Method for preparation of stowing mix
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to method for preparation of stowing mix. Tails of dressing works are sent to several stowing complexes with application of hydraulic transport system, comprising working and drain branches. Tails are separated in each stowing complex into condensed product sent for preparation of stowing mix and lightened discharge. Working and drain branches of hydraulic transport system are separated. Tails from working branch are sent to each stowing complex, and lightened discharge is drained to drain branch. End part of working branch and beginning of drain branch in hydraulic transport system are joined by emergency bridge comprising stop valves. Each stowing complex newly added to system of hydraulic transport is duplicated with emergency bridge. System of hydraulic transport includes several separated working and drain branches, which service groups of stowing complexes that vary in number. Working and drain branches of hydraulic transport system for sending of tails to several groups of stowing complexes may be combined into headers.
EFFECT: provision of stable high quality of mines stowing, increased efficiency and safety of mining works, lower costs for preparation of stowing mix and transportation of dressing works tails in servicing of several mines.
7 cl, 8 dwg, 1 ex
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used at the enterprises, having in its composition concentrator and leading mining systems development with the mined-out space.
Known method of preparing the filling mixture comprising preparing a hardening and hydraulic bookmarks using obesshlamlennyj tailings beneficiation plant. While a large fraction of tails emit directly at the exit from the processing plant at the pump and hydrocyclone installation and warehoused in large tanks (V=1000 m3). The transportation of a large fraction of tails before mixing plants carry trucks (Halperin VG, Yukhymov YA, Ayrapetyan G. ore Mining systems development with the mined-out space abroad. // MCM USSR. TSNIITOCHMASH Nonferrous metallurgy. Series: Economics of non-ferrous metallurgy / Overview. Issue 7. - M.: 1989. - P.26).
The disadvantage of this method is unnecessarily high transportation costs for large-scale production, especially in those cases where the beneficiation plant and the mines are from each other at a considerable distance.
Another serious disadvantage of this method is that it is not universal is flax. This method is not suitable for Northern regions, because in winter wet tails during transportation by road will inevitably smartarse with the formation of monolithic blocks that will create significant difficulties in unloading trucks and will complicate the circuit schematic of the apparatus for further processing lumpy material.
Known method of preparing the filling mixture comprising the feed tailings beneficiation plant by pipeline backfill complex, split the tails in the hydrocyclone for sand and plums, obtained using sand as an inert filler in the preparation of filling mixture. In the known method the tailings pipeline length 1000 m served in a special surge tank, and then pump in the battery of hydrocyclones. With the concentrator serves the entire amount of the produced tailings. To prepare filling mixture using only part of a pre-obesshlamlennyj tails, and their excess returns in the tailings pond. This is necessary to ensure that the pipeline runs smoothly, because the stop will cause the deposition of filling material and clogging of the pipeline (Halperin VG, Yukhymov YA, Ayrapetyan G. ore Mining systems development with the mined-out space abroad. // MCM USSR. SIC is a FERROUS non-ferrous metallurgy. Series: Economics of non-ferrous metallurgy / Overview. Issue 7. - M.: 1989. - P.10).
The known method is similar to the preparation of the filling mixture is illustrated (figure 1), which presents the scheme of submission of tailings from the beneficiation plant, several of filling complexes and return the clarified discharge transport gostapproved.
The disadvantage of this method is the loss of the most valuable to bookmark obesshlamlennyj part of the tailings as a result of excess weight of the material in the tailings pond, as well as loss of tailings from discharge of hydrocyclones.
Another disadvantage of this method is the inability to create on its basis the production technology of filling mixture and laying-out space at the same time for several mines. Use this one straight pipe will inevitably create the problem of control density backfill mixture, which in turn will lead to excessive watering of the material in the direction of travel of the pulp and, consequently, to its segregation of particle sizes. This will cause the need for periodic discharge of excess process water for relief, which is unacceptable from the viewpoint of environmental protection (pulp tailings contains a range of residual flotation reagents, some of which belong to the category of VP), and who will also become unreliable quality bookmarks.
Another disadvantage of this method is the increased consumption of water, energy and equipment wear. Hydrotestosterone and alluvium material with a relatively low density slurry tailings, due to the conditions of safe operation flow of the pipeline, causing high costs for water drainage; requires a large consumption of cement; filling complex for this method is too cumbersome and ethnological.
There is also known a method of preparation of the filling mixture, including preliminary thickening of the current tailings beneficiation plant, transportation of tailings slurry pipeline for stowing facility, split the tails in the hydrocyclone for sand and plums, education backfill mixture of sand and additives. In a known way in order to reduce expenditure on drainage water tails thicken in the drive to high weight concentration - 0,7-0,75 (patent RU 2019713 C1 IPC5, E21F 15/00, publ. 15.09.94 year).
The disadvantages of this method are the loss of part of the tailings from discharge of hydrocyclones, and the inability to use one pipeline to serve multiple filling complexes.
In addition, a serious disadvantage of this method is the thickening of the pulp tailings before they are transported by pipeline to a high density. Protagen the th track this creates an increased risk of blockage of the pipeline, especially dangerous in the Northern areas in winter.
Closest to the proposed method on a set of attributes and the achieved result is a cooking method of filling mixture comprising the feed tailings beneficiation plant (hereafter PF) hydraulic system the circular pipeline, consisting of working and the drain of the branches, several of filling complexes located sequentially along its length. Each backfilling complex tails are subjected to multi-stage separation hydromechanical ways of obtaining consolidated condensed product allocated to education backfill mix, and clarified plum, which return in the circular pipeline. When this flow of tailings in each filling complex is carried out on the working branch of the annular pipe. In this, the working branch, and return the clarified discharge, which is used as a transporting medium to maintain the required flow rate in the annular pipeline and tailings delivery next sequentially located along the length of the annular pipe backfill complex (patent RU 2181435 C1 IPC7, E21F 15/00, publ. 20.04.2002,) PROTOTYPE.
The known method is the prototype of cooking filling mixture is illustrated figure 2, which presents the ring scheme of tailings delivery is Obogatitelniy factory for several consecutive filling complexes and return the clarified discharge into the working branch transport hostprovider.
The disadvantages of the prototype are quite high costs of transportation tails, insufficient reliability of the hydraulic system during operation of hostprovider in areas with harsh climatic conditions, for example, in mining enterprises in the Arctic, as well as reduced productivity of the mines and the lack of safety of mining operations.
These drawbacks are due to the following design features of the scheme feed tailings from the BENEFICIATION of filling complexes mines proposed in the method prototype.
According to the prototype in the scheme of transportation tails are consistently somewhat superficial filling complexes (hereafter PCC). Return the clarified discharge generated during phasic separation tailings at PCC is working in (feed) branch ring hostprovider serving of filling complexes. This technical solution has the distinct advantage - enables to use the clarified discharge as the conveying medium to maintain the required flow rate in the annular pipeline and tailings delivery next sequentially located along the length of the annular pipe backfill complex. However, this proposal has significant n is wealth: a consequence of the scheme connect PPC to the ring kostopoulou is each subsequent backfilling the system operates in an increasingly watered pulp tailings. The high degree of dilution tails, characteristic of the most remote PPC, leads to the creation of excessively large amounts of circulation flow in order to provide the required amount of inert filler for the preparation of filling mixture. Pumping excessive amounts of slurry tailings leads to an increase in energy costs of transportation, accelerated wear of pipelines, cumbersome equipment PCC and significant dimensions of industrial premises of filling complexes. The last factor is crucial for the regions of the Far North due to the high cost of capital construction and delivery with the "mainland" of large equipment.
Another serious disadvantage proposed in the prototype ring circuit is that the pulp density tails, coming in at filling complexes spontaneously varies widely. On the one hand, due to the dilution of tails in the filing clarified plum in working (feed) branch ring hostprovider, on the other hand, cyclical mode of operation of the PCC. Variable, virtually unregulated, pulp density tails, the bound on PPC, and its excessive dilution of the resulting discharge leads to excess water in the backfill mixture and deterioration, as a result, the quality of bookmarks, waste of expensive cement and additional costs for pumping excess water.
Reset clarified plum in the working branch ring hostprovider has another serious disadvantage of causing a decrease in the strength properties of the bookmark. This is due to the fact that the tails OF contain a certain amount of slime particles. Thin classes tailings (sludge), containing sulfides, reduce the strength characteristics of hardening bookmarks. During hydromechanical separation tailings at PCC, including the processes cyclanorbinae and thickening, slime particles are concentrated in the clarified plum and displayed in the working branch ring hostprovider. Due to the fact that the annular gostapproved serving multiple consecutive filling complexes, each of which plums come into his working branch, is the progressive accumulation in the tails of slime particles. As a result, each subsequent PCC tails comes with increasing content of slime particles, reducing the quality of the filling mixture. The formation of an artificial arrays poor hardening mixtures determines the expansion of the time period, required for regulatory strength, and therefore, reduces the productivity of mining operations. Otherwise, exposure of filling the array, not collected normative strength, do not have sufficient stability and are potential sources of danger for people and expensive mining equipment.
Unstable quality of the bookmarks is one of the main drawbacks of the prototype method. This is a crucial point, because the extraction of high value is systems development with total mined-out space, allowing mining operations with a maximum extraction of minerals at the subsequent stages of beneficiation and metallurgy. The specificity of this technology is that artificial arrays formed hardening filling mixtures, are used as structural elements of systems development (soil, roof and sides of excavations). This poses stringent requirements on strength characteristics of the backfill array and, consequently, causes intermittent bookmarks exhaust cavities. Interruptions in the supply of filling mixtures in waste generation are forced. They are necessary for a set of filling the array normative strength, allowing the question to conduct mining operations in the immediate vicinity of outcrops in the bookmarks (by contact with vertical concrete walls, under artificial roof or artificial soil). In addition, the need for breaks in the preparation and serving of backfill mixes in excavation due to:
- blasting, during which the bookmark is suspended due to the lack of mine personnel, controlling the state of filling jumpers;
technology breaks for PPC is associated with repair and maintenance work on the equipment;
- the need to move to other mixes;
- irregular delivery underground workings under the tab.
However, the inevitable breaks in consumption tails should not stop the hydrotransport, because stopping the movement of the pulp in hostprovider even for a short time in freezing temperatures may cause freezing and the formation of blood clots ("jams", wall accretions)that will cause an emergency situation with possible severe consequences.
Thus, the principal disadvantage of the prototype is that it does not provide stable quality bookmarks in real working conditions PCC. The degree of liquefaction of tailings discharged to the tab, this method largely depends on the mode of operation of PCC (duration, technological and/or unforeseen interruptions of production backfill CME is her stops the operation of the equipment at filling complexes) and the number of complexes that are connected to the ring kostopoulou. Therefore, the prototype cannot be used for the extraction of high value, where applicable system development with total mined-out space. The scope of the prototype is limited by the technology of mining operations that do not involve the use of artificial arrays as structural elements of systems development. He basically can only be used for testing ores with low content of valuable components, where the bookmark function is limited to preserve the integrity of the array of the overlying rocks.
In addition, the disadvantage of the prototype is that the solid part of the tails OF even in stable mode, PPC enters into the drain, and with it is discharged into the tailings pond. This is because the inlet and outlet sections of circular pipeline are not separated spatially (are one), so that the amount of solid tailings returned with sink, at constant volume circulation is determined only mode and rhythm of the work of the PCC. Therefore, the issue of filling complexes required number of tails in the prototype can be solved in one of the following options, the ants:
- solid tailings returned with sink, stands in the condensed product and positives to the original tails OF that require additional dewatering equipment and expansion of production facilities;
in advance increases the capacity of the plant for desliming and thickening of the original tails OFF (in case of solid tailings returned from discharge, discharged into the tailings pond).
Both variants are associated with increased capital and operating costs.
Another disadvantage of the prototype is that the resulting discharge is not clarified (contains varying quantities of the solid phase tails), which does not allow to use it in the water recycling system OF.
Another disadvantage of the prototype is the increase in the cost of compliance with environmental safety of mining operations. This is due to the increased volume of mine water education and, consequently, high costs of their purification from suspended solids, flotation agents and oil before re-using water and/or reset on the ground.
The objective of the invention is the creation of flow technology, ensuring consistently high quality bookmarks mining, productivity and safety of mining operations, SN the provision of expenses on preparation of filling mixture and transportation of tailings beneficiation plant for maintenance several mines.
The technical result of the invention is to provide year-round transportation of tailings from the beneficiation plant, the preparation of the filling mixture to multiple consumers with:
- feed on each stowing facility tails OF a given optimal density and of the same composition (grain size, phase, chemical);
- obtaining clarified plum, suitable for use in the system of circulating water OF;
- reduction of the circulating flow of slurry tailings;
- formation of the artificial arrays specified strength in normative terms;
the minimum cost of supplying the necessary quantity of tailings and compliance with environmental safety of mining operations;
- to ensure reliable operation of the transport system at the tailings at any time, irrespective of the mode of filling complexes.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of preparation of the filling mixture, including the filing of tailings beneficiation plant in several of filling complexes using a hydraulic system, consisting of working and drain branches, split tails in each filling complex in the condensed product is directed to the preparation of the filling mixture, and the clarified discharge, according to the image is the shadow work and drain branch system hydraulic separated, in each stowing facility tails served from the working branch, and clarified drain connected with the drain branch.
Another difference is that the end portion of the working branch and the beginning of the discharge branch of the hydraulic system connecting the emergency jumper containing the fixture.
A further difference is that each newly introduced into the system hydraulic stowing facility duplicate emergency jumper containing the fixture.
Another difference lies in the fact that the waste tailings hydrotransport system includes a number of separated workers and discharge branches serving different number of groups of filling complexes.
The next difference method lies in the fact that the workers and the drain branch of the hydraulic system when submitting tails to several groups of filling complexes in the United headers.
The next difference is that the working(s) and drain(s) branch of the hydraulic system is made as a separate ring of pipelines with separate circulation products: circulation tails - in working (-) branch, and clarified drain - drain(s) branch.
Another difference is that the mass ratio of liquid and solid in the condensed product obtained in each backfill is the complex when the split tails, support so that it does not exceed the required calculated values of the mass ratio of liquid and solid tailings for specific formulations prepared filling mixture.
In the set of included features, each of which are necessary and together sufficient to achieve the technical result in all cases, the use of the invention.
The proposed method for the preparation of filling mixture is illustrated by drawings (figure 3-5, 7 and 8), which presents different types of diagrams, hydraulic tail with division of labor and the drain its branches. Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram of a circuit apparatus PCC to illustrate technology thickening tailings and cooking the filling mixture. In all drawings provided by the flow of tailings from the beneficiation plant, several of filling complexes from the working branch of the hydraulic system and return the clarified reverse drain its drain branch.
The rationale for differences
Entered differences allow us to retrieve the specified technical result due to the following constructive advantages.
1. The division of operating (inlet) and discharge (outlet) system branches hydraulic tail, in which each filling complex original tails OF serves from the working branch, and clarified oborot the second drain connected with the drain branch of the hydraulic system, provides constant characteristics of the tailings slurry (density; particle size distribution, chemical and phase composition) along the entire length of the working branch hostprovider. Admission tails with equal and stable density to all PCC, regardless of the mode of operation, enables high precision and efficiency to manage the cooking process of filling mixture. Return the clarified discharge in the discharge (outlet) branch of the hydraulic system eliminates the accumulation of slime particles in the tails, used to prepare the filling mixtures, which significantly improves the performance of hardening and strength characteristics of the backfill array. This improves the performance and safety of mining operations.
2. Admission to all PCC tails with equal and stable density significantly increases the rhythmic work of filling complexes. This factor, in combination with the installation of emergency jumper connecting the end part of the working branch and the beginning of the discharge branch of the hydraulic system, ensures high reliability hostprovider in freezing temperatures, which is very important for mining enterprises located in regions with harsh climatic conditions. The connection is working and the drain of the branches of the emergency jumper equipped for the priori valve (Fig.3-5, 8)that allows you to organize if necessary (technological breaks, emergency stop PPC and others) continuous circulation of the slurry tailings and/or water formed by the ring: "concentrator - working branch of hostprofile - emergency jumper (valves open) - drain branch hostprovider processing factory (TMF)". When running PPC is in maintenance mode alarm jumper blocked and get clarified plums in their quality suitable for use in the circulating water system OF.
3. Duplication of each backfill complex, newly introduced into the system, hydraulic tail, emergency bridge, containing valves, provides a continuous circulation of the transported components (tails, clarified plum, water) on the newly formed areas of the working and discharge branches, eliminating emergency situations in the operation of the hydraulic system with emergency stops filling complexes.
4. The separation system hydraulic feed tails on several dual-workers and discharge branches serving different number of groups of filling complexes (figure 4 and 5), allows to reduce the total hydraulic resistance network and to simplify the maintenance of hostprovider, especially in Slavianskaya, with significant snow drifts and extremely low temperatures. While this slightly increases the cost of the transport system at the feeder tails, but, however, compensated by the higher its reliability in the harshest climates and greater independence of operation of the system from the mode of filling complexes.
5. Combining several pairs of workers and the drain of the branches in the reservoir (figure 5) allows to reduce to a minimum the number of units of a pump canovaro equipment. Thus it is possible to reduce the cost of the transport system at the tailings delivery and the cost of operation while maintaining the flexibility and reliability management PCC work in areas with any climatic conditions.
6. The execution of work (-) and the drain(s) branches of the hydraulic system in the form of a separate annular pipes with separate circulation of products:
circulation tails - in working (-) branch, and clarified drain - drain(s) branch provides fully Autonomous operation of each part of the hydraulic system. In each of the branches constantly circulates steady stream corresponding product (tails, clarified plum), which even more increases the reliability of the hydraulic system, especially in the period of low temperatures the snow drifts.
7. The proposed scheme of tailings delivery on PPC allows you to precisely adjust the mass ratio of liquid and solid (W:T) in the condensed product obtained in each backfilling complex when you split tails. This opens wide possibilities for optimizing the water balance in the preparation technology of filling mixture. In the proposed method W:T condensed product obtained in each backfilling complex when you split tails, support at a level that does not exceed the required calculated values for specific formulations prepared filling mixture. This allows to simplify the technology of preparation of filling mixture, increase its quality by reducing the extent of flooding and reduce the amount of mine water generated. The latter in turn can reduce the cost of purification of mine waters from contaminants (solids, oil and flotation agents)that are performed in order to comply with the requirements of environmental safety of mining operations prior to discharge of mine water on the ground or use the recycled water supply systems. The advantage achieved data hallmark, is illustrated by the following peculiarities of the technology of preparation of the filling mixture.
Preparation of the filling mixture is performed by adding to the SG is on the product, obtained by dividing tails, aggregates and binders additives by mixing the ingredients in the mixer or mill. Inert additives can contain moisture held in the material naturally due to its physical properties (for example, the natural moisture content of the granulated slag is used as an inert filler bookmarks on the Talnakh mines is 7%). The most effective way of presenting in filling the mixture of binding agent is a technology with advanced preparation "grout" is a well mixed mixture of cement with water. The efficiency of cement is achieved in this case due to the disclosure of cement grains in a water-cement mixture.
In case of exceeding the value of W:T condensed product obtained in PPC is when you split tails, regulated level (condition is established a distinctive feature of the proposed method), adding to the concentrated product slurry of inert or cementitious additives will increase the water content of filling mixture above the level provided for in the recipe, and, as a consequence, the quality of bookmarks. The preservation of specific water flow in the filling mixture on the regulatory level in this case will require the prior removal of water from inert additives with what ispolzovaniem expensive methods of drying or filtration. In addition, you will have to abandon the implementation of the method of pre-mixing the cement with water (cooking "grout") with the transition to the use of less-effective method of supplying cement to the addition of dry cement directly into the mixer or mill, which will adversely affect the quality of the cement and will significantly increase the consumption of binder.
To avoid the above difficulties and disadvantages allows complex technical solutions that provide optimal conditions thickening tailings for backfill complexes, in accordance with the distinguishing features of the proposed method.
The method of preparation of the filling mixture is as follows.
Original tails of the concentrator at a pre-laid pipeline working branch system hydraulic served on several surface filling complexes mines or mines (figure 3-5, 7 and 8). In the stowing complex includes (6): cumulative capacity tails (1); set hydromechanical separation tailings on the condensed product and the clarified discharge, which may consist of, for example, from the hydrocyclone (2) and thickener (3); the mixer or mill to prepare filling mixture of the ingredients (4), storage capacity for the clarified discharge (5). In the installation for tromechanical split tails on the condensed product and clarified plums instead of the hydrocyclone and thickener together or can be used in filters, for example: candle, ceramic, automatic press filters, etc. and centrifuges. The accumulation tank (1) and (5) are equipped with agitators to prevent settling of the particles of the solid phase tails on the bottom of the tank. Capacity (1) provides reception and accumulation of tailings at the PCC during a period of temporary discontinuation of mines or mines filling mixture. From the storage tank (1) tails served on the setup for their hydromechanical separation of the condensed product and the clarified overflow. In this case, (6) such installation includes two stages thickening of tailings in the hydrocyclone (2) and the thickener (3). Original tails of the cumulative capacity (1) pumps served in the hydrocyclone (2), in which there is separation on the Sands and the primary drain. Sands of the hydrocyclone is sent to the mixer or mill (4), and the primary drain in the thickener (3) to highlight the fine tailings. In the thickener (3) from the primary drain emit a solid phase (fine fraction tails), which is in the form of a thickened slurry together with sand hydrocyclone fed into the mixer or mill (4) on the preparation of the filling mixture. In the mixer or mill (4), along with condensed product obtained by separation of tailings (sand hydrocyclone + thickened pulp is separated from the drain hydrocyclone), depending on the type of the bookmark serves various who's supplements for example: binder, inert additives and plasticizers - in the preparation hardening filling mixture or inert additives (slag metallurgical production) and water - hydrosolate. Weighing the costs of ingredients are determined in accordance with a specified formula. Finished stowing mixture from the mixer or mill (4) is served in the mine or mine underground concrete to lay mines. The cooking process of filling mixture in all PPC is similar and can only differ by the type of equipment used and the ratio of ingredients used in filling mixtures. For example, as a mixer for the preparation of filling mixture can be used in a variety of mass transfer units with mechanical stirring (rotating machines, reactors, agitators, photomachine, mixers), pump-circulating installation, vibromaster and other
The clarified overflow thickener (3) direct the holding tank (5), where it pumps served in the drain branch system hydraulic feed tails. One part of the clarified discharge used in the circulating water system concentrator, another part of the excess is discharged into the tailings pond. Clarified plums, accumulated in the vessel (5), can also be used to maintain stable the first operation of the hydraulic system during periods of technological or emergency downtime of filling complexes, and/or flushing of pipelines and valves.
Submission tails on PPC is on schedule, providing constant movement of the tails in the working branch of the hydraulic system and clarified the drain - drain branch.
In case of a sudden unexpected stop PPC or acceptance by consumers of filling mixture in the hydraulic circuit is provided for emergency jumper connecting the end part of the working branch and the beginning of the discharge branch of the hydraulic system. Emergency jumper contains valves, which in normal operation PCC closed (figure 3-5, 8). Emergency operation supply tails on PPC is closed, open the isolation valves on the emergency jumper and ensures a continuous circulation of tailings generated by the ring OF a working branch - jumper - drain branch - OFF". For a long stop PPC is working in a branch hydraulic served clarified plums, tails from the system through the jumper pushed into the drain branch and discharged into the tailings pond. What follows is a continuous circulation clarified plum on the above formed an emergency circular pipeline. It is also possible in cases of emergency stop PPC displacement hosts and clarified drain from the hydraulic system through the jumper with p the power of compressed air.
Each newly entered into the system hydraulic stowing facility duplicate emergency jumper containing a shut-off valve (figure 3-5, 8). This increases the durability of the hydraulic system in the most severe climatic conditions and helps to maintain the health of the individual segments in the temporary failure of the individual sections of the pipeline (the formation of "fistula", mudding, nastily). In this case, during emergency stops PCC emergency circulation tails (clarified plum) is a local ring sections in accordance with how it was stated in the previous paragraph.
Waste tailings hydrotransport system includes a number of separated workers and discharge branches serving different number of groups of filling complexes (figure 4, 5 and 8). This variant of the proposed method is the most optimal for the case when filling complexes all over the country at various distances from the concentrator and the degree of spatial proximity can be combined into groups. For areas with harsh climatic conditions, such as the Siberian Arctic, the scheme of supply of tailings containing multiple Autonomous circuits, provides additional operational reliability of the hydraulic system and security ve the value of mining operations.
To centralize the process of thickening and desliming the original tailings on the PF (not shown), in the case of multi-circuit diagram of the tailings delivery to multiple groups FCL, workers and the drain branch of the hydraulic system can be combined in the reservoir (figure 5).
To maximize the reliability of filling complexes in the period of low temperatures and snow drifts, typical of the Arctic, the working(s) and drain(s) branch of the hydraulic system is carried out in a separate circular pipeline with separate circulation products: tails circulate in the work (-) branch, and clarified the drain in the drain(s) branch. This provides a completely Autonomous operation of each part of the hydraulic system, and in each of the branches constantly circulates a steady stream of relevant product - tails and clarified plum.
In order to harmonize the work of the concentrator and PPC is the number of produced/consumed tails excessive volume of tailings discharged into the tailings pond (not shown).
The mass ratio of liquid and solid in the final concentrated product obtained by separation of the tails (in this case: the Sands of hydrocyclone + thickened pulp is separated from the drain hydrocyclone)support so that it does not exceed the required calculation is based mass ratio of liquid and solid tailings for specific formulations prepared filling mixture. This, as noted earlier, allows to optimize the water balance in the preparation technology of filling mixture and, simultaneously, gives you the opportunity to take the number of tails in the formulation of filling mixture as the base value to determine the weight of costs inert plasticizer and binding agent. The amount of these additives are introduced into the filling mixture, it is convenient to take in proportion to the mass flow tails:
C - the mass flow rate of binder (cement), t/h;
C - the specific consumption of binder in the filling mixture according to the recipe, kg/m3;
X - specific consumption tailings backfill mixture according to the recipe, kg/m3;
d is the mass flow rate of inert and plasticizing additives (slag, anhydrite, and other), t/h;
χ is the mass flow rate of tailings applied to the formation of the filling mixture, t/h;
E - the specific consumption of inert and plasticizing additives (slag, anhydrite, and other) in the filling mixture according to the recipe, kg/m3.
The mass flow rate of tailings is calculated by the formula:
PpH- volumetric flow rate of slurry tailings entering the preparation of the filling mixture, m3/h;
Withxthe solid content in the slurry tailings, t/m3 .
The ability to effectively manage the process of thickening tailings, provided the proposed method, with a fairly constant W:T condensed product on a routine level can significantly simplify the technology of preparation of filling mixture, because the massive costs of all ingredients of the mixture added to the tail of the pulp is calculated and set, depending on the volumetric flow rate (PpHand the content of solid (Cx) slurry tailings. The volumetric flow rate and pulp density tails, on the basis of which is calculated Withxin the preparation process of filling mixture easily controlled and, if necessary, adjusted. Installed in the proposed method, the constraint on the minimum levels of liquid in the condensed product (thickened pulp tailings) to receive backfill mixture, the water content of which does not exceed an amount regulated by a specific recipe that is essential for the production of quality bookmarks having the desired strength characteristics.
An example of a specific implementation of the method
The polar division of OJSC MMC Norilsk Nickel mined copper-Nickel ores in the mines "October", "Taimyr", "Komsomolskaya" and "lighthouse"located the and the Talnakh, with total mined-out space. When this tab is the most expensive process, comprising 20-25% of the cost of mining ore. The extracted ore is transported to the Talnakh concentrator (TOF), where it is enriched with obtaining selective concentrates (copper, Nickel, pyrrhotite, malonitrile pyrrhotite) and mine tailings. Currently, rock tailings TOF system high-pressure hydraulic dump in Lebyazhye tailings pond, remote from the factory at a distance of ~22 km
To reduce the cost of mined-out space, reduce the load on the tailings pond and reduce the cost of operation of the system of high pressure hydraulic tail encouraged to use rock tailings TOF as an ingredient hardening filling mixture for Talnakh mines. The mines are located at different distances from the TOF and pairs of closely spaced relatively close to each other are the Komsomolsky - "the lighthouse" and "October" - "Taimyr". Taking into account peculiarities of the spatial location of mines and climatic conditions of the Arctic (increased vulnerability and the complexity of maintenance of long pipelines in the winter due to snow, low temperature the tours and significant snow drifts) the proposed scheme hydraulic feed tailings TOF divided into two Autonomous circuit. Each contour consists of the operating and discharge branches. The first loop is used to feed tailings from PF on PPC mines "Komsomolskaya" and "lighthouse", the second respectively for PPC mines "October" and "Taimyr". The method of preparation of the filling mixture on the Talnakh mines, using tails TOF, explains Fig.
The tails of the Talnakh concentrator with solid content of 30% in the amount of from 250 to 400 m3/h pumps pumps in each operating branch of the hydraulic system. The pipelines business branches are conditional inner diameter of 250 mm (throughput working branch of each circuit 400 m3/hour). Drain branch of the hydraulic system are performed with the conventional inner diameter of 133 mm On each backfilling complex part of the tails is given of the working of the branches of the hydraulic system in an amount to provide the mined-out space of the mine in accordance with the mine plan. Reception tails on PPC is carried out in two tanks with a capacity of 200 m3each equipped with mixing devices. Tails from the receiving tank pumps WARMAN 8/6 ANA served on the hydrocyclone battery type TSG-250. Hydrocyclones are grouped into 2 batteries of 6 units each. Sand hydrocyclone containing solid product 65-70% e.g. Vlada in the mixer for the preparation of the filling mixture, and the resulting drain hydrocyclone goes to lighten the plate thickener type SP-6A (manufactured by JSC "Work", Novosibirsk, Russia). The thickened slurry allocated in lamellar thickener from the drain of hydrocyclones, combined with the Sands of hydrocyclones in the condensed product, which is sent to the mixer. Simultaneously with condensed product in the mixer serves inert and cementitious additives in quantities needed to prepare filling mixture SHC (slag - tails - cement) or inert binders and plasticizing agents for the preparation of filling mixture ASHC (anhydrite-slag-tails-cement). The mixture is directed to develop, subject to the tab.
Clarified in the lamellar thickener overflow hydrocyclone enters the tank accumulation discharge capacity of 200 m3. From the accumulation tank clarified draining slurry pumps WARMAN 8/6 ANYA is diverted into the discharge branch of the hydraulic system and then to the Pacific fleet. Part of the clarified discharge is used to flush pipelines and underground concrete pipes, as well as for continuous circulation in the circuits of the hydraulic system to prevent clogging and freezing piping in the winter time in case of unexpected downtime PCC. The excess drain discharged into the tailings pond.
Possible options is ant, when the contour of the tailings delivery TOF serving group PPC mines "October" and "Taimyr", will be connected stowing facility of Skalisty mine, located in the immediate vicinity of the mines. Connect PPC is mine "Rocky" will be carried out in accordance with the inventive method according to the scheme shown in figure 4.
Thus, the technical result of the proposed method is:
- provide year-round transportation of tailings from the beneficiation plant, the preparation of the filling mixture to multiple consumers filing for every stowing facility tails OF a given optimal density and of the same composition (grain size, phase, chemical);
- improving the efficiency of mining operations due to the formation of artificial arrays specified strength in normative terms;
- improving the quality of the filling mixture due to more accurate dosing components and maintain water contents (specific water consumption at the level not exceeding the level provided for project formulation);
- obtaining clarified plum, suitable for use in the system of circulating water OF;
- improve the reliability and efficiency of equipment filling complexes due to the appreciation is of the stability of the parameters of the original tails, submitted by filling complexes;
- reduction of the circulating flow of slurry tailings;
- minimize the cost of supplying the necessary quantity of tailings and compliance with environmental safety of mining operations;
- ensuring reliable operation of the transport system at the tailings at any time, irrespective of the mode of operation of PCC, including unexpected stop filling complexes in periods of low temperatures.
1. The method of preparation of the filling mixture, including the filing of tailings beneficiation plant in several of filling complexes using a hydraulic system, consisting of working and drain branches, split tails in each filling complex in the condensed product is directed to the preparation of the filling mixture, and the clarified discharge, characterized in that the working and the drain branch of the hydraulic system is divided, with each filling complex tails served from the working branch, and clarified drain connected with the drain branch.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the end portion of the working branch and the beginning of the discharge branch of the hydraulic system connecting the emergency jumper containing the fixture.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that each newly introduced into the system hydraulic stowing facility duplicate and what Irineu jumper, containing the fixture.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the waste tailings hydrotransport system includes a number of separated workers and discharge branches serving different number of groups of filling complexes.
5. The method according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the workers and the drain branch of the hydraulic system when submitting tails to several groups of filling complexes in the United headers.
6. The method according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the working(s) and drain(s) branch of the hydraulic system is made as a separate ring of pipelines with separate circulation products: circulation tails - in working (-) branch, and clarified drain - drain(s) branch.
7. The method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the mass ratio of liquid and solid in the condensed product obtained in each backfilling complex when you split tails, is supported so that it does not exceed the required calculated values of the mass ratio of liquid and solid tailings for specific formulations prepared filling mixture.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining engineering and can be used during underground development of mineral deposits. Erection method of filling connection strap involves making of rock dike by laying as to width and height of the filling working of large rock pieces 1, on which there put is layer of finer rock or sand 2 with drain pipe 3 passed through rock dike. On rock dike there installed are pneumocylinders 4, which are forced outwards, between rock dike and roof of working by supplying to pneumocylinders 4 of compressed air with outward pressure which is more than limit value, at decrease of which pneumocylinders 4 are forced with backfill material 5 to the side of non-filled part of the working. Distance between rock dike and roof of working is determined by the ratio: amin<h<0.75amax, where: amin - minimum height of pneumocylinder 4 when in folded position till compressed air is supplied to it; h - distance between rock dike and roof of working; amax - size of pneumocylinder 4 after compressed air has been supplied to it.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of filling operations.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to hardening fill mixtures. It includes filler, liquid sodium glass, gypsum, cement. Fill mixture is additionally supplemented with flocculant and martite-hematite iron ore, with the following ratio of mixture components: liquid sodium glass 20-22%; cement 1-2%; gypsum 1-2%; flocculant 0.002-0.004%; martite-hematite iron ore 1%; filler - the rest.
EFFECT: improved quality of technological properties of hardening fill mixture, reduced prime cost, increased bearing capacity of filled mass, reduced consumption of hardening solution and simplified technology of stripped area filling.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mineral resource industry, namely to methods of protection of workings mainly at great depths and flat gradient of thick deposits in worked-out filling area and may be used during selective mining of thick deposits of highly valuable ore minerals. Method includes formation of secondary local zone of unloading by rock pressure in filling mass of worked-out area by means of balance bags and their filling with flexible material. Balance bags are performed during formation of filling mass in area of next working-out and as a flexible material layer of consolidating stowing is used which flexibility is enhanced as compared to the other layers.
EFFECT: improving of stability of workings formed in consolidating stowing mass.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of mining, namely, to travelling bulkheads for arrangement of filling mass in underground mine openings. It includes metal pressure shield, which consists of separate elements fixed to each other by means of bolts, soft shells, equipped with nozzles for supply and exhaust of compressed air, pipes for drainage with filters and pipes for sampling with plug. Metal pressure shield is arranged in the form of right-angled parallelepiped, which is made of four triangular fixed prisms, bases of which have the shape of isosceles right-angled triangle. Height of triangular prisms is accepted as higher than distance between roof of filled opening and metal pressure shield, in which door opening with door is installed, and door opens in direction of filling mass location. On upper and lateral sides of metal shield, there are soft shells arranged, height of which, when completely filled with compressed air, exceeds distance between metal pressure shield and contour of opening section. On the lower side metal pressure shield is equipped with rubberised apron on the side of filling mass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency and reliability of filling mass control in filling of lengthy mine openings and layer excavation of mineral.
SUBSTANCE: development method of lodes by layers with backfilling includes driving of preparatory-temporary workings 1, excavation of ore by diagonal layers 3, breaking by explosive blast holes into open area of layer, shipping of ore and filling of open area of layer by backfilling. Angle of slope of diagonal layer 3 is accepted equal to minimal limit angle, overcoming by self-propelled equipment. Backfilling is implemented up to designed taking-out capacity of lode by undermined rocks of bottom layer and/or granulated laying mixture from mill tailing.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of development, cost cutting for development of lodes, losses of minerals and anthropogenic load to environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral raw materials in running of stable ores by heading-and-stall methods. Method for strengthening of filling mass includes supply of filling materials with various content of binders. Hydraulic filling of chamber with finely dispersed material without binders is carried out to elevation of drilling horizon soil. After water drainage and setting of filling mass the following are drilled in staggered order along chamber perimetre from the side of processed interchamber sight pillars: boreholes - in chamber ceiling and, opposite to them - wells for the whole capacity of filling mass. Anchors having ring in lower part are inserted in boreholes and wedged, and case pipes are lowered into wells, and then for the whole depth - armature rods, ends of which are suspended to chamber ceiling with anchor rings, afterwards wells and case pipes are filed with mortar, containing binder. Upper part of chamber up to ceiling is filled with filling mass without binder.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase technological resources of stripped chambers filling and to reduce consumption of binder.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of mining and, in particular to underground development of ore deposits in cryolithic zone. In period of ambient air negative temperatures completely dehydrated tailings are briquetted and frozen on surface, then transported and placed in stripped area of stopes. And in period of ambient air positive temperatures tailings are partially dehydrated and supplied along pipes into stripped area of these stopes, which was before filled with frozen briquettes, for filling of interbriquette space with further freezing of created two-phase fillins mass due to natural negative temperature resource of enclosing strata and added negative ambient temperature resource of briquettes frozen on surface. Completeness of tailings location in stripped area created at stage of stoped excavation is provided by specified ratio of ore production volumes in period of negative and positive temperatures of ambient air. Using geothechnology with solid excavation of ore spreading without separation into stoped blocks, completeness of interbriquette space filling with pulp from tailings is provided by detection of distance between points of unloading into stripped area of frozen briquettes and pulp pouring from flowing tailings.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase ecological safety of ore deposits development due to return of solid enrichment wastes into stripped area and their recycling by means of permafrost mass restoration in stripped area.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of mining and can be used for laying of cleaning space at underground mining. Method of waste chambers' laying includes feeding into chamber of laying mixtures with different content of binding. Laying of chambers by mixtures, containing bindings, it is implemented in its bottom part up to level of top boundary of adjustment of underlying horizon, them up to mark of soil of drilling level it is implemented laying by mixtures without bindings. After shrinkage of laid massif, filtration and evaporation of water by perimetre of chamber into shrink slot it is located reinforce structure. In laid massif lengthwise chamber's walls there are driller wells up to mark, located lower top mark of laying layer in bottom part of chamber. Part of massif between chamber walls and walls of wells is destroyed. Into wells there are put in re-bars with exceeding of them over level of laid massif. And then wells and shrink slot is saturated with solution, containing bindings, after what top part of chamber it is filled with mixture with binding.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of laying of cleaning space at underground mining.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at underground operation heavy abrupt layer with stowing of open area. Method includes implementation of layerwise drifts, upraise and alternate development of cut in horizontal fibers by means of combine and following filling of cuts by cast solid stowing. Before stowing supplying, on cut soil there are laid chutes and are installed shields for reservation as operating layerwise drift in waste horizontal fibers. Layerwise drifts are implemented up to beginning of layer development nearby top or nearby layer soil and they are used for coal transportation, ventilation and feeding of cast solid stowing into cuts of underlying horizontal layer.
EFFECT: increase of labour productivity and safety of mining.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry and can be implemented at underground development of steep pitched deposits represented with unstable ore, under thickness of water-flooded sediments, excavation of which is connected with hazard of underground water inrush into mine workings. The procedure of development of thick steep pitched ore bodies consists in division of ore body into layers mined in descending order, in mining layers with cuts and in filling mined space with a solidifying material. Sections of location of cavities above filled massif and sizes of these cavities are determined by visual or instrument survey from cuts mined adjoined to the filled massif. Solidifying materials are supplied to places of after-filling in adjoined cuts using, for example a concrete pump equipped with the system of control over filling mixture supply. Cavities are after-filled in a divergent order in the direction off their boundaries, from uttermost adjoined cuts to adjoined cuts.
EFFECT: increased completeness of filling mined space, decreased space of mining auxiliary entries and increased safety of mining at development of deposits.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.