Ground deicing device

FIELD: air transport.

SUBSTANCE: device contains thermal mat made of flexible woven electric heater closed by protective electric insulating material. Water repellent material and double layer of heat insulation and water repellent are placed at internal and external surfaces of protective electric insulating material. There is DC power supply source. Thermal mat is divided into number of sections, each having its heating area. Sections of flexible woven electric heater are divided into number of units with different power defined by preset length and width of flexible woven electric heater. Thermal mat is fixed at horizontal surface of aircraft by tapes or fast-type fixing.

EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency in snow and ice removal from lateral surfaces of the aircraft; ecologic cleanliness of maintenance with use of safety power supply at optimal regulation of power consumption and simplification of structure.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to an aircraft, in particular for de-icing systems for aircraft (LA) in the presence of their ground icing, and can be applied in all areas of engineering.

Ice LA while its on the ground differs from the in-flight icing. If in-flight ice is formed, as a rule, only in the frontal parts of LA, the land of ice usually covers a large part of its surface: the entire upper part of the wings and stabilizers and fuselage surface. The main danger associated with ground ice LA, is in development on icy surfaces of the wing and empennage of the aircraft premature (at lower angles of attack) stall phenomena that threatens during takeoff and climb a violation of the characteristics of stability and controllability of the AIRCRAFT, and the AIRCRAFT (see Accrues, 1995, the Security takeoff in icing conditions, Moscow, GNAIGER, p.17).

The main tools used in the world practice to protect LA from ground icing, are de-icing fluid, which provide as removing ice, snow, frost, frost and the prevention of their formation on the surface of LA for some time. To de-icing fluids must meet the following basic requirements:

- high the power of removal of all types of ground icing: icing, the solid (crystalline) bloom, frost, ice;

the ability to protect the surface from LA ice formation in conditions of freezing precipitation (freezing rain, sleet, drizzle) for some time;

- ability full reset (blow-off, draining liquid from the surface of the wing during the takeoff AIRCRAFT (speed, large 160 km/h);

- low energy consumption for pumping at low temperatures;

safety when handling it (toxicity);

- to have a minimum negative impact on the environment (because only 20-25% of the liquid is directly involved in the de-icing process, because most of the fluid flows to the ground during processing LA or blown away from its surface by the wind. Remaining on the surface LA of the liquid necessarily cleared for take-off and spreads along the runway and then in flight.

From de-icing fluid type I do not want long-term protection from LA re-icing after drenching LA - he has only a few minutes up in the air, and when lifting reset de-icing fluid together with melted ice (snow, frost etc) on the ground. During the de-icing fluid type I ordinary Newtonian.

From de-icing fluid type II tributable long-term protection LA, a long standoff supercooled rain, temperatures, etc. For this purpose use is strongly thickened compositions with exotropia properties and non-Newtonian flow.

However, the application of anti-icing fluids significantly disrupts the environment in the airport area, and also requires constant replenishment of such liquids.

The most widespread electric protivoobledinitelnoy with cyclic heating (see Gvecomics.com, 1967, the Anti-icing system for aircraft, Moscow).

Known protection device aerodynamic surfaces LA icing (see US patent No. 2627012 NCI 244-134, 1958), containing on the protected surface electric heating elements.

This solution has a large energy consumption, low efficiency of anti-icing.

Known electric heating de-icing device (see SA SU # 335159 IPC B64D 15/12, 09.01.69), in which the heating element is made in the form of a thin layer of electrically conductive material deposited on a heated surface.

The disadvantage of the invention is the need for structural modifications to each of the heated surface.

A device for removing ice from surfaces (see patent RU No. 223481, IPC H02G 07/16, NV 06/00, B64D 15/00, from 30.11.1999), which includes an electrode electrically insulated from the object, and a constant current source, for example a battery, is connected to the object and the electrode, and insulating material located between the object and the electrode deposited on the object of ferroelectric, dielectric losses, ferromagnetic or semiconductor material. Electromagnetic energy generates heat coating, leading to the melting of ice and snow.

Known electric heating fabric (see patent RU No. 2182406, IPC NV 03/36, from 10.05.2002), consisting of a number of electroconductive yarns and at least two conductive tires. The pairs of conductive busbars connected set of electroconductive yarns, a binding with electrically conductive resistive threads, intended to supply uniform heat. To conducting buses is connected, at least two distribution bus to supply power to the conductive buses. Each conductive bus and each distribution bus includes at least one thread with low resistance to the transmission of electricity.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a protective product (see patent RU No. 2246188 IPC NC 07/20, from 28.12.2001)containing a heating element implemented in the form of flexible packaging is th woven heater on either side of which is placed a protective screens made of two layers including a heat-shielding fabric with different optical characteristics of the inner and outer sides of the insulating material.

The disadvantage of the invention is that such functionally protective product provides thermal stabilization equipment on all sides and is a closed shell.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the efficiency of removal of an existing ice from horizontal surfaces LA, as well as protection against ice formation in conditions of freezing precipitation (freezing rain, sleet, drizzle) for some time, ensure environmental cleanliness maintenance, the use of safe power optimization of power consumption and simplify the design.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that ground deicing device containing unilateral thermomat made of flexible woven heater, closed on both sides of the protective insulating material, and the inner and outer surfaces which are placed, respectively, water-repellent material and paired two layers of heat-and water-repellent material, and a constant current source.

G is BCIE woven heaters are divided into a number of elements of different capacities, define the required length and width of flexible woven heater.

Thermomat is divided into several sections, each of which has its own zone heating.

Thermomat is fixed on horizontal surfaces LA of the tape fasteners or fastening type fast.

The essence of the invention is the use of electroconductive resistive filaments and yarns of low resistance, creating a woven material having the necessary structural strength and a specified temperature characteristics covering like a blanket, was applied to the horizontal surfaces of the wings and stabilizers LA.

The invention allows for environmental cleanliness maintenance in LA airport-based reusability of the device at a safe power supply.

In the process of working flexible woven heaters, radiant heat flow, perform locally heated horizontal surfaces LA, aimed at increasing the specific impacts generated unit of electricity consumed per unit area.

To simplify the design of ground de-icing device and automatic temperature control was applied with a built-in display device is achieved by maximizing the unification of certain turmamatov p and their minimum number, various sizes and power consumption.

The comparison of the proposed solution with the known technical solutions shows that it has a new set of essential features that allow you to successfully implement the goal.

Figure 1 presents the profile of the wing with the placement of ground de-icing device, figure 2 - placement of ground de-icing device on horizontal surfaces LA, figure 3 - system of the disclosure a ground de-icing device on the Airbus a-320 (US), figure 4 - control unit ground de-icing device.

Ground de-icing device contains thermomat 1, made of flexible woven heater 2, which is closed at both sides of the protective insulating material 3, and the constant current source 4, the inner and outer surfaces of the protective insulating material 3 is placed, respectively, water-repellent material 5 and the coupled two-layer heat-shielding 6 and waterproof material 5.

Flexible woven heaters 2 are divided into a number of elements of different capacities 7, determined by the specified length and width of flexible woven heater.

Thermomat 1 is divided into a number of sections 8, each of which has its own zone heating.

Thermomat 1 fixed is conducted on horizontal surfaces 9 and feathers 10 LA tape fasteners 11 or bracket type fast 12.

Block diagram of automatic control of ground de-icing device, figure 2, includes electronic analysis and control 13, display unit 14, the control unit 15 and the switching unit 16, the temperature sensors thermal sections 17 was applied 1, the temperature sensors wing under these sections 18, sensors, weather data environment 19, the supply line 20 of each row of elements 7 different power source DC power supply 4, and the monitor device 21 and the monitor readiness of the plane 22 in the control Center flight.

The work of ground de-icing device is as follows.

Using a special rolling mounting of the device on the upper horizontal surface of the wing and stabilizer are mounted thermomete.

After appropriate commutation sensor and mains conducted the operation control system according to the indications on the monitor 21.

The command to switch on the heaters and temperature control of the heater and the surface of the wings and stabilizer.

Depending on weather conditions weather-data 19 selects the operation mode of the system (in the presence of an ice cover or in its absence).

When the temperature reached on the surface of the wing or stabilizer of the order of 10-13C automatically (by command from the control unit) odluke is to supply the appropriate section.

Optimization of the required power for each partition and the possibility of filing a separate power section can reduce the total energy consumption up to 10-15%.

Depending on the type of aircraft is carried out optimization of the geometrical dimensions of turmamatov to maximize their use and consequently reduce the cost of solving the problem-icing.

Consider using 1 was applied on the example of Airbus a-320 (US), with a wingspan - 43,9 m, square in plan, each wing ~74.5 m2and each stabilizer and 17.9 m2.

The presence of ground ice LA:

mode a is the air temperature close to 0C, but there is no ice formation on horizontal surfaces LA and stabilizer;

"mode" - on all horizontal surfaces of the wing and the stabilizer, there is ice crust thickness of about 2 mm;

The consumption of electric energy for heating the horizontal surface of the wings LA and stabilizers to +10C (from +3to +13C) in "mode A" is of the order of 10 KW for 1 hour de-icing device.

Evaluation of the operation of the device when the presence of the ice cover thickness of about 2 mm and an ambient temperature of about - 10C showed that 2 hours with a total power consumption of about 95 KW melting of ice and beneath the roar of the surfaces of the wings and stabilizers to 10-13C.

Technical and economic effect of the invention is to improve the efficiency of removing ice and snow from horizontal surfaces and empennage LA in the presence of their ground icing, ensuring environmental cleanliness service with the ability to use a secure power supply at the optimum power consumption, simplify the design, the reliability and durability of its health.

1. Ground de-icing device containing thermomat made of flexible woven heater, closed on both sides of the protective insulating material, and a constant current source, characterized in that on the inner and outer surfaces of the protective insulating materials are placed, respectively, water-repellent material and paired two layers of heat-and water-repellent material.

2. Ground de-icing device according to claim 1, characterized in that thermomat is divided into several sections, each of which has its own zone heating.

3. Ground de-icing device according to claim 2, wherein the section of flexible woven heater divided into a number of units of different capacities, determined by the specified length and width of flexible woven heater.



 

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