FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: stowing mixture contains, wt %: halite wastes of reprocessing of potassic ores 96.5-98.3, bonding agent - magnesia cement 1-2, lignosulfonate 0.7-1.5%.
EFFECT: achievement of required strength of backfilling at minimal content of bonding agent.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to mining and can be used in underground mining with the mined-out space.
Known composition filling mixtures for potash mines containing waste beneficiation of potash ores, lime, bischofite and water . The disadvantages of the above-mentioned mixture are low motility, low strength characteristics and the expensive binding components.
The closest to this invention is the composition of the filling mixture containing 30 to 90 wt.% clay-salt waste processing of potash ores and 10-70 wt.% fly ash . The disadvantage of this backfill mix is the increased consumption of binder component and the associated costs.
The technical result is the achievement of adequate strength bookmarks with the minimum content of the additional components.
The technical result is achieved by the composition of the filling mixture, including halite waste processing potash, magnesia binder and a chemical additive lignosulfonate in the following ratio, wt.%:
Halite waste to 96.5-98,3
Magnesia cement - 1-2
Lignosulfonate - 0,7-1,5
Halite wastes are solids, flotation or chemical beneficiation of potash ores. Their status is in depends on the composition of the ore, way of its processing, equipment and other Halite waste contains mainly: NaCl - 95%, KCl - 2%, CaSO4- 2%, insoluble residue of 1.7%, MgCl2- 0,1%, moisture - 10-12%.
As magnesia binder can be used: magnesia cement, caustic magnesite, waste containing magnesium oxide. Experiments have shown that the strength of the array increases with increase in the content of magnesia binder, which is the most expensive component of the mixture. The inventive composition contains a minimum amount of binder that is cost-effective.
Lignosulfonate is anionic surfactant, which is a waste of pulp and paper industry. The optimum content of the lignosulfonate were verified experimentally and is 0.7-1.5 wt.%. This content allows you to maximize the strength of the filling mixture (see drawing).
When mixed halite wastes with magnesia binder and zatvoreniem mixture with a saturated solution of salt halite wastes dissolved in it lignosulphonates occurs hardening backfill array mainly due to the formation of new crystal structures of hydrochloridw magnesium. In addition, the additive-lignosulfonate can reduce the amount of saturated solution required for mixing the mixture at 15-20%, with the care required for pipeline transport mobility of the mixture, that, in turn, contributes to the recruitment of additional strength of the array.
To obtain optimal filling mixture composition components backfill mixture was mixed in a certain ratio under laboratory conditions. The resulting mixture is prepared samples - cubes 7 cm and tested in uniaxial compression at 7, 28, 60, 90 days. The results are given in table 1.
|Content, wt.%||In/T||Strength specimens in uniaxial compression, MPa|
|waste||magnesia cement||lignosulfonate||The duration of curing, the day|
As can be seen from the test results, the proposed compositions of the filling mixture gaining the necessary strength with the minimum content of the additional components.
Sources of information
1. Inventor's certificate SU 386145, CL E21F 15/00, 1971.
2. Inventor's certificate SU 1645565, CL E21F 15/00, 1988. (Prototype).
Backfill mixture containing waste processing of potash ore and a binder, characterized in that it content is t halite waste processing of potash ores,
as knitting - magnesia cement and advanced chemical additive - lignosulfonate in the following ratio, wt.%:
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, and namely to the method used for hydraulic filling of long single mine workings. It involves influence of retaining and filtering connection straps, installation of pulp pipeline, and supply of filling pulp. Water is drained via drain holes made in connection straps installed on the side opposite to the pulp supply. Filling pulp is supplied to the filled area via pulp pipeline with the holes made in lower part, which is attached to the roof of mine working throughout its length. The holes made at the beginning of the pipeline are equipped with petal valves.
EFFECT: increases the filling degree of the worked-out area in hard-to-reach sections.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to method for preparation of stowing mix. Tails of dressing works are sent to several stowing complexes with application of hydraulic transport system, comprising working and drain branches. Tails are separated in each stowing complex into condensed product sent for preparation of stowing mix and lightened discharge. Working and drain branches of hydraulic transport system are separated. Tails from working branch are sent to each stowing complex, and lightened discharge is drained to drain branch. End part of working branch and beginning of drain branch in hydraulic transport system are joined by emergency bridge comprising stop valves. Each stowing complex newly added to system of hydraulic transport is duplicated with emergency bridge. System of hydraulic transport includes several separated working and drain branches, which service groups of stowing complexes that vary in number. Working and drain branches of hydraulic transport system for sending of tails to several groups of stowing complexes may be combined into headers.
EFFECT: provision of stable high quality of mines stowing, increased efficiency and safety of mining works, lower costs for preparation of stowing mix and transportation of dressing works tails in servicing of several mines.
7 cl, 8 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining engineering and can be used during underground development of mineral deposits. Erection method of filling connection strap involves making of rock dike by laying as to width and height of the filling working of large rock pieces 1, on which there put is layer of finer rock or sand 2 with drain pipe 3 passed through rock dike. On rock dike there installed are pneumocylinders 4, which are forced outwards, between rock dike and roof of working by supplying to pneumocylinders 4 of compressed air with outward pressure which is more than limit value, at decrease of which pneumocylinders 4 are forced with backfill material 5 to the side of non-filled part of the working. Distance between rock dike and roof of working is determined by the ratio: amin<h<0.75amax, where: amin - minimum height of pneumocylinder 4 when in folded position till compressed air is supplied to it; h - distance between rock dike and roof of working; amax - size of pneumocylinder 4 after compressed air has been supplied to it.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of filling operations.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to hardening fill mixtures. It includes filler, liquid sodium glass, gypsum, cement. Fill mixture is additionally supplemented with flocculant and martite-hematite iron ore, with the following ratio of mixture components: liquid sodium glass 20-22%; cement 1-2%; gypsum 1-2%; flocculant 0.002-0.004%; martite-hematite iron ore 1%; filler - the rest.
EFFECT: improved quality of technological properties of hardening fill mixture, reduced prime cost, increased bearing capacity of filled mass, reduced consumption of hardening solution and simplified technology of stripped area filling.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mineral resource industry, namely to methods of protection of workings mainly at great depths and flat gradient of thick deposits in worked-out filling area and may be used during selective mining of thick deposits of highly valuable ore minerals. Method includes formation of secondary local zone of unloading by rock pressure in filling mass of worked-out area by means of balance bags and their filling with flexible material. Balance bags are performed during formation of filling mass in area of next working-out and as a flexible material layer of consolidating stowing is used which flexibility is enhanced as compared to the other layers.
EFFECT: improving of stability of workings formed in consolidating stowing mass.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of mining, namely, to travelling bulkheads for arrangement of filling mass in underground mine openings. It includes metal pressure shield, which consists of separate elements fixed to each other by means of bolts, soft shells, equipped with nozzles for supply and exhaust of compressed air, pipes for drainage with filters and pipes for sampling with plug. Metal pressure shield is arranged in the form of right-angled parallelepiped, which is made of four triangular fixed prisms, bases of which have the shape of isosceles right-angled triangle. Height of triangular prisms is accepted as higher than distance between roof of filled opening and metal pressure shield, in which door opening with door is installed, and door opens in direction of filling mass location. On upper and lateral sides of metal shield, there are soft shells arranged, height of which, when completely filled with compressed air, exceeds distance between metal pressure shield and contour of opening section. On the lower side metal pressure shield is equipped with rubberised apron on the side of filling mass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency and reliability of filling mass control in filling of lengthy mine openings and layer excavation of mineral.
SUBSTANCE: development method of lodes by layers with backfilling includes driving of preparatory-temporary workings 1, excavation of ore by diagonal layers 3, breaking by explosive blast holes into open area of layer, shipping of ore and filling of open area of layer by backfilling. Angle of slope of diagonal layer 3 is accepted equal to minimal limit angle, overcoming by self-propelled equipment. Backfilling is implemented up to designed taking-out capacity of lode by undermined rocks of bottom layer and/or granulated laying mixture from mill tailing.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of development, cost cutting for development of lodes, losses of minerals and anthropogenic load to environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral raw materials in running of stable ores by heading-and-stall methods. Method for strengthening of filling mass includes supply of filling materials with various content of binders. Hydraulic filling of chamber with finely dispersed material without binders is carried out to elevation of drilling horizon soil. After water drainage and setting of filling mass the following are drilled in staggered order along chamber perimetre from the side of processed interchamber sight pillars: boreholes - in chamber ceiling and, opposite to them - wells for the whole capacity of filling mass. Anchors having ring in lower part are inserted in boreholes and wedged, and case pipes are lowered into wells, and then for the whole depth - armature rods, ends of which are suspended to chamber ceiling with anchor rings, afterwards wells and case pipes are filed with mortar, containing binder. Upper part of chamber up to ceiling is filled with filling mass without binder.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase technological resources of stripped chambers filling and to reduce consumption of binder.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of mining and, in particular to underground development of ore deposits in cryolithic zone. In period of ambient air negative temperatures completely dehydrated tailings are briquetted and frozen on surface, then transported and placed in stripped area of stopes. And in period of ambient air positive temperatures tailings are partially dehydrated and supplied along pipes into stripped area of these stopes, which was before filled with frozen briquettes, for filling of interbriquette space with further freezing of created two-phase fillins mass due to natural negative temperature resource of enclosing strata and added negative ambient temperature resource of briquettes frozen on surface. Completeness of tailings location in stripped area created at stage of stoped excavation is provided by specified ratio of ore production volumes in period of negative and positive temperatures of ambient air. Using geothechnology with solid excavation of ore spreading without separation into stoped blocks, completeness of interbriquette space filling with pulp from tailings is provided by detection of distance between points of unloading into stripped area of frozen briquettes and pulp pouring from flowing tailings.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase ecological safety of ore deposits development due to return of solid enrichment wastes into stripped area and their recycling by means of permafrost mass restoration in stripped area.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of mining and can be used for laying of cleaning space at underground mining. Method of waste chambers' laying includes feeding into chamber of laying mixtures with different content of binding. Laying of chambers by mixtures, containing bindings, it is implemented in its bottom part up to level of top boundary of adjustment of underlying horizon, them up to mark of soil of drilling level it is implemented laying by mixtures without bindings. After shrinkage of laid massif, filtration and evaporation of water by perimetre of chamber into shrink slot it is located reinforce structure. In laid massif lengthwise chamber's walls there are driller wells up to mark, located lower top mark of laying layer in bottom part of chamber. Part of massif between chamber walls and walls of wells is destroyed. Into wells there are put in re-bars with exceeding of them over level of laid massif. And then wells and shrink slot is saturated with solution, containing bindings, after what top part of chamber it is filled with mixture with binding.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of laying of cleaning space at underground mining.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.