Method to produce filtration material, filtration material and respiratory system protector

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polymer fibrous filtration materials and covers the method of electroforming 1-10 mcm diametre fibers from 5% to 20% by weight of polymer solution in organic solvent that features viscosity of 3.5 to 5.0 p at electroforming voltage of 60 to 140 kV. In compliance with this method, the used polymer used represents chlorinated polyethylene or polypropylene with chlorination of 64-66% and molecular weight of (2-15) 105. Material, thus produced, is used for protection of respiratory system when applied on dressed gauze substrate.

EFFECT: higher protective properties.

3 cl, 8 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of production method electrotorture fibrous polymer filter materials used for respiratory protection and the environment from toxic aerosols.

The essence of the method of electrotorture is getting when creating the electrical potential difference ultrathin (1-10 μm) polymer fibers from a solution of fibre-forming polymer, followed by deposition of fibers on a substrate or without it.

Under the influence of an electric field occurs neutralization of the forces of surface tension of the solution, with the result that he comes in the form of a thin thread from the metering device, which is the pole of the high voltage, and is split into many thinner filaments. During evaporation of the solvent thread turn into dry fibers that are deposited on opposite charged the receiving electrode.

The basis of the method, the characteristics obtained with its use of filter materials and their use are described in detail in the book Aaguilera "Production and properties of filter materials Petryanov of ultrathin polymer fibers", Moscow, 2007, p.16-96, 156-164, and the book Y.N. Filatov "Electropermanent fibrous materials SAFV-process): Oil and gas, 1997, p.3-7.

A method of obtaining the filtering material from which alimera styrene with Acrylonitrile diameter fibers 1-10 μm of the spinning solution, containing dichloroethane, electrolytic additives and solvents from the series: acetone or methyl ethyl ketone, or ethyl acetate, or butyl acetate (patent RU 2182511, 01039/16, 2002.05.20).

The disadvantage of this method is that the filter material obtained on its basis has a low mechanical strength.

A method of obtaining the filter FPP-15-1,5 on THE other 6-16-2813-84; FPP-15-1,0 on THE other 6-16-2502-81; FRR-15-0,8 on THE other 6-16-2090-84; FRR-15-0,6 on THE other 6-16-2571-85 based on processing of 10-12 wt.% spinning solution of PVC resin chlorinated in dichloroethane method electrotorture with the subsequent imposition of fibers on a substrate made of gauze or cloth glued. As technological additives to control viscosity and conductivity of the spinning solution and the velocity of the fiberizing is ethyl alcohol. To control the conductivity of the solution is also injected electrolytic additives. This method allows you to get the filter material FRR with different security characteristics. The disadvantage of this method is the relatively low tensile strength of the fibrous layer (0,49-1,18 N, 0,05-0,12 kg).

Known fibrous filter material of a copolymer of styrene with methyl methacrylate and Acrylonitrile containing fiber 6-10 mm in the amount of 70-80% and a fiber diameter of 1-2 m is the number of 20-30%, and the way it is received by electrostatic molding of the polymer solution in an organic solvent (patent RU 2049525, V 039/16, publ. 1995.12.10).

This material is not a high mechanical characteristics.

Known fibrous filter material FPP-15-1,5 on THE other 6-16-2813-84 FRR-15-1,0 on THE other 6-16-2502-81 FRR-15-0,8 on THE other 6-16-2090-84 FRR-15-0,6 on THE other 6-16-2571-85 with the following indicators presented in table 1.

This material is not a high mechanical characteristics.

Known means of respiratory protection by patent 2182511 (publ. 2002.05.20), containing a working layer of polymer fibers with a diameter of 1-10 μm, the protective layer of gauze and filter holder, and the working layer is made of fibers of a copolymer of styrene with Acrylonitrile, with a surface density of 20-80 g/m2and aerodynamic 3-60 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S.

The disadvantage of this means of respiratory protection is the low mechanical strength of the used filter material.

The invention solves the task of developing a method of producing a filtering material, which allows to obtain the filter material with high mechanical characteristics while maintaining the protective characteristics required for the use of this is about material in the media for respiratory protection.

The problem is solved by the described method of obtaining the filter material by electrotorture fiber with a diameter of 1-10 μm, from 5-20 wt.% the polymer solution in an organic solvent, having a viscosity of 3.5-5.0 Poises when the voltage electrotorture 60-140 kV, whereas the polymer used chlorinated polyethylene or polypropylene of high class polyolefins having a degree of chlorination of 64-66% and molecular weight (2-15)·105. This choice is based on the following main properties of the polymer, causing the desired properties of the product, namely the ability to form stable homogeneous solutions when dissolved in certain organic solvents, water repellency combined with high electrical resistance, high chemical resistance to acids and alkalis, high thermal resistance, high tensile strength and relative elongation.

The problem is solved also by the filter material obtained by the method described above, and as the polymer used chlorinated polyethylene or polypropylene having a degree of chlorination of 64-66% and molecular weight (2-15)·105.

The task is also solved by means of respiratory protection, containing a working layer of polymer fibers, and as the floor is the measure used chlorinated polyethylene or polypropylene, having a degree of chlorination of 64-66% and molecular weight (2-15)·105.

Thanks to the claimed method, the obtained filter material with improved mechanical properties, and the filter material has the required properties for the manufacture of personal protective equipment.

Examples obtain the filtering material is presented in table 2, 3.

Prepare 5-20 wt.% the spinning solution is highly polyethylene or polypropylene having a degree of chlorination of 64-66% and molecular weight (2-15)·105in organic solvents (see table 2). The solution should be homogeneous (without admixture of solid particles), i.e. the polymer is completely soluble in the selected solvent. In the prepared solution specified mass concentration is determined by the dynamic viscosity. As a technological additive for regulating the conductivity of the used solution tetraethylammonium in ethanol (see table 2). Then spend electropermanent fibrous layer is in the range electrical voltage 60-140 kV and the pressure of the spinning solution of 0.6-2.0 kgf/cm2.

As shown by laboratory tests obtained in accordance with the invention, the filter materials are fibers with an average diameter of 1-10 μm, have a high protective characteristics, namely: the ratio of Pronichev the standard oil mist with an average particle radius of 0.15-0.17 microns at a speed of 1 cm/s from 0.0002 to 0.12, improved mechanical properties (tensile load from 2.1 to 4.3), the resistance to air flow of 0.5-1.35mm Vogt (4,9-13,23 PA) at a flow rate of air of 1 cm/s, the relative elongation in the range 0.4-0,66 (see table 3).

Described filter material was manufactured at the production plant JSC "Sorbent", from which the pilot batch of personal respiratory protection type "Petal", "2K", containing a working layer of declared material deposited on a substrate of the finished Marley and tested respirators type f-62, RPG-67, RU-60M, which gave a positive result.

Table 3
Characteristics of filter materials based on high density polyethylene and polypropylene
The name of the filter material on the basis of the spinning solution (No. of example 1)Technological parameters of manufacturingQuality material
Voltage, kVPressure solution, kgf/cm2The resistance is a group of the airflow at a design speed of 1 cm/sec, mm Vogt (PA)The coefficient of permeability for oil mist when the estimated speed of 1 cm/sec, %The surface density of the fibrous layer, g/m2The breaking load of the fibrous layer, NElongation at break fiber. layer
12345678
No. 1801,20,64 (6,27)0,0326,93,00,49
1001,20,80 (7,84)0,07625,03,20,50
No. 21201,41,0-1,20,00639,3a 3.90,48
(9,8-11,76)
1402,01,35 (13,23)0,00835,03,50,49
No. 31101,70,70-0,750,01435,93,70,43
(6,86-7,35)
No. 41201,80,80 (7,84)0,0004to 47.24,30,40
No. 5601,0 0,55 (5,39)0,1220,52,10,54
1000,81,0 (9,8)0,0224,82,70,50
No. 61200,70,75 (7,35)0,0430,33,20,56
No. 71100,61,05 (10,29)is 0.000231,3the 3.80,56
1200,60,95 (9,31)0,000827,43,50,55
No. 81100,60,78 (of 7.64)0,00218,1 0,56
No. 91000,60,6 (5,88)0,06to 25.32,80,5
No. 101000,60,5 (4,9)0,624,02,80,49
1200,70,75 (7,35)0,0430,33,10,58
No. 111100,71,5 (14,7)0,000431,6the 3.80,48
No. 121100,61,05 (10,29)0,000431,3the 3.80,56
120 0,60,95 (9,31)0,00127,43,00,55
No. 131100,60,78 (of 7.64)0,00218,12,60,48
No. 141100,60,78 (of 7.64)0,00218,12,90,58
1100,70,85 (8,33)0,00220,02,60,63
No. 151100,70,85 (8,33)0,00220,02,40,61
No. 161200,70,92 (9,02)0004 23,22,80,56
1000,60,67 (6,57)0,0417,92,350,66
No. 171200,70,92 (9,02)0,00323,22,70,66

1. The method of obtaining the filter material by electrotorture fiber with a diameter of 1-10 μm, from 5-20 wt.% the polymer solution in an organic solvent, having a viscosity of 3.5-5.0 P when the voltage electrotorture 60-140 kV, characterized in that the polymer used as chlorinated polyethylene or polypropylene having a degree of chlorination of 64-66% and molecular weight (2-15)·105.

2. The filter material consisting of a layer of polydisperse electrically charged ultrafine polymer fibers, characterized in that it is obtained by the method described in claim 1.

3. Remedy for respiratory protection, containing a working layer of polymer fibers with a diameter of 1-10 μm, the protective layer of gauze and filtrowanie the spruce, characterized in that it comprises a working layer of fibres obtained by a method characterized in claim 1.



 

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