Methods for nondestructive information reading from ferroelectric memory elements

FIELD: physics; computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering and can be used in computer memory for different purposes, in making new-generation video and audio devices, in designing content addressed memory systems and designing direct access data banks. The method for nondestructive reading information from a ferroelectric memory cell fitted with electrodes involves the following operations: reading electrical voltage is applied across electrodes to generate elastic deformation of the ferroelectric memory cell and detecting the said elastic deformation using a floating gate and/or conducting channel field effect transistor made from material with piezoelectric properties and degree and nature of polarisation of the ferroelectric memory cell is determined from the value of current flowing through the transistor. The ferroelectric memory element contains a field effect transistor and a piezoelectric element which is the memory cell. The floating gate is based on piezoelectric material. The memory cell has a three-layered structure consisting of two electrodes between which there is a piezoelectric component made from ferroelectric material and lying on top of the floating gate of the transistor.

EFFECT: faster information exchange.

20 cl, 22 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to computer technology and can be used in storage devices of computers for various purposes, creating videoaudiogenerator new generation in the development of systems of associative memory devices, the creation of data banks with direct access.

Modern computers use a storage device for various purposes with different characteristics speed recording, time of storage, access time and read the information. This significantly complicates the work of computing systems increases the time of preparation of the computers to work, complicates the problem of preserving information, and so on

One of the priority tasks in the field of microelectronics, is the creation of a universal mass storage device with high speed recording and reading information along with a large storage and high information density.

However, the potential of the physical principles underlying the operation of electronic devices, semiconductor microelectronics, almost exhausted. Currently there is an intensive search for new principles of operation of the memory elements. Most interesting are the so-called legacy technologies that are based on known technology, it is giah and is an improvement over existing products, does not require significant modifications in the technological process.

Ferroelectric memory element (Ferroelectric RAM FeRAM) is the most reasonable candidate for the development of non-volatile memory technologies. To implement the data storage mechanism in FeRAM memory elements used ferroelectric (ferroelectric) effect, which is characterized by the ability of the ferroelectric material to store electric polarization in the absence of an external electric field is theoretically infinitely long. This is due to the dipole interaction between elementary dipole moments, resulting in ferroelectric ordering of the dipoles and the emergence of spontaneous polarization and, consequently, the accumulation of charges on the surface of the ferroelectric material. There is a certain analogy with the ferromagnetic effect, which is known to be widely used in the creation of memory devices.

The FeRAM memory element is created by placing a thin film ferroelectric (ferroelectric) material between two flat metal electrodes. Structurally very similar to the capacitor used in the construction of a DRAM cell, but instead of storing data as charge in a capacitor, like a DRAM, a ferroelectric memory cell x is anit data within the crystal structure. Ferroelectric crystals retain the two stable States of polarization is "1" and "0". Since the FeRAM cell is leakage of the charge, resulting in a loss of information, there is no need for periodic regeneration of data in DRAM. Moreover, when the power data is stored.

The memory elements FeRAM was originally attributed to the ease, speed and reliability inherent in the DRAM and nonvolatile, and time information storage inherent in the flash memory. To undoubted advantages of FeRAM also include resistance to radiation and other penetrating radiation, which is the Achilles heel of the flash memory.

The FeRAM memory elements, as in technological descendant of the modern types of memory, has absorbed the best features of - volatility and high speed. Ferroelectric memory elements can be considered a real contender for the role of basic technologies for the establishment of permanent storage devices of new generation. And although most of the problems inherent in this type of memory have already been overcome (for example, aging of material), some questions about the use of this technology still remain open.

There is a huge number of all sorts of ferroelectric memory cells, combining the main elements of Kotor is x is built memory - a transistor with a floating gate of the ferroelectric material and the capacitor on the basis of the ferroelectric material. Of these combinations, you can display the 4 main types, which are basic, all other types of FeRAM cells are the only combinations thereof. This transistor cell 1T FeRAM, consisting of a transistor with the gate of the ferroelectric material; adnocarcinoma cell 1C FeRAM. The most common type is a transistor-capacitor cell of 1T-1C FeRAM. This type FeRAM is closest in structure to the memory on ferromagnetic cores. Positive the most important characteristic of odnochastotnoj cell 1C FeRAM are very small element size, respectively, higher information capacity per unit surface area of the chip.

The principal characteristics of the memory elements include: information density, which is expressed in the largest single item measured in units of the minimum acceptable lithographic process size (F); the number of cycles of the write-read; the retention time.

All types of memory cells can be divided into two main types: read information from the memory element is accompanied by the destruction of existing information and need to be overwriting the information in the same way as is done in the elements on namikoshi memory DRAM. This type of memory elements include: adnocarcinoma cell 1C FeRAM, the transistor-capacitor cell of 1T-1C FeRAM and a double cell 2T-2C FeRAM. The main advantage of these memory elements is virtually unlimited data storage time. The disadvantages include a limited number of cycles program / erase information, and a long time of accessing the memory element, which is caused by the getter method and the dimensions of the memory element, excluding sizes odnochastotnoj cell 1C FeRAM, which area is 4F2. This type FeRAM is closest in structure to the memory on ferromagnetic cores. The area of the memory element based on the transistor-capacitor cell of 1T-1C FeRAM is about 20-30 F2i.e. this parameter significantly inferior odnochastotnoj transistor 1C and 1T cells of the ferroelectric memory.

There are elements of a ferroelectric memory in which is implemented nondestructive method of reading information. This element is a transistor cell 1T FeRAM. This type of memory element is characterized by small size (5F2). However, this type of memory does not have a long storage time information. This cell structure was used in one of the first working models FeRAM, created in 1957 (Patent US 2791758, U.S. C1. 340-173, 1957) (Patent US3832700, IPC G11c 11/22, G11c 11/40, 1974).

The closest solution to the claimed invention is a memory cell described in Patent US3832700. However, the performance of the cell did not meet the requirements of the nonvolatile memory cell too quickly was used to compensate for the charge and it passed in an uncontrolled state.

Another equally important characteristic for successful operation of the memory element is the degree of polarization necessary for its functioning. If normal operation of the transistor-capacitor cell of 1T-1C FeRAM requires a value for the polarization of more than 20 s/cm2for transistor cell 1T FeRAM enough to have the amount of polarization of less than 0.2 s/cm2i.e. for the functioning of this type of memory is required hundreds of times smaller amount of polarization ("Physics of thin-film ferroelectric oxides", Rev. Mod. Phys. V.77, p.1083, 2005). It should also be noted that for normal operation the transistor-capacitor cell of 1T-1C FeRAM, as well as odnochastotnoj cell 1C FeRAM requires absolute final value of the charge on the electrodes of the ferroelectric memory cell, which decreases the minimum acceptable lithographic dimensions (F). This requires finding ferroelectric materials with increasing magnitude of the electric polarization. However, Izv the STN, with the increase of the magnitude of the polarization increases and problems with increasing number of cycles of the write-read. However, for work-transistor cell 1T FeRAM is important to have a specific surface density of the magnitude of the electric polarization, which in itself is fairly small (less than 0.2 s/cm2). This circumstance is undoubtedly an important factor in the reduction of design rules lithographic process, as well as in the selection of ferroelectric materials compatible with semiconductor technology.

Summarizing, we can say that there are two types of ferroelectric memory with potentially high information density, which is of great potential interest, but require further improvement. This odnokomnatanya memory element 1C FeRAM, which area is 4F2and transistor memory element (1T FeRAM) with an area of about 5F2. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.

So-transistor memory element (1T FeRAM) is the most promising class of ferroelectric memory elements, which is characterized by small size, high speed access to the cells. In addition, this type of memory is characterized by a nondestructive method of reading information, the small size of the electronic polarization that predopredelyayutsya unlimited write cycles-reading. All this creates conditions create the perfect memory chips based on the memory element. However, there are some significant and almost fatal problems when creating the ideal chip-based memory-transistor ferroelectric memory element (1T FeRAM).

The main problems are:

1. The durable data storage

Generally, the retention time for this type of memory is several hours or days. There are publications that reported on time storage for several weeks. Achieving storage time even a month requires a complex and poorly reproducible and controlled technology for ferroelectric layer with a very low specific conductivity. But in any case, this type of memory does not meet the first requirement of the non-volatile memory, namely, the retention time should be about ten years. Such a short time storage of information due to loss of charge on the surface of the ferroelectric layer due to the effect of depolarization and leakage of charge. The latter circumstance is due to the appreciable conductivity of the ferroelectric layer. Obtaining a ferroelectric material with a conductivity-level dielectric layers in flash memory is an almost unsolvable the th task.

2. High voltage programming

This is due to the strong difference of the dielectric permittivity of the ferroelectric layer and the buffer dielectric layers. This problem is practically unsolvable task.

Research on the improvement of the memory element based on transistor cell 1T FeRAM are long, but the problems remain unresolved and require fundamentally new nondestructive and rapid method of reading information.

At the same time, of great interest is odnochastotnoj memory element 1C FeRAM, on which you can base a simple memory arrays on a fairly simple technology. This type of memory device can have its specific, but broad in scope. However, as noted above, this element type ferroelectric memory is characterized by several disadvantages:

1. A method of reading is accompanied by the destruction of the previously recorded information, which increases the access time to the memory element and reduces the number of cycles of the write-read. Necessary to develop a nondestructive method of reading information.

2. Requires a high absolute value of the electronic polarization.

The basis of the invention is the task of creating a fundamentally new methods of non-destructively what about the read information in the ferroelectric memory elements, which could be characterized by high information density, fast readout and low voltage programming, but it would allow to combine the technology with the technology of production of modern semiconductor devices.

As you know, the main reasons for the loss of charge on the ferroelectric transistor gate transistor in the cell 1T FeRAM associated with the effect of depolarization and leakage of the charge, due to the finite conductivity of the ferroelectric material ("Hide ferroelectric polarization depolarization field", Appl. Phys. Lett., v.71, N.14, p.2041, 1997). It should be noted that the recorded information in the form of the magnitude and direction of polarization of the ferroelectric material of the ferroelectric gate transistor is maintained. However, used the principle of reading data does not allow him to retrieve.

However, ferroelectric materials have a number of interesting and useful physical properties, such as pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity. These properties are widely used in various methods of rendering images, but which are still not used to create the memory elements, in particular in the memory elements on the base of transistor cells 1T FeRAM.

A number of materials, including fer Elektricheskie materials, has the unique ability to generate electric charges on their surfaces when heated or cooled. This property is widely used for non-contact method of measuring the temperature, and also when creating televizorov for various purposes.

With regard to the creation of the memory cells on the basis of ferroelectric materials should pay attention to the fact that the sign and magnitude generated on the surface charge is determined by the direction and magnitude of the polarization and intensity of heating or cooling. Thus, by making the pulse heating of the ferroelectric gate transistor in the cell 1T FeRAM, you can generate charges on its surface, which will lead in turn to changes in the amount of current passing through the transistor. Thus, it is possible to perform nondestructive readout of the status of the electrical polarization of the ferroelectric shutter, to obtain data on the magnitude and direction of polarization, i.e., to obtain information on previously recorded information. Known memory elements using pulse heating of the material of the memory cell ("the Phenomenon of reversible electrical switching in disordered structures", Phys. Rev. Lett, V.21, N.20, p.1450, 1968). In these cases, the pulse heating up to 600-700C is accompanied by a phase transition of kr is starecheski - the amorphous state, which differ in their resistivity. In our case, the pulse heating does not exceed 50-100C and may be only a few tens of degrees.

No less effective, and perhaps even more promising, despite the complication of the structure of the memory element is the use of piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric materials. It is known that piezoelectric materials, in particular made of ferroelectric materials possess a unique ability to generate electric charges on their surface as a result of exposure to pressure, which may be pulsed and static. This effect is called the direct piezoelectric effect.

In addition, there is an inverse piezo-effect, in which the voltage applied to the piezoelectric material causes it to elastic deformation. In case of using a ferroelectric material as the piezoelectric nature and magnitude of elastic deformation depends on the magnitude and direction of electric polarization ferroelectric and of course the magnitude and polarity of the applied electric field. The reverse piezoelectric effect is widely used for the generation of elastic mechanical strain, displacement and acoustic waves. As a rule, the same sensor is used for both generating the same for the registration of mechanical deformation, acoustic waves.

With regard to the creation of the memory cells on the basis of ferroelectric materials should pay attention to the fact that the sign of the charge and the value generated on the surface of the ferroelectric material of the charge is determined by the direction and magnitude of the polarization and the intensity and character of the elastic mechanical deformation. As a source of elastic mechanical deformation can be used for more piezoelectric element, in particular made of ferroelectric material.

Piezoelectric materials are widely used in acoustic methods for image visualization. Different types of echo sounders and scanners are widely used in military, medicine, etc. Acoustic effects are also used in microelectronics. There is a whole area of microelectronics - acoustoelectronics, which developed and used a device that uses acoustic effects. However, the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric materials are still not used to create memory elements, in particular in the memory elements on the base of transistor cells 1T FeRAM.

The exchange of information through the acoustic channel between the ferroelectric memory element and the readout transistor with ferroelectric gate allows you to create quick and not zruseny a method of reading information. This method also allows you to create multi-layered structure ferroelectric memory with high information capacity, in which there is a shared reading element, is made on the basis of the transistor with a floating gate made of a piezoelectric material, in particular, on the basis of the ferroelectric material.

These physical effects (pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity) make it possible for nondestructive reading of information and open new perspectives for the design of memory devices based on ferroelectric storage mechanism and transformation of information, as well as in selecting appropriate materials. The use of piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects will give a second breath to create non-volatile memory, technologically compatible with modern semiconductor technology.

There are two main methods of reading data from the ferroelectric memory cell: destructible and indestructible method. The first is to record the polarization reversal current caused by application of an electric field to the memory cell exceeds the value of the threshold switching polarization. Such a method of reading causes loss of previously recorded data and requires further rewriting it. The disadvantages of this method are obvious. This ugly the giving of time reading and reduction cycles reading and writing. Another nondestructive method of reading, discussed above, is that the electric field polarization of the ferroelectric memory cell is made in the form of floating gate field effect transistor and which is located in closest proximity to the extended conductive channel field-effect transistor determines the current leaked on conducting channel, the largest of which you can judge the direction of the electric polarization of the ferroelectric material memory cell, and hence on the nature of recorded information. The disadvantage of this method is known is the short time storage of information due to depolarization effects and conductivity of the ferroelectric material memory cell, and the resulting leakage of the charge.

The essence of the proposed method is nondestructive reading data from the ferroelectric memory cell is based on the fact that in the process of depolarization and leak charge, the information recorded in the ferroelectric material memory cell is lost, it is only necessary to use another method of physical action to remove it. Since all ferroelectric are also piezoelectric, then, as noted above, is very effective to use direct and inverse piezoeffect for nondestructive extraction, reading information from ferroelectr the political memory cell.

The inventive method nondestructive readout of information is that the supply of the read electric voltage to the electrodes of the ferroelectric memory cell causes a wave of elastic deformation of the ferroelectric material. Depending on the polarization direction and the polarity of the applied voltage, there is a wave of compression or expansion. This elastic wave deformation propagates at the speed of sound and causes the charge on the surface of the additional piezoelectric layer, and the sign of the charge is determined by the nature of elastic deformation. For example, if the floating gate and/or a conductive channel field-effect transistor made of a material having piezoelectric properties, induced on the surface of the floating gate and/or a conducting channel charge allows you to determine the amount passing through the channel of the transistor current. The amount of current you can determine which character is the wave of the elastic deformation and, consequently, how was polarized, i.e. programmed, the memory cell, which is a source of elastic deformation.

While there may be two modes of reading. Depending on the sign of the polarization of ferroelectric memory cells, and hence the sign of the induced charge, field-effect transistor or open, Lieb is closed, depending on what state he was in before this, i.e. from the potential applied to the conducting to the gate of the transistor. The use of a reading mode is determined by the choice of the optimal exchange Protocol information from the peripheral part of the memory chip.

Thus, data communication between the memory cell and the read transistor or a structure including a material with piezoelectric properties, is determined by the acoustic channel. This method allows to spatially divide the memory cell and the reading field-effect transistor at a great distance, allowing you to create three-dimensional array of memory cells (storage area) with a total readout transistor. Use as a reading element of a field-effect transistor, the floating gate electrode and/or a conductive channel which is made of a material having piezoelectric properties allows multiple (more than a hundred times) to increase the sensitivity to elastic deformation, as compared with the elastic deformation sensor, made in the form of a simple capacitor. This allows you to extend the range of potentially suitable for manufacturing memory cells of the ferroelectric materials, in particular, having smaller residual electric polarization, but with others I will put lname characteristics, short programming time and a large number of overwrite cycles.

The proposed method of information exchange through the acoustic channel between the ferroelectric memory element and readout structure that includes a material with piezoelectric properties, allows you to create a quick method of information exchange not only between the memory cell and, for example, the reading transistor, but may be the basis for information exchange in multi-layer circuits microprocessors and/or between the memory array and a microprocessor, which is the technical result of the invention.

Other solved problems and advantages of the present invention are identified below with a brief description of the figures of drawings, in embodiments of the invention.

The task of creating a ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading information, which is made on the basis of the field-effect transistor, using the piezoelectric effect, decided that the known structure of the cell 1T FeRAM memory containing a field-effect transistor consisting of a source (4), drain (5), conductive channel (6), and having a gate electrode (2) and the floating gate electrode (1), added piezo (1A), which is the memory cell. The floating gate electrode (1) is made on the basis of piezoelectric material and is separated from the material is routasalo (6) channel transistor thin buffer dielectric layer (3) (1), or at the same time thin buffer metal (3A) and dielectric layers (3) (Figa). The memory cell has a three-layer structure consisting of two electrodes (2A) and (2B), between which is located the piezoelectric layer, which is made of ferroelectric material and is located on top of the floating gate (1) of the transistor (1, 1A).

The specified performance of the memory element allows nondestructive method to read information recorded in the memory cell. The structure of the memory element shown in figures 1, 1A, allows you to save the information or in the form of the magnitude and direction of electric polarization in the ferroelectric floating gate (1), as is common in the transistor cell 1T FeRAM or ferroelectric layer (1A)is made of a piezoelectric element, which is a memory cell according to the invention. The latter case is preferable as it significantly lowers the voltage programming. In this case, the field-effect transistor with piezo-floating-gate (1) is the sensor elastic or acoustic waves generated by the memory cell (1A) in the application of the read potential. Thus, the memory cell (1A) is the area of information storage, while the field-effect transistor with a floating gate (1) is a zone of MF is tawania. It is advisable from a technological point of view to combine the functions of the electrode of the transistor (2) with the lower electrode of the memory cell (2A) (2), (Figa).

The problem is solved also by using a ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading data comprising field-effect transistor containing region of the drain and the source, separated from each other by a conductive channel is made of a semiconductor material with piezoelectric properties, and the gate electrode, separated from the conducting channel by a dielectric layer. Ferroelectric memory element further comprises at least one piezoelectric element, which is made of a piezoelectric material, which is a ferroelectric material located between the two electrodes, which is a memory cell with the formation of the storage area information, the FET is a sensor of elastic deformation generated by the memory cell by applying to the cell readout potential, and forms the reading zone information.

Very effective and it is advisable to make a memory element containing a field-effect transistor, the channel (8) which is made on the basis of semiconductor material having piezoelectric properties, in particular, on the basis of A1N, AsGa, etc. Channel can also be made on the basis of any f reelections semiconductor. These semiconductors have a high sensitivity to elastic deformation, and at the same time are characterized by high mobility of charge carriers. In this case there is no need to use additional ferroelectric layer during fabrication of the floating gate transistor (3, 3A). Thus, the channel field-effect transistor sensor is elastic or acoustic waves generated by the memory cell (1A) in the application of the read potential, and which generates charges corresponding to the data stored in the memory cell. Also very effective to make the reading field-effect transistor with a channel-based heterostructures, (9, 10) are made, in particular, on the basis of A1N, AsGa (4, 4A). Such heterostructures (9, 10) have a higher sensitivity to elastic deformation and is characterized by high mobility of charge carriers. This significantly simplifies the manufacturing technology of the memory element and significantly increases the speed of reading data.

Very effectively to create an array of memory elements, using the storage area information in a multilayer structure (Figure 5), consisting of 2-4 or more layers of ferroelectric memory cells (1A). Area information storage is made in the form of a multilayer structure whose layers separated by dielectric layers is from each other (Figure 5) or each of the upper electrode of the memory cell is made aligned with the bottom electrode of the memory cell of the next layer (Figa). This substantially increases the information density of the memory element without complication of its structure, as waves of elastic deformation (acoustic waves) propagate in solids with low loss and long distances. At the same time highly sensitive transistor cell with piezoelectric floating gate (1) allows you to quickly register the waves of elastic deformation caused by application of the read potential to the ferroelectric memory cell (1A). Thus, the electrically non-contact method, using only acoustic communication channel, the reading zone collects information from the area information storage.

Very effectively to create a one-dimensional array of memory elements, using the zone read-transistor cell having an elongated conductive channel (6A) with 2-4 or more isolated piezoelectric floating gates (1) (6, 6A) and, respectively, with two or more memory cells (1A)above them and are separated from each other by an insulating dielectric (7) (7), or each of the upper electrode of the memory cell is made aligned with the bottom electrode of the memory cell of the next layer (Figa).

Promising to perform a one-dimensional array of memory elements, using the zone read transistor, ACAC is, having elongate conductive channel (6A) with one elongated piezoelectric floating gate (1B) (Fig) and, respectively, with 2-4 or more ferroelectric memory cells, arranged above it and separated from each other by an insulating dielectric (7). In this case also, it is advisable and possible use of the multilayered structure of the storage area information, performed similarly shown in Fig.7.

Technologically advantageous to produce a one-dimensional array of memory elements, using the zone read-transistor cell having an elongated conductive channel (6A) with one elongated piezoelectric floating gate (1B) and, respectively, with 2-4 or more ferroelectric memory cells, arranged above it, not separated from each other by an insulating dielectric (Fig.9). In this case, it is possible to use multilayer structures of the storage area information. This solution may be preferred due to a more dense arrangement of memory elements and simplifying the technology of their manufacture without loss of reliability of the memory array.

Very effective to make the item ferroelectric memory with nondestructive method of reading information and inducing a charge in the memory cell by means of elastic deformation, but without using with Iceweasel transistor, i.e. to use as the basis odnokomnatanya memory element 1C FeRAM. Such memory element comprises at least two piezoelectric elements separated from each other by a dielectric layer (3) and deposited on a dielectric substrate (11) (Figure 10). Each piezoelectric element has a three-layer structure consisting of two electrodes (2A and 2B), between which is a piezoelectric material. At least one of the piezoelectric elements must be made of ferroelectric material and is a memory cell. In this case, the piezoelectric element (1) is the source of the read pulses of elastic deformation, which generate charges in ferroelectric memory cell (1A). The generated charges create the appropriate voltage pulses to the electrodes (2A) and (2B), the polarity and magnitude of which depend on the magnitude and direction of polarization of the ferroelectric memory cell, i.e., from the previously recorded information. These voltage pulses can be more effectively fixed external amplifier, which can be optimized for the registration of induced charge in the absence of external switchable electric field, which is typically used for generating charge in adnocarcinoma the memory element 1C.

To increase the size of the generated charge in adnocarcinoma the memory element is 1C very effectively to make the item ferroelectric memory in a multilayer structure, consisting of two piezoelectric elements (1) and one ferroelectric memory cell (1A), located between them (11). This will allow to double the amplitude of elastic deformation by means of the synchronous running of the two piezoelectric elements and, respectively, double the magnitude of the generated charge on the memory cell. Very effective to use alternating arrangement of the piezoelectric elements in the memory cell to create the layered structure of the memory elements (as shown in figure 11) with the addition of the necessary quantity of the piezoelectric elements and the construction of the array of memory elements based on them.

Preferably the source of elastic deformation in the form of a multilayer piezoelectric element with a structure consisting of two branched electrodes (2B) and (2D) and located between the piezoelectric layer (1) (Fig). This will allow 2-4 or more times to increase the amplitude of the readout of elastic deformation without increasing applied to the electrodes (2B) and (2D) voltage and, accordingly, to increase the amplitude generated by the memory cell (1A) of the pulse voltage. This in turn will allow you to create multi-layered structure of the storage area information. Technologically advantageous to produce a one-dimensional array of memory elements, using as source the reader elastic deformation of the elongated piezo with what ructural, consisting of two branched electrodes (2B) and (2D) and located between the piezoelectric layer (1), as shown in Fig, Fig.9. Accordingly, the memory element includes 2-4 or more ferroelectric memory cells located above it and separated from each other by an insulating dielectric.

It is advisable to perform a ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading information, made on the base of transistor cells 1T FeRAM using the pyroelectric effect. In the known structure, the cell 1T FeRAM memory contains a field-effect transistor consisting of a source (4), drain (5), conductive channel (6) and having two (Fig) or a three-layer structure of the floating gate (Figa), and includes a ferroelectric material (1A) and the electrode (12). A feature of this electrode (12) is that it is made from a material having appreciable resistivity, and this allows a pulse current flowing through it to produce heating of the ferroelectric material of the cell. That is, this electrode is a heater. In the pyroelectric effect, during heating the ferroelectric material, on its surface are generated charges, the sign and magnitude of which depend on the magnitude and direction of polarization of the ferroelectric memory cell, that is. from the previously recorded information. The corresponding charge contributes either closing or opening of the transistor. Thus, the magnitude of the current passing through the transistor, it is possible to judge the previously recorded information.

Also it is advantageous to perform the ferroelectric memory element based on odnochastichnogo of the memory element 1C in the form of a simple capacitor (Fig), electrodes (12A) and (12b) which is made of a special material having appreciable resistivity, which allows a pulse current flowing through them to produce rapid heating of the ferroelectric material of the cell. In the pyroelectric effect, while effective in heating the ferroelectric material, on its surface are generated electric charges. The generated charges create the appropriate voltage pulses to the electrodes (12) and (12A), the polarity and magnitude of which depend on the magnitude and direction of polarization of the ferroelectric memory cell, i.e., from the previously recorded information. These voltage pulses can be more effectively fixed external amplifier, which can be optimized for the registration of induced charge in the absence of external switchable electric field, which is typically used for generating charge in adnocarcinoma element PA is ATI 1C.

The sign and magnitude of the pyroelectric voltage dependent upon the magnitude and direction of polarization of the ferroelectric memory cell, i.e., from the previously recorded information. On the basis of the ferroelectric memory element made in the form of a simple capacitor can be manufactured as a multi-layer memory element consisting of 2-4 or more simple memory elements, as well as three-dimensional array of simple memory elements separated by a dielectric material (7).

It is advisable to produce memory chips on the basis of the above-described memory elements using the usual scheme of formation of arrays of memory elements used in the production of flash memory, namely the NOR or NAND layout.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 - FIG described embodiments of the inventive structures of ferroelectric memory elements, which can implement the method nondestructive readout information:

- FIGURE 1-2A - claimed ferroelectric memory elements using piezoelectric effect and made on the basis of the field-effect transistor;

- FIGURE 3-4A - claimed ferroelectric memory elements using piezoelectric effect and made on the basis of the field-effect transistor based on a semiconductor possessing piezoelectric properties (ferroelectricity the first semiconductor or heterostructures, made, in particular, on the basis of AlN, AsGa);

- 5, 5A - declare an array of memory elements having a storage area of information designed in a multilayer structure;

- 6-9 - the claimed memory element and the array of memory elements, made on the basis of the field-effect transistor, with an elongated channel;

- FIGURE 10 is that the claimed memory element consisting of two piezoelectric elements separated from each other by a dielectric layer, at least one of them is made on the basis of ferroelectric material, which is a memory cell;

- 11 - the claimed memory element consisting of three piezoelectric elements separated from each other by a dielectric layer, at least one of them is made on the basis of ferroelectric material, which is a memory cell;

- FIG - declare the memory element and the array of memory elements based on the source of elastic deformation produced in the form of a multilayer piezoelectric element with a structure consisting of two branched electrodes and located between the piezoelectric material;

- FIG-13A - claimed ferroelectric memory elements using the pyroelectric effect and made on the base of transistor cells 1T FeRAM containing field-effect transistor;

FIG - claimed ferroelectric memory elements, ispolzuya the pyroelectric effect and made on the basis of odnochastotnoj cell 1C FeRAM.

The following examples show how indestructible reading data from the ferroelectric memory cell using the proposed options ferroelectric memory elements.

Example 1

The claimed memory cell (1) contains a field-effect transistor fabricated on silicon-based p-type and consisting of a source (4), flow (5) and a conducting channel (6). The floating gate electrode (1) is made on the basis of solid solution of lead zirconate-titanate(Pb (ZrTi)O3(PZT) and a piezoelectric element, which is separated from the conducting channel by a dielectric layer (3)made of an oxide of silicon. Over the piezoelectric element is a memory cell (1A), made on the basis of PZT and separated from the piezoelectric element by a dielectric layer (3)made of silicon oxide. All the electrodes (2, 2A, 2B) is made of aluminum. When the primary initialization operation of the memory element is a one-time filing polarizing voltage to the upper electrode (2) of the piezoelectric element and to the source (4) of the transistor. The polarity of the applied voltage is determined by the Protocol of exchange of information between the piezoelectric element and the memory cell and can be selected arbitrarily. For programming the memory cell (1A) to the electrodes (2A and 2B) is a pulse voltage exceeding the threshold programming and the corresponding Polarnet is, responsive to the state of the cell ("0") or ("1"). For reading information on the electrodes (2A and 2B) is fed pulse voltage below the threshold programming. The polarity of the read voltage is also determined by the Protocol of exchange of information between the piezoelectric element and the memory cell and can be selected arbitrarily. When applying a read voltage to the electrodes (2A and 2B) of the memory cell is the elastic deformation of the ferroelectric material memory cells, which naturally has and piezo performances. The nature of elastic deformation is determined by the polarization of the ferroelectric material memory cell, which cell is acquired as a result of programming. This may or pressure wave, or the wave of expansion. This elastic deformation causes the charge on the surface of the piezoelectric element, which is a floating gate transistor. In turn, the polarity of the charge induced on the surface of the piezoelectric element facing the conducting channel (6) of the transistor, allows to determine the magnitude passing through the channel of the transistor current, the magnitude of which you can define how was polarized, i.e. programmed, the memory cell.

Example 2

On (Figa) declare the memory cell also includes a field-effect transistor made on the basis of to amnia p-type and consisting of a source (4), flow (5), but has extended conductive channel (6A). This type of memory element has multiple floating gates (1), also made on the basis of solid solution of lead zirconate-titanate(Pb (ZrTi)O3 (PZT), and they are all piezoelectric elements, which are separated from the conducting channel by a dielectric layer (3)made of an oxide of silicon. Above each piezoelectric element are arranged corresponding to memory cell (1A), made on the basis of PZT and separated from the piezo dielectric layer (3)made of silicon oxide. All the electrodes (2, 2A, 2B) is performed in a similar manner from aluminum. Initialization of the memory element and the programming of memory cells occurs in a similar manner as described in example 1. Read as follows: on the gate electrode (2) is energized, which opens the transistor and sets the maximum current passing through conducting channel. As in the case of example 1, for reading information on the electrodes (2A and 2B) is fed pulse voltage below the threshold programming that eventually causes the indexing of charge on a surface of the piezoelectric element facing the conducting channel (6A) of the transistor. In this embodiment, the induced charge covers the current flows only in a specific area of a conducting channel (6A). what, however, this leads to a sharp decrease in current passing through the transistor. In fact a sharp decrease passing through the transistor current can be defined, how was polarized, i.e. programmed, the memory cell.

Thus, the claimed memory cell can be regarded as a fundamentally new type of device for storing information. This will create a new generation of chip non-volatile memory with high information density, multiple and fast treatment. This type of memory chips can be widely used in mobile phones, digital photo and video cameras, and can also replace the hard disks in computers. Ferroelectric memory elements of this type, with low power consumption, can also find use in the creation of radio frequency identification devices and e-books that are fundamentally new type of information devices.

1. The method is nondestructive reading data from the ferroelectric memory cell with electrodes, characterized in that serves the read voltage to its electrodes to generate an elastic deformation of the ferroelectric memory and registers this elastic deformation of the field-effect transistor with a floating gate and/or a conductive channel is made from a material with piezoelectric St is isthmi, and by the magnitude of the current flowing through the transistor, determine the extent and nature of the polarization of the ferroelectric memory cells or registers this elastic deformation of the piezoelectric element, which is made of a piezoelectric material located between the two electrodes, and the magnitude and sign of the generated upon him the charge determines the degree and nature of polarization of the ferroelectric memory cell.

2. Ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading data comprising field-effect transistor containing the drain and the source, separated from each other by a conductive channel, the gate electrode and the floating gate electrode, separated from the conducting channel by a dielectric layer or a metal and dielectric layers, characterized in that it further comprises at least one piezoelectric element, which is made of ferroelectric material located between the two electrodes, which is the memory cell formation area of information storage, the floating gate electrode is made of a piezoelectric material, the FET is a sensor of elastic deformation generated by the memory cell by applying to the cell readout potential and forms the reading zone information.

3. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 2, characterized in that the lower electrode of the cell amatitlan from the gate electrode of the buffer dielectric layer or is made composite electrode with the gate.

4. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the storage area information is made in a multilayer structure consisting of two or four or more layers of ferroelectric memory cells, separated by dielectric layers from each other, or each of the upper electrode of the memory cell is made aligned with the bottom electrode of the memory cell of the next layer.

5. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that a conductive channel field-effect transistor of the read range of information is made elongated by location over him two or four or more isolated floating gate, and the area information storage is made of at least one layer consisting of two or more memory cells located over the floating gates and separated or unseparated from each other by an insulating dielectric layer or of multiple layers of memory cells, separated from each other by dielectric layers.

6. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that a conductive channel zone of the read information is made elongated by location over him two or four or more isolated floating gate, and the area information storage is made of at least one layer consisting of two or more memory cells located above the floating for the thieves and divided or undivided from each other by an insulating dielectric layer, or of multiple layers of memory cells, each of the upper electrode of the memory cell of the previous layer is made aligned with the bottom electrode of the memory cell of the next layer.

7. Ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading data comprising field-effect transistor containing the drain and the source, separated from each other by a conductive channel is made of a semiconductor material with piezoelectric properties, and the gate electrode, separated from the conducting channel by a dielectric layer, characterized in that it further comprises at least one piezoelectric element, which is made of ferroelectric material located between the two electrodes, which is a memory cell with the formation of the storage area information, the FET is a sensor of elastic deformation generated by the memory cell by applying to the cell readout potential, and forms a zone of reading information.

8. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 7, characterized in that the lower electrode of the memory cell is separated from the gate electrode of field-effect transistor by a dielectric layer or is made composite electrode with the gate.

9. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 8, characterized in that a conductive channel field-effect transistor is made on the basis of ferroe aktionscode semiconductor or on the basis of heterostructures.

10. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 7 or 8, or 9, characterized in that the storage area information is made in a multilayer structure consisting of two or four or more layers of ferroelectric memory cells, separated by dielectric layers from each other, or each of the upper electrode of the memory cell is made aligned with the bottom electrode of the memory cell of the next layer.

11. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 7 or 8, or 9, characterized in that a conductive channel field-effect transistor of the read range of information is made longer, and the area information storage is made of at least one layer consisting of two or more memory cells located over the gate electrode and separated or unseparated from each other by an insulating dielectric, or of multiple layers of memory cells, separated from each other by dielectric layers.

12. Ferroelectric memory element according to claim 7 or 8, or 9, characterized in that a conductive channel field-effect transistor of the read range of information is made longer, and the area information storage is made of at least one layer consisting of two or more memory cells located over the gate electrode and separated or unseparated from each other by an insulating dielectric, or of multiple layers of memory cells, and ka is every upper electrode of the memory cell of the previous layer is made aligned with the bottom electrode of the memory cell of the next layer.

13. Ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading information, including odnokomnatanya memory element comprising two electrodes between which is a ferroelectric material, characterized in that it further comprises at least one piezoelectric element, which is made of a piezoelectric material located between the two electrodes, odnokomnatanya memory element is a memory cell with the formation of the storage area information, and the additional sensor is a sensor of elastic deformation generated by the memory cell by applying to the cell readout potential, and forms the reading zone information.

14. Ferroelectric memory element according to item 13, characterized in that it contains two piezoelectric element, between which is located odnokomnatanya memory element.

15. Ferroelectric memory element according to item 13, characterized in that it has alternating arrangement of the piezoelectric elements and memory cells with ferroelectric layer with a multilayered structure.

16. Ferroelectric memory element according to 15, characterized in that it has an array of memory elements, in which each memory cell is separated from the layer of piezoelectric dielectric layer or each of the upper electrode of the memory cell is made aligned with the bottom electrode Petaluma is the next layer.

17. Ferroelectric memory element according to item 13, wherein the piezo area reading consists of two branched electrodes and located between the piezoelectric layer.

18. Ferroelectric memory element according to 17, characterized in that the piezo zone read with the branched electrodes is made longer, and the memory elements are made of two to four or more ferroelectric cells arranged on him and divided or undivided from each other by an insulating dielectric.

19. Ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading information, comprising transistor memory cell, containing a field-effect transistor with drain and source, which are separated from each other by a conductive channel, the electrode, the floating gate electrode made of a ferroelectric material and separated from the conducting channel by a dielectric layer or dielectric and metal layers, wherein the gate electrode is made of material having increased resistance, resulting in the flow of a pulse current through it to heat the electrode and then the ferroelectric material of the cell and leading to the generation on the surface of the ferroelectric material of the charge, the sign and magnitude of which depend on the recorded information in ferroelectrics the second material.

20. Ferroelectric memory element with a nondestructive method of reading information, including odnokomnatanya memory element comprising two electrodes between which is a ferroelectric material, wherein the electrodes are made of material having increased resistance, resulting in the flow of a pulse current through it to heat the electrodes and the ferroelectric material of the cell and leading to the generation on the surface of the ferroelectric material of the charge, the sign and magnitude of which depend on the data stored in the ferroelectric material.



 

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2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: engineering of devices, containing functional elements forming a planar set.

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3 cl, 30 dwg

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12 cl, 9 dwg

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2 cl, 11 dwg

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EFFECT: substantially increased transverse density of information recording on a carrier due to ensured reliability of information track following.

1 dwg

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