steam is introduced into the steam boiler 1 and is combusted in an atmosphere of air supplied to the combustion blower fan (not shown in figure 1). Ash and reaction products of binding sulfur recovered in the ash collectors located outside the boiler (not shown in figure 1).

STRYPER, obtained in the steam boiler 1, is fed to the steam turbine 2 PSU for power generation. Exhaust gases from the gas turbine enter the HRSG 31 or reset as oxidant to the burner 9 steam boiler 1.

The proposed location of pyrolyzers makes this scheme PSU is very compact, allows to provide Autonomous operation of the steam turbine unit. In the event of a power gas turbine has the ability to transit feed pulverized coal to the burners of the boiler, in this case it is only necessary to disconnect the supply air and fuel to the site preheating of Pyrolyzer.

Thus, in the proposed combined-cycle power plant with pyrolysis of coal integrating steam turbine and gas turbine units is carried out in four separate links:

- total system fuel supply and fuel preparation;

a joint production of the working fluid for the gas turbine;

- utilization of exhaust gas heat to the heating surface of a steam boiler;

using the excess oxygen in the exhaust gases of the gas turbine in a steam boiler furnace as the oxidant for the combustion of coke.

Compared with the prototypes of the proposed combined-cycle power plant with pyrolysis of coal has a significantly better environmental performance. In the process of pyrolysis in an oxygen-free environment, nitrogen-containing compounds of coal as a result of decay become Molek is Yarnykh oxide of nitrogen. The release of "fuel" oxides during the combustion of coke in the furnace of a steam boiler is virtually eliminated. Disulfite pyrolysis gas is carried out by injection Saraswathi reagents directly into the working area of Pyrolyzer, where small volumes of gas medium more effectively organized the binding of sulfur in comparison with the process of desulfatsii total volume of flue gases for steam boiler. Temperature pyrolysis (800-900C) is optimal for the process of desulfatsii, so this method of gas purification from sulfur appears to be the most acceptable. The proposed combined-cycle power plant allows, if necessary, withdraw from the technological cycle of production condensable liquid products that can be used to produce valuable chemical products, motor fuels, and oils.

In addition, the proposed combined-cycle power plant allows the cooling gas, the condensation from it oily impurities and carry out thin and perfect cleaning of the gas.

The efficiency and reliability of the PSU with the pyrolysis of coal is achieved by simplifying the scheme, derive from the technological cycle of production condensable liquid products, as well as eliminating the need to allocate space to accommodate large-sized apparatus for thermal treatment of coal and cooling the char during its transportation.

The present invention conforms to the criterion "novelty"because of "prior art" is not identified technical solutions with the proposed set of features.

1. Combined-cycle power plant with the pyrolysis of coal, including steam turbine unit with solid fuel steam boiler, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump, gas turbine unit with a combustion chamber of the gaseous fuel compressor and gas turbine, is used as the working fluid heated compressed air, boiler exhaust gas heat of the gas turbine unit, characterized in that it contains a group of independently functioning of Pyrolyzer with nozzles supplying pulverized coal and air and installed above the burner zone of a steam boiler, cooling the pyrolysis gas separator, fine filter, with each Pyrolyzer associated feed char, at least one burner of the boiler and chiller pyrolysis gas, one of the outputs which is connected to the separator, while the cooler and separator through the pipe the output of tar and liquid hydrocarbons associated with the burners of the boiler, in addition, the separator through the pyrolysis gas blower is connected by a feed channel of this gas with the filter, one of which outputs through a booster compressor connected with Kama is OI combustion of gaseous fuel, and his second output to the burners of the boiler through the channel inlet char, while the outputs of the coolers associated with regenerative air heaters.

2. Combined-cycle power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that Pyrolyzer installed vertically.

3. Combined-cycle power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains at least four Pyrolyzer.

4. Combined-cycle power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the channel inlet of the pyrolysis gas, between the separator and filter, installed supercharger pyrolysis gas.



 

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