Method for recovery of exhausted open pits for construction of structures

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and processing industries and may be used to recover disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and power engineering industry. Method consists in the fact that after open pit has been exhausted, its space is filled in layers first with construction waste, and then filled with overburden to the elevation of pit bottom for foundation of future structure, at the same time layer of overburden is leveled with a layer of sand having medium size with further compaction. Then future structure foundation axes are laid, as well as future solid reinforced concrete elements according to accepted design structural scheme relative to axes of foundations. Along each of laid longitudinal axes of future solid reinforced concrete elements, at the pit bottom panel forms are erected, evenly filled with concrete mix of grade not less than B 15 by quarter of panel form height, laid concrete mix is compacted by rodding, then reinforced frames are installed onto freshly laid concrete mix, and panel forms are fully filled with concrete mix. After concrete mix poured into panel forms gains strength, panel forms are removed, and space between produced longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements is filled with crushed slag. Afterwards soil foundation is filled, which includes two layers: intermediate layer of dry mix of soil and crushed slag, and above a layer of crushed stone from solid rocks of medium size to the elevation of foundation level of constructed structure, besides soil foundation thickness equals height of cross section of longitudinal solid reinforced concrete elements, and thickness of intermediate later from mix of soil and slag stone makes one third of foundation level thickness, besides, the last level is flattened and compacted, and then foundation is erected.

EFFECT: reduction of labour expenses and cost of recovery works.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining and processing industry and can be used to restore disturbed lands in agriculture, construction and energy industries.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed soils (1) in surface mining, including mining, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, moving, and packing overburden and topsoil. However, restoration of disturbed lands in this method occurs over a very long period, and the soil exposed to wind and water erosion.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development (2), including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, mined-out space and its alignment in the overburden with the subsequent placement of the topsoil. The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create the fertile soil layer, which in turn leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The most the e closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the way of restoration of disturbed lands in open field development (3), including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, career development, the mined-out space in layers of construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals, with compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer and filling layer potential of fertile soil. The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of repair works due to the extraction of large amounts of fertile soil.

The proposed solution reduces the labor and cost of the rehabilitation works. This is achieved in that in the method of restoring the depleted quarries for construction of structures including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, career development, the mined-out space at the beginning of construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals, and then in the overburden, according to the invention the mined-out space of the quarry to produce the design elevation of excavation for Foundation of buildings under construction, next to which the t from the quarry pit for the Foundation construction of buildings, then align the bottom of the pit with a layer of sand of average size, followed by its seal, then produce a breakdown of the axes of the foundations of the constructed facilities and a breakdown of the adopted project design concept longitudinal axes future monolithic reinforced concrete elements with respect to the axes of the basement and on each of the spaced longitudinal axes future monolithic reinforced concrete elements at the bottom of the pit erect formwork consisting of a control room. The height of the shield casing define equal to the height of the cross-section of future longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements, which, in turn, determined on the basis of strength calculations, and depends on the load on the Foundation built structures. Then evenly fill the erected panel formwork with concrete grade not lower than 15 first quarter of its height, condense laid concrete mixture shtykovaniem, then on freshly laid concrete mixture along the length of each of the panel formwork reinforcement stack frames and completely filled with the concrete mixture shield casing, after filled in the panel formwork concrete will gain strength, remove the panel casing and fill the space formed between the longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements slag crushed stone, then occiput cushion the Foundation of the future is Fundamenta, consisting of two layers: the first occiput intermediate layer of a mixture of soil and slag aggregates, and over it a layer of crushed stone from the solid rock of average size to mark the laying of the sole Foundation of the constructed structures, the thickness of the cushion base future Foundation equal to the height of the cross-section of the longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements, and the thickness of the intermediate layer of a mixture of soil and slag aggregates is the third part of the thickness of the cushion Foundation of the future Foundation, while the last layer is leveled and compacted, and consisting of a control room formwork under longitudinal reinforced concrete elements mounted on the calculated distance from each other.

Implementation of the present invention dramatically reduces the cost of rehabilitation services, through the use of the developed career (no need to dig the pit), construction waste, constantly resulting from the reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, as well as eliminating the need for extraction of large volumes of soil to create a fertile layer. Given the fact that is constantly generated construction waste taken to landfills for household and industrial waste, the implementation of the present invention will improve the ecological situation. The use of longitudinal monolithic geltab the ton of elements in the construction of buildings, built on the foundations of artificial addition, allows to increase the load bearing capacity of such grounds, to reduce and redistribute stresses in plan and depth of the compressible zone of the Foundation of the constructed facilities. The use of metallurgical slag can also reduce the cost of construction, because the activity of slag aggregates improves the strength characteristics of the base of the Foundation without the use of binding materials, and simultaneously the issues of elimination of man-made structures, land reclamation.

The proposed method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a structural diagram of the implementation of this method, figure 2 - cross section 1-1, figure 3 - design and structural arrangement of the longitudinal axes of monolithic reinforced concrete elements in terms of strip Foundation.

The method is as follows.

First PA disturbed area perform planning work. The mean absolute stamp set with the feasibility study. Then make a preliminary backfilling of the open pit (1) construction waste layers (2, 3, 4) with different particle size fractions. Each layer is compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. Then occiput quarry (1) layer (5) scresn the x rocks to mark the bottom of the pit (6) under the Foundation of the constructed facilities. The layer of overburden (5) align and tighten. Produce a layout of the bottom of the pit and breakdown of the axes (A) under the Foundation of the constructed facilities. Next, on the layer (5) of overburden stack alignment layer (7) of sand of average size, followed by its seal. After laying the leveling layer (7) is produced by the breakdown of the longitudinal axes future monolithic reinforced concrete elements (8) with respect to the axes of the Foundation. For each of the posted longitudinal axes future monolithic reinforced concrete elements (8) erect formwork consisting of a control room (9). Next, prepare the concrete mix grade not lower than 15 and fill it formwork consisting of a control room (9), first to one quarter of its height, condense it shtykovaniem and immediately put on her reinforcing cages (10). Then completely fill the formwork consisting of a control room (9) concrete mixture. Once filled consisting of a control room in the casing (9) the concrete will gain strength, the formwork is removed. The space formed between the longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements fill slag crushed stone (11). After that occiput cushion (12) of the base of the constructed facilities: in the beginning occiput intermediate layer (13) of the dry mixture of local soil and slag aggregates, and over it a layer of crushed stone from the solid rock of average size. Dry grunto-slag mixture is prepared at the construction site, procentenheter components are determined by the results of studies of soil artificial addition, included in the Foundation of the constructed facilities. The last layer (14) occiput to mark the laying of the sole Foundation (15). The thickness of the cushion is equal to the height of the cross-section of the longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements. The thickness of the intermediate layer (13) is the third part of the thickness of the cushion (12). On the basis of erecting the Foundation. As construction waste use accidents burnt brick, concrete, reinforced concrete, ceramic tile.

Sources of information

1. USSR author's certificate No. 1062392, CL IS 41/00, 1983.

2. Patent Of Russia №2109427, CL. AV 79/02, 1988.

3. Patent Of Russia №2274749, CL. AS 41/32, 2006.

1. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for construction of structures including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, career development, the mined-out space career in layers with compaction layers, first, construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals, and then in the overburden, followed by alignment and seal, characterized in that the mined-out space of the quarry to produce the design elevation of excavation for Foundation of buildings under construction, then form a pit, line it the bottom layer of the dog is and the average grain size, followed by its seal, next, produce a breakdown of the axes of the foundations of the future construction and breakdown according to the project design concept longitudinal axes future monolithic reinforced concrete elements with respect to the axes of the basement and on each of the spaced longitudinal axes future monolithic reinforced concrete elements at the bottom of the pit erect prefabricated formwork, evenly fill them with concrete grade not lower than 15, first quarter of the height of the shield casing, condense laid concrete mixture shtykovaniem, then on freshly laid concrete mix is placed along the entire length of each of the panel formwork reinforcing cages and completely filled with the concrete mixture shield casing, after filled in the panel formwork concrete mix will gain strength, remove the panel casing and fill the space formed between the longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements slag crushed stone, then occiput cushion, consisting of two layers: the first occiput intermediate layer from a dry mixture of soil and slag aggregates, and over it a layer of crushed stone from the solid rock of average size to mark the laying of the sole Foundation of the constructed structures, the thickness of the cushion is equal to the height of the cross-section of the longitudinal monolithic reinforced concrete elements, and the thickness of the intermediate layer of a mixture of soil is slag aggregates is the third part of the thickness of the cushion, when the last layer is leveled and compacted, and consisting of a control room formwork under longitudinal reinforced concrete elements mounted on the calculated distance from each other.

2. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for construction of structures according to claim 1, characterized in that the quality of construction waste use accidents burnt brick, concrete, reinforced concrete, ceramic tile.



 

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2 cl, 1 dwg

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