Sealing mixture for waterproofing and concreting tunnel linings
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used namely for ensuring tightness of joints in reinforced concrete tunnel blocks routed in conditions of non-aggressive ground water, as well as for performing waterproofing. Mixture for waterproofing and concreting tunnel linings includes portland cement without any additions with activity of not less than 25.0 MPa in 1 day, expanding sulfoaluminate component- mixture CaO:Al2O3:SO3 at molar ratio (3.1-3.5):(0.9-1.2):(2.2-2.6), fine cellulose fibre with fibres 0.03-1.0 mm long, copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinyl versatate, tartaric acid or its soluble salts and quartz sand with particle size of 0.1-2.5 mm, at the following component ratio, wt %: the above portland cement 45-50, mixture CaO:Al2O3:SO3 2.5-3.5, tartaric acid or its soluble salts 0.010-0.025, copolymer 0.2-0.5, cellulose fibre 0.1-0.2, quartz sand - the rest.
EFFECT: simplifying and reducing the process durability, increasing initial strength of concreting material obtained from mixture, increasing thixotropy of mixture and preventing it from being slipped from ceiling and vertical surfaces, improving its sanitary characteristics.
7 ex, 1 tbl
The invention relates to the injection of dry mixtures and can be used, in particular, to provide sealing of joints in concrete blocks, tunnels, laid out in the conditions of aggressive groundwater, as well as for waterproofing.
Known dry sealing material used, in particular, for waterproofing and concreting of the tunnel lining, representing the cement gipsoglinozemistyy expanding HOST-74.
This material contains blast-furnace slags, which are a waste of metallurgical production with uncertain properties, and therefore the physico-chemical properties of cement on HOST-74 is unstable; the strength of the cement insufficient; because of the high content of SO3(up to 17 wt.%) the durability of the material is insufficient; in addition, the cement on HOST-74 allocates sulfide mixing, which is unacceptable when working in a confined space of the tunnel.
Known sealing mixture, which can be used for concreting and waterproofing oil and gas wells and tunnel lining. The mix contains Portland cement clinker, slag, solfataras and aluminum-containing components; aluminum-containing component mixture contains white sludge formed at the stage of deep obestsenivaya alumina the solutions in the production of alumina sintering of high-silicon aluminum-containing ores, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|The white slurry of alumina production||4,0-8,0|
|Solfataras component (%of SO3)||2,0-5,0|
|The slag component||10,0-15,0|
|Portland cement clinker||Rest|
The disadvantage of this mixture is the low mechanical strength from the material, as well as long term cure.
Known sealing mixture for waterproofing, tunnel lining, which can also be used for concreting; mix contains Portland cement, which extends sulfoaluminate component in the form of gipsoglinozemistyy cement in combination with aluminous cement and fine fibers in the form of asbestos in the ratio of components, wt.%:
This mixture is the closest technical solution with respect to the claimed invention in terms of total essential features and adopted as a prototype.
The disadvantages of the prototype are as follows:
- too short hardening period (the beginning of the setting 4-10 min), which causes the need for mixing small portions of the mixture, which should be used for a very short period of time. Due to the fast setting material is deposited to fill the space in several stages using additional equipment - stamping hammer; above complicates and increases the duration of the technological process;
- aluminous and gipsoglinozemistyy cement included in the composition of the mixture, characterized by the instability of the chemical composition and properties, because they are the product of grinding of alumina slag formed as metallurgical wastes that result causes a low level of strength as compression and adhesion;
- mortar does not have sufficient thixotropy, which causes her slipping from the ceiling and vertical surfaces;
- the presence of asbestos sharply worsens sanitary-higienica the Kie characteristics of the mixture.
The present invention is to simplify and reduce the duration of the technological process in the implementation of waterproofing and concreting of the tunnel lining, increase the initial strength obtained from a mixture of manalicious material, increase the thixotropy of mortar and thereby preventing its slipping from the ceiling and vertical surfaces, as well as the improvement of sanitary and hygienic characteristics.
According to the invention the mixture for waterproofing and concreting of the tunnel lining comprising Portland cement, expanding sulfoaluminate component and fine fiber further comprises a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinylbenzoate, tartaric acid or its soluble salts and silica sand with a particle size of 0.1 to 2.5 mm, at the same time as expanding sulfoaluminate component, a mixture of Cao: Al2About3: SO3when the molar ratio(3,1-3,5):(0,9-1,2):(2,2-2,6), as the Portland cement used in the Portland cement without additives with activity at least 25,0 MPa after 1 day, as a fine pulp fibers using fiber size fiber of 0.03-1.0 mm, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|the Portland cement without additives|
|the mixture of Cao:Al2O3:SO3when the molar|
|tartaric acid or its soluble salts||0,010-0,025|
|the copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinylbenzoate||0,2-0,5|
The applicant has not identified the sources containing information about technical solutions, identical to the present invention, which allows to make a conclusion about its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".
Portland cement is the basis of the mixture; Portland cement without additives (in the specific example - PC 500 UP to according to GOST 10178-85) provides a fast curing, hardening, which do not provide Portland cement with additives (mineral), because the content of the active clinker in them is significantly lower. Furthermore, the activity of Portland cement without additives must be at least 25,0 MPa after 1 day, because otherwise the strength of the hardened material in the early stages insufficient for the implementation of such important works as the waterproofing and the concreting of the tunnel lining; the material may fall out of the resealable seam, which is unacceptable. When the content of Portland cement without additives less than 45 wt.% reduced strength in the initial period, and when the content of this component is more than 50 wt.% increase setting time of the mixture and also decreases the strength of the solution.
The mixture of Cao:A12O3:SO3an expanding component that provides reliable retention of the solution in the sealing cracks and improves the crack resistance. The molar ratio of Cao:Al2About3SO3within these limits(3,1-3,5):(0,9-1,2):(2,2-2,6) provides education phase ettringite by the reaction: Cao·Al2About3+3CaO·SO2·0,5H2O+2CaO·H2O+28.5H2O→CaO·Al2About3·3CaO·3SO3·N2O.
Education phase ettringite in the initial period of hydration of the mixture provides the shortening of the setting time, high compressive strength, the desired amount of expansion. These properties are not sufficiently expressed in the content of Cao:Al2About3:SO3in a mixture of less than 2.5 wt.%, and when the content of this component more than 3.5 wt.% is too much expansion solution, which can lead to deformation or even destruction of the sealed design.
The presence of the claimed mixture of tartaric acid or its soluble salts (tartratami) 0,010-0025 wt.% allows you to provide the required setting time - 10-30 minutes At the content of this component is less than 0,010% by weight of the setting time is less than 10 min, which is too low for the process to work with the mixture, and when the content of it more of 0.025 wt.% setting time more than 30 min, which can lead to slipping of the mortar mixture in the sealed seam.
The use of a copolymer of vinyl acetate with virilisation in the amount of 0.2-0.5 wt.% provides the giving of the injection mortar the plasticity required for free fill joints without additional mechanical seal, increasing the strength of adhesion of the mortar mixtures with a basis; is provided to prevent slipping of mortar with vertical and ceiling surfaces; when the content of this component in the amount of less than 0.2 wt.% not provide the required mobility of the injection mortar and a sufficient amount of coupling with the base; the increase in the content of a copolymer of vinyl acetate with virilisation > 0.5 wt.% extends the setting time of mortar, slows down the kinetics of the curing solution.
Use as a fibrous component cellulose fiber provides ecological purity of the mixture. The feature of the structure of cellulose fibers, which are tubes, hollow inside, in addition provides high thixotropy mortar with whom thou - the increased mobility at the time of application of the load due to the release of free water from the fiber and the subsequent reduction of mobility after removing the load, which prevents slipping of mortar with vertical and ceiling surfaces. When the content of the cellulose fibers is less than 0.1 wt.% these few properties are manifested, and when the amount is more than 0.2 wt.% significantly increases the water requirement of the mix, resulting in the deterioration of its main characteristics. Quartz sand is a placeholder, increases crack resistance, participates in the regulation of the kinetics of phase formation.
Thus, the implementation of the distinguishing features of the claimed invention provides the above important new properties object.
The applicant has not found any sources of information containing data about the impact of an alleged distinguishing signs on achieved as a result of their implementation of the technical result. This, according to the applicant demonstrates compliance with this technical solution, the criterion of "inventive step".
The table shows the properties of the solutions prepared from the stated mixtures with various proportions of the starting components.
The following example shows a solution of a mixture that has the highest property (example 3 in the table).
In a mixture of the spruce was introduced 475 kg of Portland cement without additives PC 500 TO the activity of more than 25,0 MPa, 28 kg of a mixture of Cao:Al2About3:SO3when the molar ratio 3,36:1,02:2,40, 0.2 kg of tartaric acid, 3 kg of a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinylbenzoate, 1 kg of cellulose fibres; the components were mixed for 3 minutes. Then the mixer was introduced filler is quartz sand (0.1 to 2.5 mm), the mixture was additionally mixed for 3 minutes. The zatvoreniem dry injecting a mixture of water was carried out at the place of use. In the mixer poured the required amount of water - (a/T=0,15) 150 l per 1 ton of the mixture, then covered the dry mix mortar mixture was mixed for 2 minutes, and was then ready for use.
Solution examples 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and according to the prototype prepared similarly.
Thanks to the possibility of regulating setting time and increase it up to 10-30 minutes is the possibility of laying mortar mixture in the sealed seam in one step without the use of additional equipment - stamping hammer that allows you to simplify and reduce the duration of the technological process of sealing seam; increased initial strength (1 day) obtained from a mixture of solid manalicious material; increasing the thixotropy of mortar and prevents the slide from the ceiling and vertical surfaces.
The components of the dry injecting the mixture produced by the industry, widely available. Technology of preparation and application of dry injection mixture is implemented using standard equipment. This determines whether the claimed invention, the criterion of "industrial applicability".
The mixture for waterproofing and concreting of the tunnel lining comprising Portland cement, expanding sulfoaluminate component and fine fiber, characterized in that it further contains a copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinylbenzoate, tartaric acid or its soluble salts and silica sand with a particle size of 0.1 to 2.5 mm, at the same time as expanding sulfoaluminate component, a mixture of Cao:Al2O3:SO3when the molar ratio(3,1-3,5):(0,9-1,2):(2,2-2,6), as the Portland cement used in the Portland cement without additives with activity at least 25,0 MPa after 1 day, as a fine pulp fibers using fiber size fiber of 0.03-1.0 mm in the following ratio, wt.%:
|the Portland cement without additives||45-50|
|the mixture of Cao:Al2O3:SO3when the molar|
|tartaric acid or its soluble salts||0,010-0,025|
|the copolymer of vinyl acetate and vinylbenzoate||0,2-0,5|
FIELD: construction and maintenance of tunnels, mining industry, possible use for mechanization of tunnel operations.
SUBSTANCE: timbering contains carrying frame with supporting elements and mechanism for movement, and collapsible screen sections of timbering held on the frame by means of hydro-cylinders. Carrying frame is made in form of flat working platform, on which hydro-cylinders of screen sections of timbering are held. In end zones of platform supporting elements are mounted on its upper and lower planes, made in form of at least paired, held in same transverse plane at an angle to each other, and at least paired in longitudinal plane at an angle to each other, telescopic spreaders with vacuum suckers mounted on their ends. Each spreader is provided with drive for telescopic mechanism and its rotation. Joints of spreaders and suckers are made spherical.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities of stepping timbering, increased reliability of technological process, simplified mechanism for moving the timbering and automation thereof, increased durability characteristics of timbering construction and provision of unobstructed movement of people and mechanisms along working timbering.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for delivering concrete mix at fastening mine workings to place of concreting. Proposed pneumatic concrete-placing machine consists of vessel with charging and discharge holes, car, concrete line and pneumatic system. Pipe is located on bottom of vessel to supply compressed air from pneumatic system to zone of influence of discharge hole equipped with check valve, bottom of vessel being made inclined. Concrete line is furnished with ejecting device and manifold in form of elbow installed coaxially with ejecting device. Ejecting device is arranged on lower section of concrete line directly after discharge hole of vessel, and manifold is arranged after ejecting device. Part of concrete line after manifold is made flexible, corrugated, and ejecting device and manifold are installed with possibility of uncoupling.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation owing to prevention of formation of air locks in concrete line and accumulation of mix at bottom of vessel.
SUBSTANCE: method of autoclave walling materials glazing involves semi-dry pressing, autoclave processing, plasma melting of face surface by plasma torch of plasmatron before autoclave processing, at plasmatron power of 12 kW and plasma torch travel speed of 0.3 mps over face surface, and quality control of finished product.
EFFECT: enhanced durability of glazing layer grip to substate, reduced glazing time and power cost.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: contamination protector contains fine particles of nitrogen dioxide, aqueous solvent containing alcohol dispersing specified particles of nitrogen dioxide, surface-active substance and splash modifier chosen among alkali metal compound, alkaline-earth metal compound, phosphorus compound, clay mineral and mixtures thereof. Specified contamination protector enters into the composition of specified aqueous solvent. It can be applied onto building board coating.
EFFECT: contamination protector and its adhesion to building board coating are enhanced.
3 cl, 30 dwg, 3 tbl, 30 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of decorative sand-lime brick production includes preparation of raw materials, shaping, autoclave treatment and impregnation of brick surface with nitrates of nickel, copper, manganese and sweating. Sweating of brick surface is conducted after brick formation before autoclave treatment.
EFFECT: improved strength of vitreous film adhesion with brick body.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of lacquered concrete products. The method of lacquered concrete products preparation includes dosing of cementing material, filler material, spray asbestos and water, blending, production of products from the final concrete mixture, maturing and glazing. In addition, spray asbestos, taken in the amount of 5-15% from total of cementing and filler materials is heat-treated at 110-370°C, further it's used within 1 hour, and the products are inundated with water after glazing, then drying out is followed.
EFFECT: loss decrease of concrete products strength during glazing.
FIELD: manufacture of building materials; composition of putties used for filling the cavities and smoothing the surfaces of concrete and reinforced concrete articles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed putty contains the following components, mass-%: lime paste, 20-30; perlitic sand, 47-52; solution of 10-% commercial lignosulfonnate, 3-5; ground chalk, 8-10; talum, 10-15.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of adhesion of putty to concrete surface.
FIELD: composition of glassy covering.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with glassy coverings for applying certain marking signs, illustrations onto ceramic articles, materials based upon hydraulic, liquid-glass, phosphate astringents, and glass. The suggested glassy covering contains CaO, Al2O3, Cr2O3, SiO2 and additionally TiO2, MgO, SrO at the following ratio of the components mentioned, weight%: CaO 35.0-40.0; Al2O3 5.0-10.0, Cr2O3 5.0-10.0; TiO2 5.0-10.0; MgO 5.0-10.0; SrO 5.0-10.0; SiO2 20.0-30.0. The innovation enables to increase the resistance of glassy covering to impact.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: building materials, building industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacturing silicate building materials and articles: bricks, blocks. Composition for coloring silicate articles comprising metal salt, water and aminoacetic acid comprises additionally glycerol and wherein copper sulfate is used as metal salt in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: copper sulfate, 14.0-28.0; water, 81.0-85.0; aminoacetic acid, 0.1-0.3, and glycerol, 0.7-0.9. Invention provides preparing stable saturated "turquoise" color of articles.
EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.
FIELD: finishing building materials, used for evening out facade surfaces of buildings and surfaces inside rooms.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for producing knifing filler, siliceous binding substance is prepared by grinding sand in ball mill with addition of alkaline admixture. Grinding of sand is performed by quartzitic pebbles at moisture level of 14-30% and temperature of 20-80°C. Then stabilization of siliceous binding substance is performed for at least 12 hours, and then siliceous binding substance is mixed with, successively, dispersion of acryl and sodium formate with following ratio of components, %: siliceous binding substance 90-94, acryl dispersion 5-8, sodium formate 1-2.
EFFECT: increased hardness of finishing materials, amplified stability thereof to effect of environment, many times decreased amount of components and improved ecological properties thereof.
FIELD: building unit production, particularly to manufacture reinforced concrete, cement-sand and ceramic materials and articles of said materials (blocks, tiles, bricks and so on).
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying layer including glassy granules with 3-5 mm particle dimensions on building article surfaces and fusing thereof. The layer is formed of broken glass sheets and broken glass color filters taken in proportion of 8:2. Low-melting and high-melting glass granules have different colors.
EFFECT: improved article quality.
FIELD: sealing-up porous materials - concrete, bricks, gypsum, ceramic, stone.
SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating compound of permeatic action contains mixture of salts formed by the following metals: lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, titanium and by aids of the following series: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, nitrous acid, silicic acid, carbonic acid, boric acid, phosphoric acid at the following ratio of ions, ion mass/100 g of mixtures of salts: lithium, 0-6.9; sodium, 0.7-48.2; potassium, 0-41.5; calcium, 5-25; magnesium, 0-6; iron, 0-4.9; aluminum, 0.01-4.90; titanium, 0-4.2; sulfate, 0.8-28.6; chloride, 0.01-5.8; nitrate, 4.9-64; nitrite, 0-24.5; silicate, 0-10; carbonate, 0.1-10; borate, 0-4.2; phosphate, 0-6.7. Compound contains additionally surfactant in the amount not exceeding 4 g/100 g of mixture of salts. Acid number of compound does not exceed 300 mg KOH/g of mixture of salts. Compound contains natural salts and/or salts selected from wastes or semi-products of industries. Compound may additionally includes binder or filler in the amount not exceeding 100-fold magnitude of mass of salts, or dye.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; availability and universality.
12 cl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: material for making inserts to jewellery contains the following, wt %: white portland cement 18-22, crushed wastes from processing mother-of-pearl 78-82 with water-to-cement ratio of 0.6-0.8.
EFFECT: improved machinability of material.