Geoelectric method for prediction of landslips on manmade soil structures
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric survey by method of electric resistance for detection of landslip processes development sections and monitoring of filled structures. Measurements are carried out by method of vertical electric probing along bed, slope and near foot on one and another side of embankment. Capacity and specific resistance of fill material layers are identified. Longitudinal conductivity is calculated to detect sections of drowned clay material. Detected sections are used to arrange transverse geoelectric cuts. Measured relative longitudinal conductivity is detected together with slipping surface of drowned clay material. Water samples are taken on detected drowned sections, water specific electric resistance is measured to identify water mineralisation and identify relative longitudinal conductivity of clay in case of its full saturation. Comparison of measured relative longitudinal conductivity of clay to relative longitudinal conductivity in case of its full saturation helps to identify maximum possible condition for landsliding. In order to investigate dynamics of landslip processes, observations are performed in base stations located in detected drowned areas.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of detection and prediction of sections, which are hazardous from the point of view of landsliding.
3 cl, 4 dwg
The present invention relates to the topic of technical physics, namely: electrical exploration method of electrical resistivity and prediction of landslides on soil bulk structures: dams, dikes, embankments of roads and Railways and so the Proposed method can improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of studying potentially hazardous landslide areas on ground structures.
The field of application of the proposed method is the study of the electrical properties of soil material canvas roads and Railways and other soil structures for detecting the development of landslide processes; monitoring the status of the groundwater mounds of artificial structures (embankments of roads and Railways, levees).
The known method of the dipole elektroregulirovki using supply dipole (grounding A1and a2and receiving dipole (ground M and N), which are placed along a straight line (profile). The installation is moved along the profile at each point of observation is measured for two distances between the centers of the dipoles (the separation r1and the separation r2) with the same size of the supply and receiving dipoles and determine the values of the apparent resistivity for a given spacings. The graphs ρto obtained with a smaller spacing (r1)allocate heterogeneity of the upper part of the section (mainly in the unsaturated zone), and the graphs ρtoobtained with a large separation (r2)define a zone of low resistivity, corresponding to areas of the array offset of the landslide .
The disadvantage of this method is the appearance of additional anomalies that occur when passing over the geoelectric inhomogeneities feed dipole, which leads to a notched practical graphs ρtoand complicates the interpretation of results.
There is a method of natural electric field, which uses two polarizadas electrode and the Registrar of an electrical signal. Measurements along the profile of observations with a given step, each point of standing polarizadas electrodes are connected to the logger and measured the potential difference of the natural electric field ΔU. Results of observations are presented in the form of charts and plans ΔU, which are recorded anomalies from surface runoff and groundwater .
The known method has several disadvantages: difficult ground conditions, the impact of industrial noise, the change in time of the shape and amplitude of the signal.
There is a method of double-sided three-electrode sensing, in which the two Pete is common ground (a) and (b) are located on one straight line (profile) with two foster grounding (M and N) at the same distance from the center of the installation, and the third power supply ground (C) applies in practical infinity. At each position of feeding ground (a and b) to one of the terminals of the generator power source connect the power supply ground (C), and another alternately feeding ground (a and b) and measure the voltage drop between foster grounding (M and N) in both cases, then feeding ground (a and b) move at the same distance from the center of the setup and the measurements are repeated. Moving supply earthing is carried out for a given number of separations for which are determined by the values of apparent resistivity. Thus, at each point of observation is two-directional sensing and the divergence of the right - and left-hand curves is judged on how the parties are heterogeneity .
The known method has a major drawback - the results of the measurements allow us to determine only qualitatively electrophysical parameters (vertical incision apparent elektrosoprotivlenie).
The closest technical solution of the present invention is a method of vertical electrical sounding, selected as the prototype method. It uses four-electrode symmetrical installation (AMNB), in which foster (MN) and supply (AB) grounding are symmetric is on a straight line relative to the center of the installation. Foster grounding remain stationary while the feed is moved so that the distance (spacings) between them gradually increases. Each separation is measured by the voltage drop between foster grounding ΔUMNand calculated the apparent resistance of the medium ρto. After the quantitative processing of the received data based on the model of horizontally-layered medium build vertical sections of the geological environment, which determine the capacity (h) and specific resistance (ρ) plastic (clay) rocks. The ratio h/H>0.2, where H is the height of the slope, and S=h/ρ - value of the longitudinal conductivity of the clay layer, set a dangerous landslide slopes .
The prototype method is mainly used in studies of landslide processes in the natural geological environment, usually near water, on the mountain slopes, quarries, etc. So the way vertical electrical sounding, there are drawbacks: the influence of inhomogeneities in the upper part of the section on the results of the quantitative interpretation; ambiguous definitions of electro-physical models of the geological environment; dependence of the electrical resistivity of the clay layer from the formation water salinity.
Soil bulk structures (embankments of highways, Railways, dams, dikes is) built of sand-clay material with the addition of macro-grained rock fractions and have a quasi-layered structure. Figure 1 shows the cross-Geology-lithology on one of the bulk sections of the highway, from which the visible layered structure as the bulk of the building and its geological Foundation. This is a favorable precondition for the application of vertical electrical soundings in the proposed method for predicting landslides on soil structures.
The aim of the proposed method is to increase the efficiency of the allocation of dangerous landslides areas on groundwater artificial structures with minimum cost.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in the proposed geoelectric method for predicting landslides on artificial ground structures used method of vertical electrical soundings, in which the profile of observations at the same distance from the observation point are two adoptive ground, connected to the meter, and two supply ground is connected to the source of electric current, and at each movement of the feeding ground at the same distance from point observations measure the voltage drop between foster grounding; measurements are profiles of observation points along the blade, slope and at the foot of one and the other side of the mound, and then determined the values of Agudas resistance on these profiles, then according to the quantitative interpretation of the calculated power and resistivity of the layers of soil material mounds, composed of longitudinal sections and is determined by the longitudinal conductivity watered plastic clay material, which are areas prone to the occurrence of a landslide on the one and on the other side of the mound, then these areas are the cross-sections, determined by the measured relative longitudinal conductivity SOtis.and the sliding surface of the flooded clay material in the embankment, the slope of which gives a prediction which side of the embankment may occur extrusion of soil material; on the identified irrigated areas water sampling, measuring its electrical resistivity and the known dependence is determined by the salinity of the water samples, which is relative longitudinal conductivity of the clay at full saturation SRel.and when the relation SRel./SOtis.≥1 judge best possible condition for the landslide. To study the dynamics of landslide processes on the identified irrigated areas are sensitive observations at the reference points on both sides of the embankment, to study changes over time measured relative to the longitudinal conductivity and determine the direction to the discharge, which will be a landslide.
The proposed method is implemented with a serial electrical equipment (for example ERA, ERA-SIGN) as follows. The study of the mound, it's advisable to first on one side of the embankment profiles of observation points along the blade, slope and base of the mound. Scheme profile observations is given in figure 2. On the profile observations at the same distance from the measurement points are located two foster grounding (MN)connected to the meter, and two power supply ground (AB), connected to a source of electrical current. In the process of measuring the receiving ground remain stationary, and move the feeding ground at the same distance (polarizes) from point observations, measure the voltage drop ΔUMNand calculated apparent resistivity ρtobetween receiving the grounding upon each movement of the feeding ground. The distance between the points of observation is chosen to provide the necessary detail of the research, and the maximum spacing should be such that it was possible to study the body of the mound and the upper part of geological section for the detection of flooded areas in the subgrade, as often the watering bulk material occurs due to the groundwater that lies close to the OS is to Finance the soil structure.
According to the data obtained ρtoconducted quantitative interpretation: determine the capacity, resistivity layers of soil material and the geological environment in the bulk; compiled along the embankment of the geoelectric longitudinal sections; calculated graphs of the longitudinal conductivity S for wet layers. On the sections of the profile, where there are the highest value of S, the increased plasticity of the clay material and a high probability of its extrusion.
In the second stage of the research are vertical electrical sounding on the other side of the embankment along her paintings, slope and base on the same methodology. Point observations are in front of the pickets attached with the already studied hand, so that a straight line connecting the three pickets on three profiles on the one hand and the opposite three pickets on three profiles on the other hand, were held at right angles to the direction of fabric bulk structures (figure 2). In three longitudinal profiles are built geoelectric sections, areas with the highest water content and on, and on sites allocated in the first phase of the research, compiled geoelectric cross sections (scheme transverse profiles is given in figure 2). Figure 3 shows a schematic cross geoelectric solution is, which is determined by the value of h/H (h - power flooded layer, H is the height of the embankment from the surface to the bottom clay watered layer), the longitudinal conductivity (S) and sole watered clay material, which during the development of the landslide on this site is the plane of sliding of the extruding material (figure 3). The inclination of the slip plane is judged on the direction of movement of the extruding mass, i.e. determine the side of the embankment on which the development of the landslide.
It is known that the plasticity of the clay depends on the water saturation. In the literature there are data on the electrical resistivity of clays when they are saturated with water with different salinity . In the present invention it is proposed to determine the parameter measured relative longitudinal conductivity SOtis.=h/(Hρ) flooded clay material and compare it with the calculated SRel.≈0.2/ρ, where h/H=0.2 (this ratio can be formed landslides ), ρ is the specific resistivity of saturated clay at a specific water salinity . Water-saturated clay has a maximum plasticity, thereby increasing the likelihood of landslide dispensed in earthwork. The value of the relative longitudinal conductivity of clay depending on the salinity of the pore water p is iwadate in the table (figure 4).
Measured relative longitudinal conductivity of a clay material, obtained according to the research results can be compared with table, only knowing the salinity of groundwater is widespread in the placement of the soil structure. For this purpose it is necessary to take samples of the water near the structure, and preferably directly on the discovered areas of enhanced water, to measure its electrical resistivity and the known dependence of the electrical resistivity of the solution from the degree of mineralization  to determine the salinity of water samples. Then for mineralization found on the table is SRel. If the ratio of estimated (table) relative to the longitudinal conductivity of the clay to the measured SRel./SOtis.≥1, then it is an indicator of the formation of the landslide.
In all of these parameters are given the forecast of the degree of landslide activity in bulk soil structure.
The third stage of the research involves the fixation of the anchor points on hazardous landslide process areas and carrying out routine monitoring by the proposed method with the purpose: study the dynamics of the landslide process in bulk clay material of the soil structure by examining the change in the measured relative about Olney conductivity of the soil (S Otis.); the side of the mound, which happens squeezing ground.
Thus, the advantage of the proposed method is to increase the efficiency of the prediction of landslide on artificial ground structures by determining the salinity of the water accumulated in the body of the mound, and monitoring measured relative to the longitudinal conductivity of the bulk clay material of the soil structure.
Sources of information
1. Ogilvy A.A. basics of engineering Geophysics. M.: Nedra, 1990. SS, 355.
2. Goryainov N.N., Bogolyubov A.N., Varlamov N.M. and other Studies of landslides geophysical methods. M.: Nedra, 1987. P.76-77.
3. The Khmelevskaya VK Main course of prospecting. M.: Moscow state University in 1970. P.124-128.
4. Physical properties of rocks and minerals. M.: Nedra, 1984. SS, 169.
1. Geoelectric method for predicting landslides on groundwater artificial structures using the method of vertical electrical soundings, in which the profile of observations at the same distance from the observation point are two adoptive ground, connected to the meter, and two supply ground is connected to the source of electric current, and at each movement of the feeding ground at the same distance from point observations measure the voltage drop between the receiver is the ground characterized in that the measurements are performed on the profiles of observation points along the blade, slope and at the foot of one and the other side of the mound, and then determined the values of the apparent resistance of these profiles, then according to the quantitative interpretation of the calculated power and resistivity of the layers of soil material mounds, composed of longitudinal sections and is determined by the longitudinal conductivity S=h/ρ watered plastic clay material, which plots dangerous occurrence of a landslide on the one and on the other side of the mound, then these areas are the cross-sections, determined by the measured relative longitudinal conductivity SOtis.and the sliding surface of the flooded clay material in the embankment, the slope of which gives a prediction which side of the embankment may occur extrusion of soil material.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the selected irrigated areas water sampling, measuring its electrical resistivity and the known dependence is determined by the salinity of the water samples, which is relative longitudinal conductivity of the clay at full saturation SRelwhen the relation SRel/SOtis.≥1 judge best possible condition to get additional the nya.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that, for the study of the dynamics of landslide processes on the identified irrigated areas are sensitive observations at the reference points on both sides of the embankment, to study changes over time measured relative to the longitudinal conductivity (SOtis.and determine the side of the mound, which will occur the landslide.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil and gas industry, particularly to hydraulic break of underground reservoirs required, for example for stimulation of oil or gas inflow into well. The method consists in the below described operations: a particle-target and/or propping agent are introduced into a rupture; further, electromagnetic radiation of from approximately 300 MHz to approximately 100 MHz frequency is emitted into the rupture; a reflected signal from the particle-target is analysed for estimation of rupture geometry. Here is also disclosed the method of estimation of underground rupture geometry including operations, where: the target and/or propping agent are introduced into the rupture; also the particle-target and/or propping agent contain high dielectric ceramic with dielectric constant more or equal approximately to 2; electromagnetic radiation of frequency less or equal to approximately 3 GHz is emitted into the rupture; signal reflected from the particle-target and/or propping agent is analysed for estimation of rupture geometry.
EFFECT: ensuring increased reliability and safety of estimation of rupture geometry of hydraulic break, decreased expenditures for this operation.
27 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions (versions) relates to exploration geophysics, in particular to the systems of equipment for conducting sea geoelectrical exploration and is meant for predicting accumulation of hydrocarbons and other minerals, as well as for studying deep structure of the earth's crust. Proposed is a modular bottom station based on combining a basic module for measuring electromagnetic characteristics of sea bottom rocks with additional modules containing equipment for measuring other parametres of the rocks. The additional modules are fitted by the basic module and a weight. All the recording and power supply systems are accommodated in the basic module and are connected to the other modules via pressure-sealed connectors in the housing of the module, and the modules themselves are fixed on the weight using Kevlar sheets which are fitted with an electrochemical releasing element. The additional modules of the bottom station are modules for magnetic and/or seismic measurements. "Rods" can be fastened at the lower part of the housing of the station and in the initial state they are directed upwards at an angle not less than 15° from the vertical and are held using retainers, which are joined to the releasing element of a hoisting device (HD). The "rods" can be telescopic. In another version of the proposed bottom station, the basic module can be used independently. In that case, a hard conical element "basin", made non-conducting material for example polyethylene, polyurethane etc can be placed between the module and the weight. The basic module can also be connected on a semi-rigid rod to a module for magnetic measurements.
EFFECT: measuring different parametres of sea bottom rocks in a single launch, provision for sensitivity of detectors, which exceeds that of stations with such single type measuring devices, compactness and convenient use.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates geophysics, particularly, to electromagnetic LF devices intended for analysing GST. Proposed device comprises two antennas arranged orthogonally and connected to receiver, one of them being installed vertically. Proposed device comprises additionally data processing device and third antenna arranged orthogonally to aforesaid two antennas and connected to aforesaid receiver. The later incorporates transmitter with its output connected to the data processing device input. Transmitter allows transmitting signals comprising data on mutually-orthogonal components Hx, Hy, Hz of natural pulsed electromagnetic Earth field to data processing device the later allows computation of Wzx (x, y)=Hz/Hx and Wzy (x, y)=Hz/Hy, determination of relationship Wzx=F(Δf) and Wzy=F(Δf), where "ДГ" is the range of received frequencies of mutually-orthogonal components Hx, Hy, Hz, from f0 to f and integration of aforesaid relationships Wzx and Wzy.
EFFECT: expanded performances, higher accuracy.
9 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to exploration geophysics. In compliance with this invention, bottom stations are installed on sea bottom along the line, i.e. profile, covering the area to be explored to form the observation profile (OP), the said station are spaced 1000 m apart. A ship incorporating a generating dipole is directed through the centre of one of electrode separations, close to the centre of explored area area, perpendicular to OP, to form an excitation profile (EP). The electric field magnitudes picked off the bottom station receiving electrodes are referenced to the centre of distance between the appropriate separations of aforesaid bottom station to form an area system of measurement profiles (MO). A one-dimensional inversion is performed for every MO. Proceeding from the data obtained, a 3D geoelectric model of the medium is constructed in units of specific resistance, or specific resistance and parametres of polarisability. Now, proceeding from their abnormalities it is possible to judge upon the presence of a deposit, its position in plan and depth. The ship can carry out researches both with horizontal generating dipole towed on sea surface, and with vertical or horizontal dipole towed on over sea bottom.
EFFECT: reliable forecasting at depths from 0 to 2000 m and deeper.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurements.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to geophysical methods of prospecting. An electromagnetic field is generated through generation of a pseudorandom bipolar sequence of packets of periodical current pulses in a transmitter coil. The value of the cross-correlation function is calculated for components (time derivative) of magnetic or electric field and the current form, either with zero-time shift ΔT between time-sequences of the cross-correlation function or without it. From the values of the cross-correlation function with increment, equal to the period of the current pulses, the impulse reaction of the geoelectric medium is determined, which in turn is used to determine the structure of the geoelectric medium. From the difference of impulse reactions on the background and in the absence of primary magnetic field, objects are identified depending on their induced magnetisation. The generator of electromagnetic field has a dc current source, a rectifier bridge, controlled generator of pseudorandom sequences of time intervals, synchronised by a stabilised clock-pulse generator, and a transmitter coil connected to a current sensor. Between the DC current source and the transmitter coil, a current switch is connected, synchronised by a stabilised clock-pulse generator. The generator of pseudorandom sequences of time intervals is connected to the stabilised clock-pulse generator through a frequency divider. In the second version, the transmitter coil generates recurrent packets of current pulses, uniformly distributed according to a random law on the time interval occupied by the packet. In the second version of the device, the current switch is connected to the generator of recurrent packets, randomly and uniformly distributed during pulses, which in turn is connected to the stabilised clock-pulse generator through a frequency divider.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of data from electrical prospecting and reduced labour input.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurements.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to electrical prospecting using an electrical resistance technique. The invention can be used chiefly, for detecting tectonically crushed, water permeable rocks, detection of ore-bearing objects, covered by loose formations, studying the spread of industrially contaminated underground water in the geological environment etc. One supply ground connection is put at infinity. In a well, several supply ground connections are arranged at a given distance from each other. These connections are successively connected to a current source. For each connection, the potential drop between receiving ground connections are measured using a measurement grid. The apparent electrical resistance values are determined from the potential drop values. Isolines for electrical resistance for all depths where the supply ground connections are drawn up. Presence and position of geoelectric irregularities is determined from the layout of the isolines. Within the boundaries of the detected irregular regions, one of the receiving ground connections is moved around the other. The potential drop between them is measured. In the direction of the receiving line, at maximum voltage value, the spread of linear-stretched irregularities or the position of local objects with increased electroconductivity can be determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of detecting irregularities in the geological environment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory includes creation with the help of transmitter and transmitting antenna the electromagnetic field oriented along direction of pneumatic puncher movement. At the output of receive antennas signals are extracted which are proportional to electromagnetic field component strength and which are separated using decoupler and alternatively supplied to receiver input where they are detected and amplified. According to difference of these signals the pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory is evaluated. As transmitting antenna a nonsymmetric dipole is used where pneumatic puncher is long arm and conducting material disk is short arm which disk is connected to it via dielectric disk. Electromagnetic field directional pattern is created in the form of cone in microwave frequency band against electric component. Deviation angle is evaluated according to difference of signal amplitudes at output of comparing device connected by its input to receiver output and by its output - to indicator.
EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency due to increase in accuracy, range capability and interference resistance relative to external natural and artificial noise.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system includes recorder containing multichannel module of analog signal reception and transform; each channel of module includes low-pass filter, analog amplifier and analog-to-digital converter. The system also includes data control and processing module containing interconnected numeric processor, data memory and master microcontroller with program memory. The recorder contains AD converters overload detectors designed as timing units included in numerical processor. The recorder also contains built-in screen and keyboard assembly, connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory of data control and processing module. Differential operational amplifiers with controlled input are used as analog amplifiers in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder contains comprised in numerical processor timing units computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder input contains units, comprised in numerical processor timing, computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. Input of each specified unit is connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory, and output is connected through digital-to-analog converter to driving input of differential operational amplifier mounted in corresponding channel of module of analog signal reception and transform.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and reliability of received data and enhanced ease of use.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sound vibrations are generated in a pipeline to cause mechanic vibration of metal pipe fittings in the magnetic field of Earth. Electric E and magnetic H components of induced electromagnetic emission, ground temperature and noise level environment in the medium transported by the pipe are measured. Pipeline is located by the maximum of E-H correlation function. Ground temperature indicates leakage. The device includes acoustic oscillator with magnetostriction exciter, and gauge. The gauge consists of a case with indicator of electromagnetic emission characteristics and digital temperature indicator installed in the front panel of the case. Battery-powered receiver of electromagnetic, thermal and acoustic emission with amplifier and comparator is placed inside. The receiver can be connected with remote thermal sensor, sensor of ground acoustic oscillations with built-in antenna receiving electromagnetic emission parameters, and geomicrophone.
EFFECT: simple and highly reliable search; wider functional capabilities.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: low-frequency electromagnetic signal is transmitted through the cable. Near the bottom of the water basin, above the cable and across its route, two identical equally oriented systems of magnetic probes tuned to the same frequency, placed at a fixed distance above each other, are moved. At the axis between the magnetic probe systems, a position transducer is placed, used to measure the angle Θ of deviation of this axis from the vertical. Under the lower magnetic probe system, an ultrasonic transducer is placed, used to measure the distance from it to the water basin bottom surface h. The signals from the magnetic probes, the position transducer, and the ultrasonic transducer, are sent to the processing unit. The underwater cable laying depth d is determined using the formula where D is the distance between the magnetic probe systems; α=EL/EU is the ratio of the magnetic field intensity measured by the lower magnetic probe system to the magnetic field intensity measured by the upper magnetic probe system.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and decreased cost.
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable in agricultural equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the inductance transducer during operation generates interferences which being amplified by an amplifier-filter may cause actuation of the flip-flop and actuator. The maximum interference signal is produced at the instant of passage of the harvester roll weld above the inductance transducer. At this moment the position pickup generates a compensating signal, which is subtracted in the amplifier from the signal of the inductance transducer. Thus, the signal used for comparison with the set point does not contain interferences.
EFFECT: simplified adjustment of the system, enhanced sensitivity, noise immunity.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: geophysics, in particular, paleomagnetism.
SUBSTANCE: the position of the interfaces formed by inversions of the geomagnetic field is determined by pulse radar detection and ranging of the magnetic field with the aid of radar units with a power potential of 500 to 600 dB. The radiating and receiving devices of the radar units include horizontal magnetic dipoles. The interfaces are separated by comparison of the data of pulse radar detection and ranging of the magnetic field and pulse radar detection and ranging of the electric field.
EFFECT: remote determination of interfaces formed by inversions of the geomagnetic field in ice layers, enhanced depth of survey.
FIELD: geophysical electric prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for ac geophysical electric prospecting which current is induced in ground by inductive method; method can be used for searching and prospecting objects as in non-conducting and conducting media. Low-frequency electromagnet field is induced by current running in non-grounded loop onto day surface of Earth. Phase shifts of components of magnetic induction are measured at preset height for parallel profiles relatively vertical component of magnetic induction along profile crossing epicenter of loop and being perpendicular to parallel profiles. Availability of abnormal conducting objects in Earth is determined from structure in phase shifts at the area.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved efficiency of aerial prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises generating low-frequency electromagnetic field with the use of ungrounded loop at the day earth surface, measuring Cartesian components of magnetic induction from parallel profiles at given levels, measuring real and imaginary parts of the Cartesian components of the magnetic induction with respect to the phase of the vertical component of the magnetic induction in the epicenter of the ground loop, determining deviations of measured components from the normal values for a homogeneous medium, and determining sections of increased electric conductivity from the sign and magnitude of these values.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of measuring.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on measurements of electric field, excited using two electrodes. Distanced along supposed subject. Direction of field strength vector is determined on basis of results of measurements of its components in two orthogonal directions. As interpretation parameters value of difference of azimuths of strength vector observed and background, appropriate for homogenous substance, of electric fields, are used. On basis of character of deviation of force lines from background values, presence and position of non-homogenous areas is evaluated and detected.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: system for finding coordinates of track and coordinates of defects of underground pipeline has navigation satellites and starting chamber marker. The latter has navigation receiver, processing and mating units, data storage, receiving chamber marker and track marker connected in series. Mentioned markers have marker receiver and navigation receiver connected in series with processing and mating unit, data storage and intra-pipe inspection tool. The latter has flaw detection module, synchronized reference generator, marker transmitter, route detector, computational and control unit, registrar, angular speed three-component meter, three-component accelerator and longitudinal accelerator, on-ground subsystem. Before making starting intra-tube inspection tool started, its sync reference generator is synchronized with time scale of satellite radar system. Data from flaw detector module is recorded into data registrar by means of intra-tube inspection tool, as well as in registrar of three-component angular speed meter, three-component accelerometer, longitudinal accelerometer, route detector, temperature detector and current time detector. Radar parameters and current time are recorded in marker of starting chamber. Radar parameters, time of passing of inspection tool and current time are recorded route markers and marker of starting chamber. Coordinate of pipeline and coordinates of flaws are calculated in on-ground subsystem on the base of stored data.
EFFECT: improved precision of coordinate finding.
FIELD: diagnosis and control.
SUBSTANCE: as source of electromagnetic field of cathode protection of pipeline is used. Depth of position of pipeline axis is determined on basis of magnetic transverse, longitudinal and vertical components of electromagnetic field of current of cathode protection of pipeline. longitudinal electric component of electromagnetic current field of cathode protection is measured and transverse component of electromagnetic field of current of cathode protection on the left and right from pipeline axes. Results of measurements are made normal for depth of pipeline, resistance of environment, surrounding pipeline, current force in pipeline, background components of electromagnetic fields. On basis of heightened values of normal electric components of electromagnetic field of cathode protection current position and size of disruptions of isolating cover of pipeline are detected.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: pipeline construction technologies.
SUBSTANCE: method shows presence and location of defects of metallic pipelines, includes measuring above pipeline in given points during movement of magnetic field vectors in rectangular coordinates, by at least two three-component sensors, tensor of magnetic field gradients is built, by matrix transformation received information is processed, on basis of results background value is estimated and deviations from this value, on basis of difference of which for given criterion value from background value presence and location of defects of metallic pipelines is decided and magnetic graph is built to show location of defects. Device for realization of method has registration sensors system, quartz generator, frequency divider, analog-digital converter, control block, threshold block, sound and light indication block, automatic battery charge indicator, block for calculation of magnetic field gradients, block for showing information, recording device segment, recording control block, situation alignment block, block for satellite absolute geographic alignment GPS, block for selecting recording segment.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher trustworthiness, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electro-surveying by inductive profiling method, possible use for studying composition of upper part of geological cross-section.
SUBSTANCE: method uses electromagnetic field source and receiving magnetic indicator distanced from one another. Mutual orientation of electromagnetic field source and receiving magnetic indicator is such, that in normal secondary electromagnetic field, excited in radiated geo-electric section without homogeneousness, measured component of magnetic field strength is close to zero. Profiling is performed by means of horizontal displacement relatively to boundary of earth-air splitting simultaneously of source of electromagnetic field and receiving magnetic indicator with discontinuous or continuous registration of abnormal component of magnetic field. On basis of its distribution, presence of geo-electric non-homogeneousness is determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and resistance to interference, decreased laboriousness.
FIELD: technology for finding deposits of oil and gas, possible use for finding hydrocarbon resources in carbon rocks of foundation of oil-gas containing precipitation beds.
SUBSTANCE: method includes taking samples from oil and gas bearing area with carbon foundation, adjacent to subterranean continental paleorift. Magnetic susceptibility of these is measured. On appearance of magnetic susceptibility values within range 13,0·106-31,0·106 presence of deposits is determined.
EFFECT: increased precision of finding deposits in carbon rocks of foundation, simplified method, lower costs.