Method of solid minerals borehole hydro-mining

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be implemented at borehole hydro-mining of any minerals at development at big depth or under complicated mining-geological conditions by means of directionally drilled (vertical-horizontal) boreholes wherein there are created zones of extracted rock crumbling; rock is flushed with hydromining aggregate and is supplied to surface in form of hydraulic mixture or pulp. The object of the disclosed here invention is to develop a hands-free method of borehole mining of minerals facilitating unchecked advance of a borehole hydro-mining aggregate at development of rock of any solid minerals. A horizontal part of borehole is drilled above sub-face of productive formation at half-diametre (in centre) of estimated production chambers on the assumption of preliminary calculations and considering ultimate strength of developed rock; this part is loaded with sectional arranged estimated elongated charges of explosive substances - (ES) divided with inert material and enclosed into a destructible shell; further these charges are successively initiated with a delay in each section, thus producing separate crushed sections divided with pillars of productive rock and containing zones of not broken rock required for unchecked advance of borehole hydro-mining aggregate along axes of productive chambers by means of flushing crushed rock and drawing it in form of hydraulic mixture or pulp to surface.

EFFECT: improved conditions for advance of hydro-mining aggregate facilitating increased efficiency and output of minerals hydro-mining.

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The invention relates to mining and can be used in borehole hydropobic any minerals when developing them at great depths or in difficult mining and geological conditions using directed (vertical-horizontal) wells, which are zones of crushing quarried rock, which eroded the downhole hydroponicum unit and the pulp is thrown on the earth's surface.

The known method sectional (dispersed) the location of the explosive charge, including the use of vertical coring charges, the dispersing them along the borehole, leaving gaps between them to increase the useful life of the energy of the explosion. It provides uniform and efficient crushing of the rock mass given the lumpiness in vertical wells especially in contiguous and located on the circuit or close circuit constructed excavation (Mindeli AO the Destruction of rocks. - M.: Nedra, 1975, - 600 C., Melnikov, NV, Marchenko LN. The explosion energy and charge design. - M.: Nedra, 1964. - 139 C.). The method is used to control the fragmentation within the projected excavation.

The disadvantage of this method is the disadvantage of the formation of gaps between the explosive charge and the fact that it is applicable only for vertical production wells, and its done by the effect to the presence of multiple wells, causing the formation of explosion of the explosive charge zone of intense fragmentation destructible array of rock.

The known method of forming the charge air gaps for vertical wells (RF patent No. 2314488, publ. 10.01.2008 year), including pre-placement in the dry well of the waterproofing membrane, the formation of charge nedostizhimyh CENTURIES, splitting the air gaps of foamed polystyrene, which improves the efficiency of the shattered rock crushing.

The disadvantage of this method is the use of nedostizhimyh CENTURIES, the need for drainage wells from the drilling mud before the formation of the common sealed waterproof shell for explosive charge and separated intervals of foamed polystyrene having a high electrified, which affects the safety of blasting operations and the possibility of creating only the total mass of rock crushing.

There is a method for creating a borehole contour of charge (RF patent No. 2304755, publ. 20.08.2007, in vertical wells for receiving the charging circuits of the excavation within the project profile works, through the development of well dispersed contour of charge, including the formation of garlands ammo explosion is atogo substances in a single polymeric sleeve, by clamping the sleeve to the required distances and initiated by a single detonating cord.

The disadvantage of the invention is the use of polymeric sleeve, the use of which is possible only for vertical wells and horizontal parts of directional wells due to wrinkling and crushing sleeveless, due to the small thickness of the polymer material and the separation of garlands charges between themselves only by air gaps.

The closest analogue is the way (patent RF №2186208 from 27.07.2002,) borehole mining of mineral salts, including the opening of a productive layer of vertical-horizontal well horizontal part of which passes close to the soles of the reservoir, the flow of the working solution and the issuance of brine or slurry (slurry) of mineral salts on the surface. The horizontal part of the well dried up, initiating EXPLOSIVES, destroying the explosion of the reservoir, hold the mounting of the mining unit, followed by washout equilibrium with breed solution fragmented explosion rocks of the productive formation by promoting the production unit to the end of the horizontal part of the well with the issuance on the surface of the formed pulp and forming horizontal purifying chamber. Then produce a flow of working solution for dissolution of violations is Noah explosion rocks and the issuance of brine to the surface with the movement of the mining unit, working in the mode of dissolution to the beginning of the horizontal camera.

A disadvantage of the proposed method is that it does not consider the increase of particle size of fragmented rock with distance from the axis of the explosive charge, which negatively affect the process of hydropobic. Larger particles from the upper layers developed breed under the action of gravity will settle on the production unit, as in conditions of high concentration of working fluid, these particles are not dissolved and thereby hinder his progress, and the Assembly under the action of the same forces will descend, deviating from the axis of the production wells in an area of less intense crushing, the size of the particles which complicate the process of hydropobic. In addition, in the proposed method, the drilling of a horizontal well is near the soles of the reservoir, which does not ensure completeness of extraction of the upper part.

The task of the invention is to develop this technology in-situ mining operations without human intervention, which would allow unimpeded passage of the downhole hydroporinae unit in the development of any hard rock minerals.

The technical result is an improvement of the conditions for the passage of downhole hydro is a conventional unit, intensification of the process of hydropobic and productivity of mining operations.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of a hydraulic borehole mining of solid minerals, including the opening of a productive layer lateral directional well, bookmark this explosive barrel (BB), the destruction of the explosion of the productive formation prior to the scheduled particle sizes, descent downhole hydroporinae unit, erosion fragmented explosion rocks the promotion of this unit with the issuance on the surface of the formed slurry or pulp and the formation of horizontal chambers, the peculiarity lies in the fact that before opening the productive formation horizontal well bore, depending on the tensile strength of the rock, calculate the diameter of the assumed production cameras and drill the horizontal part of the well above the base of the productive layer on half of the diameter (center), load it sectional spaced calculated elongated explosive charge is divided inert material and enclosed in destructible shell, then perform sequential initiation of these charges, with a slowdown in each section, with specific areas of fractured zones, separated by pillars of production the th breed, containing zone of undisturbed rocks, necessary for the smooth passage of the downhole hydroporinae unit along the axis of the mining chambers.

The location of the horizontal part of the slant well above the base of the productive formation at half the diameter of the planned mining chamber provides unimpeded passage of SGD, as larger particles of rock from the roof, these cameras will accumulate under the mining unit in the formed cavities.

Bookmark the horizontal part of the well dispersed sectional spaced elongated explosive charge allows after the explosion to get a series of mining chambers separated by partitions from the undisturbed rock - pillars, creating conditions for the unimpeded passage of the downhole hydroporinae unit in the axial direction of the cells, due to jet fragmented explosion rocks of the reservoir, until the end of the horizontal part of the well and to avoid jamming his large chunks productive rocks and fallen from the roof of the developed layer of waste rock, as well as be able to make a seamless passing back and forth, i.e. as the implementation of mining and removing after completion of these works.

The length of each section of the explosive charge determined by the t, based on the size of the planned crushing zones. The latter is calculated based on the passage in the mining chamber of the downhole hydroporinae unit, designed (to match the diameter and grade of steel pipes) on the extraction of varying particle size of the crushed particles of the reservoir, without rejecting it outside diameter of the horizontal part of the inclined borehole, i.e. given the potential magnitude of the downwarping of this hydroporinae unit, according to the formula

where l is the length of the zone of destruction, corresponding to the length hydroporinae unit, passing the zone without rejecting outside diameter of the horizontal part of the inclined borehole, m;

ΔYmax- the amount of deflection of the working hydroporinae unit, m;

q - weight of 1 meter working hydroporinae unit, kg;

E - the modulus of elasticity for the selected grade of steel pipes hydroporinae unit MPa;

R is the radius of the outer tube body hydroporinae unit, m;

S - wall thickness of pipes that make hydroporinae unit, m

The diameter of the zone of destruction (di) productive breeds in the explosion of each section of the explosive charge in which the particles of the particle size on the extraction of which is hydroporinae unit, is determined by the formula

where lr- R is setting the log file name particle mm;

α2Toon- experimental data;

dCthe diameter of the detonation of explosive charge, m;

D - speed explosive charge, m/s;

ρCC- the density of the explosive charge, kg/m3;

γ - isoentropic exponent of detonation products of EXPLOSIVES;

σMD- the tensile strength of rocks under intense fine crushing, PA, is calculated by the equation

σMD=13[l+(f-15)·0,079+0,019(f-15)2]·108(PA)

where f=σSG/107PA

σSG- tensile strength of rocks under uniaxial compression, MPa.

The length of the explosive charge (lC) to obtain the desired zone of destruction is calculated by the formula

where lC- the length of the explosive charge, m;

l is the length of the zone of destruction (i.e. future mining chamber), m;

rCis the radius of the explosive charge, m;

- external radius of the zone of crushing wedge-shaped sectors of the breed in the explosion end of the explosive charge (m), defined by the formula

where τaddultimate strength in shear mined rocks, PA.

The calculation of the distance between the ends of two sectional explosive charge (lMoH), causing the overall size of the pillar separating the two mining chamber, taking into account the undisturbed part of the rock is determined by the

where P is the weight of abecause hydroporinae unit length in one of the mining chamber, N;

- external radius of the zone of radial cracking in the explosion end of the elongated charge (IV) (m), which is calculated by the formula

where σraces- the tensile strength of rocks under uniaxial tension, MPa.

The thickness of the formed pillars (lCwith regard to the undisturbed part of the rocks and zones of wedge-shaped sectors is determined by the formula

The thickness of the undisturbed part of the breed (lSCin the rear sight can be calculated by the formula

which is part of the formula (7).

In the study of the distinctive features of this method was carried out search for patent and scientific and technical information sources to identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, which has allowed to establish that the applicant had not found the source, which is characterized by symptoms that are identical to all the essential features of the claimed invention. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, as the most similar set of features, has allowed to establish the essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features in the claimed method described in the formula invented the I.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "novelty."

To verify compliance of the claimed invention the term "inventive step", the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions to identify signs coinciding with the distinctive features of the claimed method. The search results showed that of the known prior art, certain applicant identified the influence provided the essential features of the claimed method transformations to achieve a technical result.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "inventive step".

An example of the method. The method is illustrated in figure 1-4.

Figure 1. The reservoir rocks (1) reveal the horizontal part of the directional drilling of the borehole (2), located under pre-manufactured payments above the base layer on half the diameter of the mining chamber. In the well lay sectional spaced elongated charges of type BB (6), divided inert material (8). The length of the sections, the diameter of the zones of destruction, the length of the explosive charge, the distance between them, the thickness of the formed pillars and within them undamaged by the explosion part of the breed are calculated by the formulas 1-8, based on the values of tensile strength of rock, the ultimate croup the spine crushing rock of the reservoir, the chosen design of the downhole hydroporinae Assembly.

By successive initiation of the explosive charge (via logging cable (7) figure 1), with a corresponding slowdown blasting each section is obtained (figure 2) the serial number of separate horizontal destroyed zones crushing (9) the estimated length of the divided areas (pillars), which contains the vertical interlayer optimal area of undisturbed rock (10), which determines the carrying capacity of the resulting pillar (figure 3), which shows the scheme of a possible explosive destruction of productive breed within the area filled with an inert material.

Figure 4 shows the process of hydraulic borehole mining in the horizontal section, directional well moving mining unit (11), performing erosion (12) divided by the explosion of productive breeds (14) with the formation of the slurry and its suction (13) to issue on the earth's surface. From figure 4 one can see the passage of SGD center production of cameras based on separating their pillar (10) and the location of the fallen oversized rocks (9) formed on the bottom of the camera that allows hydroporinae Assembly to move freely in the following mining chamber.

So for testing of fractured particles, for example, a particle size of up to 23 mm to 58 mm rocks with PR is outside strength σ SG15 MPa (variations of the rock type rock salt, gypsum and the like) and 150 MPa (variations of the rock type Gabro, diabase, granite, etc.) well hydroponicum way, the calculations by the formula (1) show that, given the commercially available grades of pipe required for the manufacture of downhole hydroporinae unit (SGDU), ensuring the smooth production of one or another given maximum particle size of the particles at the minimum acceptable diameter hydroporinae unit for testing particle size of up to 23 mm, with the minimum possible for their prey diameter of SGD in 168 mm, length production camera will be 8.5 m, and for testing particle size up to 58 mm, with the minimum possible diameter of SGD in 273 mm, amount to 11.3 m, which will allow the passage of SGD without deviation from the horizontal center of the chamber.

Calculations by the formula (2) showed that with the use of EXPLOSIVES in the form of cast TNT for rocks with strength (σSGwithin 15 MPa and 150 MPa, the radius of the zone of destruction with a particle size of not more than 23 mm, varies from 4,95 m to 1.54 m, and for particle sizes not exceeding 58 mm varies from 13 m to 4.08 m

The length of the explosive charge to create conditions for the formation of rock particles size up to 23 mm varies (formula 3), in the extraction of rock particle size of up to 23 mm to 7.77-,77 m, and in the extraction of particle sizes up to 58 mm in the range 10-8,43 M.

The distance between the two partial charges will fluctuate (formula 4), to obtain particles with a dimension of up to 23 mm, in the range of 3.07-1.35 m, and for particle sizes up to 58 mm - 5,13-2.24 m, depending on the strength values developed breed. This formed the pillars of thickness varying according to (formula 5), respectively, in the range of 1.34-0,62 m and 2.7-1,03 m within them, to keep production unit, designed for production of particles of a given species to 23 mm to 58 mm, a sufficient thickness of the undisturbed part of the species, respectively, in the range of 0,02-0,002 m 0,05-0,005 m

In addition, the feature of the method lies in the fact that the remaining large particles are not produced productive breeds and lower parts of the resulting partitions, after a series of horizontal mining chambers, destroyed by filing in these cameras emulsion EXPLOSIVES and blasting with subsequent repetition of the process hydropobic.

In comparison with the prototype of the proposed solution has the following advantages:

- allows you to provide more complete extraction of the entire fragmented (up to a given size) productive breed a variety of solid minerals, especially from the upper part of the mining chamber, by passing hydroporinae unit (EXT) - Rev. Chi) is not the sole production camera, and in its Central part;

- allows unhindered passage hydroporinae unit without jamming it falling on top of large particles productive and barren rocks, in the process of advancing it forward (by mining) and ago (when removing for repair and after disabling all works), that depends on the location of the mining unit mining centre of the camera when it is based on the pillars of undisturbed rocks, allowing you to concentrate oversized pieces under the unit, formed on the bottom of the camera.

- allows Dordrecht accumulated on the bottom of the camera oversized pieces productive breeds (as well as the lower part of the pillar) with their subsequent gidrodobychnyh.

Thus, the above materials testify to the execution, when using the inventive method, the following cumulative conditions:

the tool embodying the claimed invention in its implementation, is intended for use in mining, borehole mining of solid minerals in a wide range of limits of their strength;

for the claimed invention, as it is described in the independent clause sets out the claims, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the steps described in the invention means the methods.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "industrial applicability".

Way of a hydraulic borehole mining of solid minerals, including the opening of a productive layer lateral directional well, download this explosive barrel (BB), the destruction of the explosion of the productive formation prior to the scheduled particle sizes, descent downhole hydroporinae unit, erosion fragmented explosion rocks the promotion of this unit with the issuance on the surface of the formed slurry or pulp and the formation of horizontal chambers, characterized in that before opening the productive formation horizontal well bore, depending on the tensile strength of the rock, calculate the diameter of the assumed production cameras and drill the horizontal part of the well above the base of the productive layer on half of the diameter (center), load it sectional spaced calculated elongated explosive charge is divided inert material and enclosed in destructible shell, then perform sequential initiation of these charges, with a slowdown in each section, with specific areas of fractured zones, separated by pillars of productive formations containing zone of undisturbed rocks, necessary for the smooth is ragozzine well hydroporinae unit along the axis of the production cameras.



 

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5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly borehole mining.

SUBSTANCE: installation comprises platform, hydraulic monitor plant with telescopic head, as well as airlift, rotary device installed on the platform, water recycling system, elastic oscillation generation system and distribution device connected to falling airlift members and to ultrasound disintegrator. Hydraulic monitor plant is provided with automatic hydraulic monitor operation control system installed on additional platform and connected with rotary device of hydraulic monitor plant through hydraulic system, wherein vertical rod of hydraulic monitor plant is provided with rigid fixers brought into cooperation with slots of additional vertical rod. Elastic oscillation generation system may produce ultrasound oscillations of changeable power, which are transmitted through transformers to wash zone oscillators, pre-disintegration zone oscillator and oscillators of ultrasound disintegrator of the fist and the second level. Sensors which record dynamic wash zone properties and sensors which record dynamic properties of pre-disintegration zone are installed on the additional rod included in hydraulic monitor. Sensors which record dynamic wash zone properties and ones which record dynamic properties of pre-disintegration zone are linked with control system, which controls ultrasound denerator operational characteristics, and with automatic hydraulic monitor operation control system by digital programmed prior transforming device. Sensors, which determine dynamic properties of ultrasound disintegrator, are installed at the first level surface inlet and outlet of the ultrasound disintegrator. Above sensors are connected with control system, which controls operational characteristics of ultrasound denerator, through digital programmed device related with the next disintegration operation.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of mining operation and increased environmental safety.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to produce loose, soft or single-grained minerals through production boreholes.

SUBSTANCE: method involves installing drilling rig in one point of area to be treated; drilling inclined production boreholes at an angle to horizon; installing pipes in the borehole; assembling hydraulic production equipment and lifting mineral to surface. Drilling rig is installed in one point to be treated so that the drilling rig may perform azimuth and angular rotation in vertical plane. Several production boreholes extending at different angles to horizon in common vertical plane are drilled by the drilling rig. The first borehole has minimal angle defined by maximal possible length of borehole, which can be drilled by the drilling rig. The next borehole has maximal angle defined by rock deformation area to prevent rock deformation on surface and in mineral production equipment installation area. Remainder boreholes are drilled in the same vertical plane at α3, α4, ... απ angles to horizon, which maximizes efficiency of mineral production. Similar inclined boreholes are drilled in other vertical planes by rotating the drilling rig in azimuth direction through γ1, γ2 ... γπ angles. Mineral is produced simultaneously or sequentially from borehole groups to provide smooth lowering of overlaying rock.

EFFECT: increased mineral removing fullness with the use of single equipment unit, reduced amount of construction-and-assembling operations, possibility to perform operations in any season, reduced costs of operation performing in cold season, increased safety for staff and equipment.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: mineral field development by hydraulic mining methods, as well as borehole drilling and all-purpose underground cavities creation.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises connection pipe for pressure water. Connection pipe of slurry pipeline has conical constricted section, wear-resistant insert made as spaced rings of wear-resistant material installed downstream from the conical constricted section in slurry flow direction, and conical widening section arranged downstream from the rings. Connection pipe of slurry pipeline has orifices made in area of ring location and adapted to supply pressure water into connection pipe of slurry pipeline via gaps defined between the rings. Hydraulic elevator is arranged at end of connection pipe for pressure water. Connection pipe for pressure water and hydraulic elevator may have water-jet nozzles. Gaps between rings of wear-resistant insert are created due to ring end roughness. As pressure water is supplied part of flow moving via annular gap passes through annular hydraulic elevator and enters into connection pipe of slurry pipeline to create ascending flow. Due to created vacuum washed mineral is sucked into connection pipe of slurry pipeline in slurry form and then transported to surface.

EFFECT: reduced wear of inlet connection pipe part.

3 cl, 1 dwg

Hydraulic monitor // 2272143

FIELD: methods of hydraulic mining, particularly hydraulic monitors for rock breakage with water jets.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic monitor comprises base, hinge assembly and barrel with nozzle. Through pipe extending along barrel axis is installed in barrel channel and supported by centrators. The first pipe end is communicated with atmosphere, another one is located in the nozzle. Pipe-nozzle diameter ratio is 0.50-0.57. The pipe serves as ejection means. As high pressure water passes through the nozzle streamlined air bubble is created at pipe outlet due to air ejection. Air bubble pressure is less than atmospheric pressure. This provides jet compression at nozzle outlet and as a result increases jet range. Abrasive and chemical materials may be used with water jet to improve rock breakage efficiency.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly to develop gold-bearing rock with high clay content.

SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening rock by applying mechanical action to the rock along with periodically initiating elastic vibrations in ultrasonic-frequency band with constant frequency in clay-sand rock - water system, wherein the elastic vibrations are initiated under constant outer pressure and power for different time periods; determining optimal action application time to provide stable clay particle precipitation in clay-sand rock - water system having constant volume during previously choosing controllable particle dimension range; determining conditional transformation coefficients from mathematical expression; making plot of conditional transformation coefficient change as a function of time; determining increase of controllable initial specific surface of particles to be loosened and halving ultrasound power when controllable initial specific surface of particles to be loosened is increased by an order.

EFFECT: reduced specific power consumption.

6 dwg

FIELD: geotechnology, particularly bore mining in wide range of mining and geological conditions.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling bore extending for the full thickness of underground mineral formation; cutting the underground mineral formation in chamber coaxial to the bore with the use of water-jet devices. Before hydraulic formation cutting rock massif is moistened by supplying pressurized water in bore for a time period enough to expand moistened zone for necessary distance, wherein water pressure is less than pressure of hydraulic formation cutting. After formation moistening water-jet device is lowered in the bore to cut mineral in moistened zone adjoining the bore. After that formation moistening and cutting operations are repeated to create chamber having predetermined dimensions.

EFFECT: reduced power inputs for hydraulic rock cutting.

2 dwg

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