Geoelectric method for prediction of landslips on manmade soil structures

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric survey by method of electric resistance for detection of landslip processes development sections and monitoring of filled structures. Measurements are carried out by method of vertical electric probing along bed, slope and near foot on one and another side of embankment. Capacity and specific resistance of fill material layers are identified. Longitudinal conductivity is calculated to detect sections of drowned clay material. Detected sections are used to arrange transverse geoelectric cuts. Measured relative longitudinal conductivity is detected together with slipping surface of drowned clay material. Water samples are taken on detected drowned sections, water specific electric resistance is measured to identify water mineralisation and identify relative longitudinal conductivity of clay in case of its full saturation. Comparison of measured relative longitudinal conductivity of clay to relative longitudinal conductivity in case of its full saturation helps to identify maximum possible condition for landsliding. In order to investigate dynamics of landslip processes, observations are performed in base stations located in detected drowned areas.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of detection and prediction of sections, which are hazardous from the point of view of landsliding.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the topic of technical physics, namely: electrical exploration method of electrical resistivity and prediction of landslides on soil bulk structures: dams, dikes, embankments of roads and Railways and so the Proposed method can improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of studying potentially hazardous landslide areas on ground structures.

The field of application of the proposed method is the study of the electrical properties of soil material canvas roads and Railways and other soil structures for detecting the development of landslide processes; monitoring the status of the groundwater mounds of artificial structures (embankments of roads and Railways, levees).

The known method of the dipole elektroregulirovki using supply dipole (grounding A1and a2and receiving dipole (ground M and N), which are placed along a straight line (profile). The installation is moved along the profile at each point of observation is measured for two distances between the centers of the dipoles (the separation r1and the separation r2) with the same size of the supply and receiving dipoles and determine the values of the apparent resistivity for a given spacings. The graphs ρto obtained with a smaller spacing (r1)allocate heterogeneity of the upper part of the section (mainly in the unsaturated zone), and the graphs ρtoobtained with a large separation (r2)define a zone of low resistivity, corresponding to areas of the array offset of the landslide [1].

The disadvantage of this method is the appearance of additional anomalies that occur when passing over the geoelectric inhomogeneities feed dipole, which leads to a notched practical graphs ρtoand complicates the interpretation of results.

There is a method of natural electric field, which uses two polarizadas electrode and the Registrar of an electrical signal. Measurements along the profile of observations with a given step, each point of standing polarizadas electrodes are connected to the logger and measured the potential difference of the natural electric field ΔU. Results of observations are presented in the form of charts and plans ΔU, which are recorded anomalies from surface runoff and groundwater [2].

The known method has several disadvantages: difficult ground conditions, the impact of industrial noise, the change in time of the shape and amplitude of the signal.

There is a method of double-sided three-electrode sensing, in which the two Pete is common ground (a) and (b) are located on one straight line (profile) with two foster grounding (M and N) at the same distance from the center of the installation, and the third power supply ground (C) applies in practical infinity. At each position of feeding ground (a and b) to one of the terminals of the generator power source connect the power supply ground (C), and another alternately feeding ground (a and b) and measure the voltage drop between foster grounding (M and N) in both cases, then feeding ground (a and b) move at the same distance from the center of the setup and the measurements are repeated. Moving supply earthing is carried out for a given number of separations for which are determined by the values of apparent resistivity. Thus, at each point of observation is two-directional sensing and the divergence of the right - and left-hand curves is judged on how the parties are heterogeneity [1].

The known method has a major drawback - the results of the measurements allow us to determine only qualitatively electrophysical parameters (vertical incision apparent elektrosoprotivlenie).

The closest technical solution of the present invention is a method of vertical electrical sounding, selected as the prototype method. It uses four-electrode symmetrical installation (AMNB), in which foster (MN) and supply (AB) grounding are symmetric is on a straight line relative to the center of the installation. Foster grounding remain stationary while the feed is moved so that the distance (spacings) between them gradually increases. Each separation is measured by the voltage drop between foster grounding ΔUMNand calculated the apparent resistance of the medium ρto[3]. After the quantitative processing of the received data based on the model of horizontally-layered medium build vertical sections of the geological environment, which determine the capacity (h) and specific resistance (ρ) plastic (clay) rocks. The ratio h/H>0.2, where H is the height of the slope, and S=h/ρ - value of the longitudinal conductivity of the clay layer, set a dangerous landslide slopes [1].

The prototype method is mainly used in studies of landslide processes in the natural geological environment, usually near water, on the mountain slopes, quarries, etc. So the way vertical electrical sounding, there are drawbacks: the influence of inhomogeneities in the upper part of the section on the results of the quantitative interpretation; ambiguous definitions of electro-physical models of the geological environment; dependence of the electrical resistivity of the clay layer from the formation water salinity.

Soil bulk structures (embankments of highways, Railways, dams, dikes is) built of sand-clay material with the addition of macro-grained rock fractions and have a quasi-layered structure. Figure 1 shows the cross-Geology-lithology on one of the bulk sections of the highway, from which the visible layered structure as the bulk of the building and its geological Foundation. This is a favorable precondition for the application of vertical electrical soundings in the proposed method for predicting landslides on soil structures.

The aim of the proposed method is to increase the efficiency of the allocation of dangerous landslides areas on groundwater artificial structures with minimum cost.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the proposed geoelectric method for predicting landslides on artificial ground structures used method of vertical electrical soundings, in which the profile of observations at the same distance from the observation point are two adoptive ground, connected to the meter, and two supply ground is connected to the source of electric current, and at each movement of the feeding ground at the same distance from point observations measure the voltage drop between foster grounding; measurements are profiles of observation points along the blade, slope and at the foot of one and the other side of the mound, and then determined the values of Agudas resistance on these profiles, then according to the quantitative interpretation of the calculated power and resistivity of the layers of soil material mounds, composed of longitudinal sections and is determined by the longitudinal conductivity watered plastic clay material, which are areas prone to the occurrence of a landslide on the one and on the other side of the mound, then these areas are the cross-sections, determined by the measured relative longitudinal conductivity SOtis.and the sliding surface of the flooded clay material in the embankment, the slope of which gives a prediction which side of the embankment may occur extrusion of soil material; on the identified irrigated areas water sampling, measuring its electrical resistivity and the known dependence is determined by the salinity of the water samples, which is relative longitudinal conductivity of the clay at full saturation SRel.and when the relation SRel./SOtis.≥1 judge best possible condition for the landslide. To study the dynamics of landslide processes on the identified irrigated areas are sensitive observations at the reference points on both sides of the embankment, to study changes over time measured relative to the longitudinal conductivity and determine the direction to the discharge, which will be a landslide.

The proposed method is implemented with a serial electrical equipment (for example ERA, ERA-SIGN) as follows. The study of the mound, it's advisable to first on one side of the embankment profiles of observation points along the blade, slope and base of the mound. Scheme profile observations is given in figure 2. On the profile observations at the same distance from the measurement points are located two foster grounding (MN)connected to the meter, and two power supply ground (AB), connected to a source of electrical current. In the process of measuring the receiving ground remain stationary, and move the feeding ground at the same distance (polarizes) from point observations, measure the voltage drop ΔUMNand calculated apparent resistivity ρtobetween receiving the grounding upon each movement of the feeding ground. The distance between the points of observation is chosen to provide the necessary detail of the research, and the maximum spacing should be such that it was possible to study the body of the mound and the upper part of geological section for the detection of flooded areas in the subgrade, as often the watering bulk material occurs due to the groundwater that lies close to the OS is to Finance the soil structure.

According to the data obtained ρtoconducted quantitative interpretation: determine the capacity, resistivity layers of soil material and the geological environment in the bulk; compiled along the embankment of the geoelectric longitudinal sections; calculated graphs of the longitudinal conductivity S for wet layers. On the sections of the profile, where there are the highest value of S, the increased plasticity of the clay material and a high probability of its extrusion.

In the second stage of the research are vertical electrical sounding on the other side of the embankment along her paintings, slope and base on the same methodology. Point observations are in front of the pickets attached with the already studied hand, so that a straight line connecting the three pickets on three profiles on the one hand and the opposite three pickets on three profiles on the other hand, were held at right angles to the direction of fabric bulk structures (figure 2). In three longitudinal profiles are built geoelectric sections, areas with the highest water content and on, and on sites allocated in the first phase of the research, compiled geoelectric cross sections (scheme transverse profiles is given in figure 2). Figure 3 shows a schematic cross geoelectric solution is, which is determined by the value of h/H (h - power flooded layer, H is the height of the embankment from the surface to the bottom clay watered layer), the longitudinal conductivity (S) and sole watered clay material, which during the development of the landslide on this site is the plane of sliding of the extruding material (figure 3). The inclination of the slip plane is judged on the direction of movement of the extruding mass, i.e. determine the side of the embankment on which the development of the landslide.

It is known that the plasticity of the clay depends on the water saturation. In the literature there are data on the electrical resistivity of clays when they are saturated with water with different salinity [4]. In the present invention it is proposed to determine the parameter measured relative longitudinal conductivity SOtis.=h/(Hρ) flooded clay material and compare it with the calculated SRel.≈0.2/ρ, where h/H=0.2 (this ratio can be formed landslides [1]), ρ is the specific resistivity of saturated clay at a specific water salinity [4]. Water-saturated clay has a maximum plasticity, thereby increasing the likelihood of landslide dispensed in earthwork. The value of the relative longitudinal conductivity of clay depending on the salinity of the pore water p is iwadate in the table (figure 4).

Measured relative longitudinal conductivity of a clay material, obtained according to the research results can be compared with table, only knowing the salinity of groundwater is widespread in the placement of the soil structure. For this purpose it is necessary to take samples of the water near the structure, and preferably directly on the discovered areas of enhanced water, to measure its electrical resistivity and the known dependence of the electrical resistivity of the solution from the degree of mineralization [4] to determine the salinity of water samples. Then for mineralization found on the table is SRel. If the ratio of estimated (table) relative to the longitudinal conductivity of the clay to the measured SRel./SOtis.≥1, then it is an indicator of the formation of the landslide.

In all of these parameters are given the forecast of the degree of landslide activity in bulk soil structure.

The third stage of the research involves the fixation of the anchor points on hazardous landslide process areas and carrying out routine monitoring by the proposed method with the purpose: study the dynamics of the landslide process in bulk clay material of the soil structure by examining the change in the measured relative about Olney conductivity of the soil (S Otis.); the side of the mound, which happens squeezing ground.

Thus, the advantage of the proposed method is to increase the efficiency of the prediction of landslide on artificial ground structures by determining the salinity of the water accumulated in the body of the mound, and monitoring measured relative to the longitudinal conductivity of the bulk clay material of the soil structure.

Sources of information

1. Ogilvy A.A. basics of engineering Geophysics. M.: Nedra, 1990. SS, 355.

2. Goryainov N.N., Bogolyubov A.N., Varlamov N.M. and other Studies of landslides geophysical methods. M.: Nedra, 1987. P.76-77.

3. The Khmelevskaya VK Main course of prospecting. M.: Moscow state University in 1970. P.124-128.

4. Physical properties of rocks and minerals. M.: Nedra, 1984. SS, 169.

1. Geoelectric method for predicting landslides on groundwater artificial structures using the method of vertical electrical soundings, in which the profile of observations at the same distance from the observation point are two adoptive ground, connected to the meter, and two supply ground is connected to the source of electric current, and at each movement of the feeding ground at the same distance from point observations measure the voltage drop between the receiver is the ground characterized in that the measurements are performed on the profiles of observation points along the blade, slope and at the foot of one and the other side of the mound, and then determined the values of the apparent resistance of these profiles, then according to the quantitative interpretation of the calculated power and resistivity of the layers of soil material mounds, composed of longitudinal sections and is determined by the longitudinal conductivity S=h/ρ watered plastic clay material, which plots dangerous occurrence of a landslide on the one and on the other side of the mound, then these areas are the cross-sections, determined by the measured relative longitudinal conductivity SOtis.and the sliding surface of the flooded clay material in the embankment, the slope of which gives a prediction which side of the embankment may occur extrusion of soil material.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the selected irrigated areas water sampling, measuring its electrical resistivity and the known dependence is determined by the salinity of the water samples, which is relative longitudinal conductivity of the clay at full saturation SRelwhen the relation SRel/SOtis.≥1 judge best possible condition to get additional the nya.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that, for the study of the dynamics of landslide processes on the identified irrigated areas are sensitive observations at the reference points on both sides of the embankment, to study changes over time measured relative to the longitudinal conductivity (SOtis.and determine the side of the mound, which will occur the landslide.



 

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