Method for measurement of small objects sizes with help of zoom and device for its realisation
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for contactless measurement of small objects sizes is realised with the help of device, comprising zoom, which is arranged in the form of single fixed, and also the first and second movable components. Considered object is placed in back focal plane of zoom. In back focal plane of zoom fixed component there are two calibrated frames arranged. Object image is subsequently matched with images of two frames, and position of movable component is fixed in process of this matching. Calculation of object size is carried out by two fixed positions of movable component, by size of frames and structural parametres of zoom.
EFFECT: provision of high accuracy of small objects linear dimensions measurement.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular for contactless optical measurement of the geometrical sizes of various objects.
A known method of non-contact optical measuring sizes of objects, also called the shadow, which is the placement of the investigated object between the laser and multielement photodetector, the sweep of the laser beam into a beam of parallel rays in the zone of location of the object and determining the size of the object according to the amount of shadow cast them on the photodetector. Devices that implement the known method, laser shadow gauges are composed of a laser light source, a lens system that forms from the original beam by the optical scanner beam of parallel rays, and multi-element photodetector, connected to the processing unit. The number of transmission of the pixels on the sensor on the CCD linear array determines the size of the object (see, for example, Azoreductase, Wendelken, Dstool, Avemaria. The application of laser techniques to control the parameters of the coupler and spring. New technologies for rail transport. The collection of scientific articles with international participation, part 4. Omsk 2000, p.23 2-233  and V.N.Demrin, D.S.Dokov, V.N.Tereshkin, A.Z.Venediktov. Optical control of geometrical dimensions for railway cars automatic coupling. Third Internat. Workshop on New Approaches to High-Tech: Nondestructive Testing and omputer Simulations in Science and Engineering. Proceedings of SPAS, Vol.3. 7-11 June 1999, St. Petersburg, p.A17 ).
Using the optical scanner allows you to apply for continuous reading information of the multi-element photodetector on the line CCD and implement information retrieval within one frame, the duration of which is regulated within wide limits, up to 0.1 microsecond. This fact gives the possibility to use laser shadow gauges for measuring parameters of objects moving at high speed.
There is also known a method of non-contact optical measuring sizes of objects, which consists in placing the investigated object between the laser and the photodetector, optical scanning of the laser radiation into a beam of parallel rays in the zone of location of the object and determining the size of the object according to the size of the shadow from the object on the sensor. A device that implements a known way, comprises a laser light source, lens system, optical scanner, multi-element photodiode line, schema information processing and computer (see, for example, Val, Mpharane. Non-contact laser measuring geometric dimensions of the rollers. New technologies for rail transport. The collection of scientific articles with international participation, part 4. Omsk 2000, s-213 ).
The disadvantages of the method and of the device , with which the implemented method, following reason. The accuracy of the measurement when using the known method depends primarily on the accuracy of determining the boundaries of the contour of the object. Diffraction effects cause the transition from light to shadow on the surface of the photodetector is characterized by a certain length, which is used in practice photodetectors on the line CCD is typically a few pixels. Blurring the boundaries between light and shadow reduces the accuracy of determining the size of the object, and the influence of this factor will be greater, the smaller the size of the object.
Closest to the claimed invention is a technical solution described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2262660 . In the way-the prototype of the object to be measured is placed between the laser light source and the photodetector, is measured, the laser power P, is then compared with a given level of Paboutis the optical scan of the laser radiation into a beam of parallel rays in the zone of location of the object and is determined by the size of the object on the size of the shadow from the object on the sensor, adjusting the exposure time of the photodetector largest difference (Pabout-R). The device is a prototype for implementing the method includes a laser, a beam-splitting plate, short-focus cylindrical lens, the output cylinder is practical lens collimating lens, a CCD, a processing unit, a one-dimensional threshold device.
Tackle disadvantage of the prototype is that the proposed method of measurement does not allow to measure the transverse linear dimensions hard-to-reach small objects without moving them into the field of view of the optical system of the device and does not have a wide range of measured sizes.
Thus, the problem to which the invention is directed is to provide a high precision measurement of linear transverse dimensions of small objects; to create conditions for the precise measurement of hard-to-reach objects that prevent arbitrary displacement and position in space; make accurate measurements of the transverse linear dimensions when their significant scatter, for example, 10 or more times.
The problem is solved through the development of a method for the contactless measurement of the size of small objects, namely, that the object in question is placed in the rear focal plane of the lens, the back focal plane of the fixed lens placed two calibrated frame, then perform sequential combining the object image with the images of two frames, fixing the position of the moving component when these owls is edenia and calculating the size of an object in two fixed positions of the rolling component, size limits and design parameters of the lens.
In addition, for the implementation of the proposed method is designed device containing a lens, which is made in the form of one stationary and the first and second moving parts, and in the back focal plane which is the object of study, two calibrated frames, placed in the rear focal plane of the fixed component, optically conjugate with the rear focal plane of the lens, and the sensor linear displacement of the first movable component.
Thus, the design of the device, it is important that the first movable component was made with the possibility of movement in the slave, and in the linear regime with respect to the second movable component.
The principle which is the basis of the claimed invention may be formulated as follows. For measurement of transverse linear dimensions hard-to-reach objects with them combine in the rear focal plane of the lens, which is used when viewed by the eye image of the object with a large visible increase. The zoom lens has the necessary difference in focal length.
For measurements as a measuring tool uses calibrated frame. And to conduct high-precision measurement is the third object size zoom lens provides high quality images at any magnification. When measuring with calibrated image frames combine an enlarged image of the object, the size of which may vary within wide limits by changing the visible zoom (focal length) lens. The change in the value of the visible zoom lens with known structural parameters is uniquely determined by the law of movement of the two moving parts: knowing the amount of movement of one of any of the rolling component, you can calculate the value for the angle zoom lens. When combining the object image with the image of the calibrated frames with the help of the sensor is removed, the linear moving the movable lens component and the magnitude of the calculated desired linear size of the object.
For a better understanding of the claimed invention, the following is a detailed description involving graphic materials.
Figure 1 shows the diagram of a device for measuring the transverse linear dimensions of the small hard-to-reach objects.
Figure 2 shows the optical scheme of the lens for the measurement of transverse linear dimensions of the small hard-to-reach objects.
The invention is illustrated by figure 1, which depicts the inventive device, which implements the inventive method of measuring cross the linear dimensions of small objects.
The device includes eye 1 the operator effecting the measurement of the size of the object, the zoom lens 2, consisting of a fixed lens 3, in the rear focal plane of the lens which is a frame with two test part 4, system 9 AC linear increase (SPLU) with two moving lens components 5 and 6, optical interfacing the rear focal plane of the lens 3 with the rear focal plane of the entire zoom lens 2, the sensor 7 linear position of the moving component 5. The object 8 is located at the back focal plane of the lens, which remains stationary during the change of the focal length (zoom lens).
Figure 2 shows that the test object 8 is located in the plane F', which SPLU optically matching with fixed rear focal plane F'1lens 3, which is the frame 4. Moreover, by moving the positions of the components 5 and 6 change accordingly linear increase in system 9 AC linear magnification, focal length of the entire zoom lens 2 and the angular size of the object.
Such a structure of a zoom lens with the frame in the plane of F1provides supervision sharp image of the object variable angular size on the background of the two calibrated framework.
The inventive method is carried out as follows. the hole through the lens 3 sees the image of the object 8 on the background of the two frames fixed angular size (calibrated frames). Changing the focal length of the zoom lens 2, change the position of the moving parts 5 and 6 and a linear increase system 9 variable magnification. Change the image size of the object up until it is equal to the size of the first calibrated frames with angular size of W1. When the coincidence of these dimensions capture the value of t1distances d1between the fixed lens and the component 5.
Re changing the focal length of the zoom lens, move the component 5 to align an image of the object from the second grooved frame with angular size of W2and fix the value of t2distances d1. Use these reports t1and t2to calculate the required size of the object based, which uses the known structural parameters of the zoom lens and the angular dimensions of the calibrated part of W1and W2.
For a zoom lens is known relations between its parameters and the angular size of the object and calibrated frame of size LK1and LK2.
Angular dimensions W1and W2two calibrated frames are determined by the focal length offixed lens 2 using expressions
Angular dimension W of an object of size L is determined by focuslistener of the entire zoom lens f' according to the expression TgW=L/f'. Here the focal length of the zoom lens f' is associated with a focal length ofthrough linear increase Bet(t) of the system 9 AC increaseThe apparent increase in G of the object that provides the zoom lens when the focal length f'is determined by the known ratio G=250/f'.
In turn, a linear increase Bet(t) of the system 9 AC increase unambiguously associated with its design parameters of the moving component 5. From theory of SPLU  provided the stillness of the planes F1and F2you can obtain the relationship of the normalized design parameters F, G, move the X component 5 and the current ramp-Bet(t).
- focal length of the first component of SPLA;
- focal length of the second component of SPLA;
d1d2- the distances between the components of the system;
d3- the distance from the second components the NTA to the image plane;
G - generalized normalized distance between the focal planes of the components of SPLA in the initial position;
- setting SPLU,
β - current increase SPLO;
β1that β2=β1/M - increase SDA start and end positions of the components of the system;
M is the desired differential increases SPLO;
X is the normalized distance from the rear focal plane of the fixed lens to the front focus of the first component of SPLA.
Knowing the value of d1=t1obtained by matching images of the subject and the first calibrated frames, you can consistently find:
Knowing the parameters of the zoom lens, can record the 1st equation to calculate the linear magnification of SPLA corresponding to the first count of t1:
Similarly, we can write the 2nd equation corresponding to the reference t2.
Subtracting from the 1st equation 2, for the linear increase and the desired size of the object we get:
The focal length of the zoom lens providing the em large apparent increase of the object and, as a result, high accuracy, even at small sizes of the object, and a big difference between focal lengths of the zoom lens allows you to maintain this accuracy when varying the size of the object in a large range.
Thus, the inventive method and device by using a zoom lens, high precision cross-interference secure compared to device - prototype - precision measurements of small objects.
In a practical example of implementing the claimed invention was used, the zoom lens having high optical resolution with a difference of focal lengths M=39 times in the object plane of about 5 μm. This lens provides a measurement of dimensions with high accuracy.
The invention can be used in various industries, in medicine and other areas where require high-precision measurements.
1. Method for the contactless measurement of the size of small objects, namely, that the object in question is placed in the rear focal plane of the lens, the back focal plane of the fixed component placed two calibrated frame, then perform sequential combining the object image with the images of two frames, fixing the position of the moving component when these sovmeshennyi calculation of the size of the object in two fixed positions of the rolling component, size limits and design parameters of the lens.
2. Device for the contactless optical measurement of small objects with a zoom lens, which is made in the form of one stationary and the first and second moving parts, and in the back focal plane which is the object of study, two calibrated frames, placed in the rear focal plane of the fixed component, optically conjugate with the rear focal plane of the lens, and the sensor linear displacement of the first movable component.
3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the first movable component is made with the possibility of movement in the slave, and in the linear regime with respect to the second movable component.
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method, and also to device for measurement of component amount coming from surrounding gas atmosphere and received by parts in process of thermochemical treatment of metal parts. Sample, lengthwise size of which considerably exceeds its cross size, is exposed to gas atmosphere impact. Change of sample length in time in lengthwise direction is measured, being the result of component transfer from gas atmosphere, and measured change of length is used for determination of component amount that was transferred from gas atmosphere to sample. Method is performed isothermally or at changing temperature, at that change of length resulted from temperature change is compensated in calculations. In order to realise the method, device is used that incorporates clamp for sample used in method, system of length measurement for registration of sample length change in time in longitudinal direction, and also computing unit. Method provides possibility to obtain much more accurate data on amount of component coming from gas atmosphere and received by parts.
EFFECT: obtainment of much more accurate data on amount of component coming from gas atmosphere and received by parts.
14 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: according to method of contact-free optical measurement the object is placed between laser radiation source and photoreceiver. Power of laser radiation P is measured and compared with preset level of power P0 . Laser radiation is optically scanned into beam of parallel rays at the area where object finds its place and size of object is found from size of shade of object onto photoreceiver while correcting time of exposure from value of difference (P0-P). Device for realizing the method has laser, beam-splitting plate, short-focused cylindrical lens, output cylindrical lens, collimating lens, CCD, data processing unit, photoreceiving threshold unit.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: facility is designed for automated measuring of thickness, shape and kind of grown ice, and of area of its cross section for evaluation of intensity of ice forming and degree of hazard for flight of aircraft. A cylinder rod removed outboard of an airplane into free flow of air serves as a receiver of ice forming. A heating element throwing off accumulated ice in case of necessity is installed in the receiver of the ice forming. A digital photo-recorder is arranged at a certain distance from the receiver of ice forming; the recorder fixes images of the rod end with growing ice. From the photo-recorder images are sent to a solver determining parametres of built ice.
EFFECT: automation and increased accuracy of determination of potential hazard of ice forming by means of simultaneous evaluation of shape of grown ice and its kind, measuring beginning and end of ice forming, ice thickness and rate of growing (intensity of ice forming) in all directions.
9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: physics, measuring.
SUBSTANCE: device for the control of the geometrical sizes of objects contains a radiant of light radiation, optically related to it multiscan photodetector, having the index and target busbars, consistently included two radiants of bias, the block of transformation of a multiscan output current, "current-pressure" including consistently joined transformer, the high-frequency filter, the detector and the integrator. And also the modulator, bias radiants are joined by separate deductions to deductions of the index busbar, the inlet the transformer "current-pressure" is joined to the multiscan output busbar, the integrator exit is joined to a blanket deduction of radiants of bias. The device is in addition is supplied by the second radiant of light radiation, opticaly related to a photodetector, an analogue-digitiser, a control computer system and the circuit changer. The modulator output is joined to a signal input of the circuit changer, the first and second outputs of the circuit changer are joined to the first and second radiants of light radiation. The inlet is analogue-digitiser joined to an integrator output, and its output - with a control computer system input, the output of the last is joined to inputs of guidance of the circuit changer and analogue-digitiser.
EFFECT: increase of accuracy of the device for measuring of the sizes of objects and its maintenance by operation of the device in the conditions of background light noises.
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: method of textile fibre length evaluation using computer image consists in random layout of single fibres on working surface of scanner, fibre orientation in horizontal plane as pressed with a plate of contrast colour, digital sample imaging, sequential processing of the specified image to detect starting points on fibre image, separation of elementary linear components of fibre image and length measurement followed with stack-up of lengths of elementary linear components. Regulatory local error is preset on the basis of one bending of fibre image; each fibre is tested for bending number of fibre image. Total measurement error of single fibre length is calculated by multiplication of bending number of fibre image by regulatory local error. Actual fibre length is evaluated by addition of total length of elementary linear components and total measurement error of each fibre length.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of computer measurement method of single fibre length due to reduced regular error caused by multiple fibre bending.
SUBSTANCE: method of a grain-size analysis of lignocarbohydrate materials is based on a direct optical technique of the computer analysis of the plotting in which make measurements of a mass fraction and the square of corpuscles by means of the program of grain-size analysis. For conducting of measurements the corpuscle of comminuted lignocarbohydrate materials is inducted into organic solvent, put in the form of the suspension preliminarily processed by ultrasound, on glass, cover with other glass and put on the cleared surface of the scanner. For a grain-size analysis in addition the extent of destruction of an investigated material is defined.
EFFECT: creation of the method, that allow to obtain more precise information about the corpuscles' form and sizes of lignocarbohydrate materials; to predict properties of products gained during chemical transformations.
FIELD: the invention refers to non-invasive optical methods of measuring the physical parameters of transparent objects.
SUBSTANCE: with the aid of a source of light they form low coherent radiation directed into a double-reflecting beam interferometer. The low coherent optical radiation coming out of the double-reflecting beam interferometer is introduced into a fiber-optic transmitting line. The coming out low coherent optical radiation is divided on a supporting and measuring beams. The supporting and the measuring beams are directed along the supporting and the measuring passes. The low coherent optical radiation passed along the supporting optical motion is mixed with the low coherent optical radiation passed along the measuring pass. The intensity of the received low coherent optical radiation is converted into an electrical signal with the aid of a photo converter. The initial value of optical difference of the pass for the beams in the double-reflecting beam interferometer is installed. The investigated object is placed on the optical pass of the measuring beam. The change relatively to the initial value of the optical difference of the pass for the beams of the double-reflecting beam interferometer is measured. The optical difference of the pass for the beams of the double-reflecting beam interferometer is measured.
EFFECT: simplification of apparatus realization of the mode at simultaneous increase of accuracy of measuring.
FIELD: method and apparatus for detecting position of object at operation of mobile robot, namely robot-vacuum cleaner.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes first optical sensor for detecting first zone of bumper 50 of mobile robot and for measuring first value of bumper motion at collision of mobile robot with object; second optical sensor for detecting second zone of bumper and for measuring second value of bumper 50 motion at its collision with object. Apparatus includes microcomputer 30 for generating control signal for controlling motion direction of mobile robot on base of measurements results of first and second motion values; control unit for moving mobile robot according to control signal of microcomputer.
EFFECT: shortened time period of operation preventing robot collision with object due to accurate determining of relative position of object.
12 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: curvimeter with optical target designator contains measuring wheel, connected to counting device and indication flush device. Optical target designator is connected to measuring wheel in such a way that during movement of beam of optical target designator from starting point to final point of object limit, curvimeter with optical target designator moves across transparent screen, positioned in front of object, or across surface, positioned behind the object, repeating configuration of object contour. Curvimeter is mounted with possible fixation of angle of inclination of optical target designator relatively to aforementioned screen or surface.
EFFECT: increased precision and increased comfort of measuring, expanded functional capabilities, in particular, noncontact determining of projection dimensions of object.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for measuring displacements and vibrations with a non-invasive mode.
SUBSTANCE: the fiber-optic sensor has an emissive and two receiving light pipes unequally distant from the controlling surface, a source of emission, a measuring bridge in whose arms there are two resistors and photodiodes in quality of photo receivers connected in accordance with the scheme with a common anode, a source of feeding, four arrangements for selection and storing, a commutator, an analogue-digital converter and a computing device. The technical result is in increasing accuracy of measurements at the expense of providing invariance to changing parameters of the source of feeding, the source of emission, to changing of the magnitude of a coefficient of the reflection of the surface of the controlled object and also possibility to increase sensitiveness of the arrangement to the measured parameter at the expense of using of the two photo receivers in the measuring process.
EFFECT: increases accuracy of measuring.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: device additionally comprises two lenses, first and second current-voltage converters whose inputs are connected with the output of the source of optical radiation and output of the receiver of optical radiation, first and second code-voltage converters whose inputs are connected with the first and second information outputs of the computer, and differentiation amplifier whose first and second inputs are connected with the outputs of the first current-voltage converter and first code-voltage converter, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: method of contact-free measurement of objects which have defocused borders onto image is based upon registration of object's image in memorizing unit, on presetting of rectangular areas of images fro subsequent detection of object's shape, on performing of differential-integral transforms, upon finding of coordinates of shape and calculating of sizes. In addition due to calibration of measurement system, the width of shape's lines is found depending on shift of object. While measuring, width of shapes of lines is found, and using the found dependence, the width of lines is transformed into distance from borders of object to defocusing plane, which distance is taken into account when calculating sizes of objects. Set of blanks with different thickness can be measured without re-focusing of system. Three-dimensional object sizes can be measured when faces of objects are disposed at some distance from focusing plane and are disposed not in parallel to it.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of operation.
SUBSTANCE: device has radiation source in form of light diode, mounted on one of objects, and multi-element linear photo detector, mounted on another object. Photo detector is made in form of two pairs of multi-element linear photo detectors distanced from each other, light-sensitive lines of which in each pair are mounted at angle α1, relatively to other pair, and between light diode and each pair of linear photo detectors objective and device are mounted, the latter being used for forming light mark image from light diode in form of cross in plane of each pair of linear photo-detectors, made in form of no less than two cylindrical lens bitmaps, not screening each other, angle between symmetry planes of which is α2.
EFFECT: higher precision.
4 cl, 8 dwg