Method of estimation of rupture geometry; compositions and items used for this purpose

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil and gas industry, particularly to hydraulic break of underground reservoirs required, for example for stimulation of oil or gas inflow into well. The method consists in the below described operations: a particle-target and/or propping agent are introduced into a rupture; further, electromagnetic radiation of from approximately 300 MHz to approximately 100 MHz frequency is emitted into the rupture; a reflected signal from the particle-target is analysed for estimation of rupture geometry. Here is also disclosed the method of estimation of underground rupture geometry including operations, where: the target and/or propping agent are introduced into the rupture; also the particle-target and/or propping agent contain high dielectric ceramic with dielectric constant more or equal approximately to 2; electromagnetic radiation of frequency less or equal to approximately 3 GHz is emitted into the rupture; signal reflected from the particle-target and/or propping agent is analysed for estimation of rupture geometry.

EFFECT: ensuring increased reliability and safety of estimation of rupture geometry of hydraulic break, decreased expenditures for this operation.

27 cl, 1 tbl

 

The level of technology

The present invention relates to a method for evaluation of fracture geometry and the products used to facilitate this assessment. In particular, the invention relates to methods of assessing the length and height of the crack.

At the completion probatively in ground wells in the well is usually injected casing, after which the space between the casing and the well wall is poured cement slurry. The cement slurry is left to harden with the formation of the cement sheath, which connects the casing with the borehole wall. Through the column and adjacent to the underground reservoir cement ring bore perforation. Through these perforations into the well extracted fluids, such as oil or gas.

Often in order to increase the flow rate is desirable to expose the subsurface proper processing. For example, in the oil industry in order to facilitate the flow of oil and/or gas into the well or injection fluid, such as gas or water from the well into the formation of the subsurface is subjected to hydraulic fracturing. Such hydraulic fracturing is carried out by placing suitable gidrorazryva the fluid in the well opposite the exposed processing layer, and then to gidrorazryva fluid apply pressure sufficient Thu what would cause the destruction of the reservoir with a concomitant formation of one or more cracks. At the same time or after the formation of cracks in it is introduced a suitable carrier fluid with suspended therein propping agent such as sand or other granular material. Proppant is deposited in the fracture and allows you to maintain the fracture open after the pressure drop of the fluid. Fluid containing proppant has a relatively high viscosity, which allows to increase the width of the cracks and to reduce the tendency of the proppant to settle in the fluid during the pumping down into the well and from the well into the formation. High-viscosity fluids increase the width of the cracks and allow you to move into a crack greater amount of proppant. It also helps to control the leaking hydralazine fluid in wall cracks.

Some aspects of the scale of such fracturing and location of wedge materials are installed with the use of radioactive labels. Radioactive labels are entered into or applied on propping agents or added in liquid form and pumped together with hydralazine fluid medium. The coating typically contain radioactive isotopes. Although the use of such radioactive labels or coverings provide useful information, their applicability is limited to what customi cracks, close to the wellbore, and gives little or no gives useful information regarding the size of the crack as it gets deeper into the reservoir. The use of radioactive labels also creates monitoring, logistics and environmental problems. Short half-life such labels prevents the monitoring of movement of such labels in the cracks formation in a period of time longer than this short period. Transportation and application of radioisotopes is expensive, and requires compliance with state regulation and restrictions. Elimination of excess propping agents can create problems, particularly when working in naberegnoi zone.

Thus, it would be desirable to develop a method of hydraulic fracturing, in which the scale of such a gap was measured without the use of radioactive isotopic labels. It is also desirable to determine the geometry of the cracks in the reservoir and in particular the penetration or the crack length in the direction of the wellbore.

Disclosure of inventions

In this application disclosed a method for determining the crack geometry for the case of underground cracks involving the introduction into the crack of particles of target and/or proppant, transferred into the crack of electromagnetic radiation with a frequency from about 300 MHz to about 100 GHz, and the analysis of the reflected signal is Ala to define the geometry of the crack.

In the present application is also disclosed a method for determining the geometry of underground fractures, comprising introducing into the crack of the particle-target and/or proppant, while the particle-target and/or proppant contain ceramics with high dielectric constant that is greater than or equal to about 2; the transfer into the crack of electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of less than or equal to approximately 3 GHz; and the analysis of the signal reflected from the particles to the target or surface cracks to determine the crack geometry.

In the present application is also disclosed proppant comprising a metal or an inorganic oxide carrier and a coating located on the metal or inorganic oxide carrier, and the proppant has a dielectric constant equal to or greater than about 2.

In the present application is also disclosed a method of manufacturing a proppant comprising a coating on a metal or inorganic oxide carrier, but adding a coating to the carrier increases the dielectric constant proppant to more than 2 or approximately equal to 2.

The implementation of the invention

In this application disclosed a method for determining the crack geometry and dimensions of underground cracks made in aiming the extraction of earth resources. These resources include oil and natural gas, water, minerals, or similar materials. The geometry of the crack includes crack length and/or height of the crack. In the method successfully used frequency from about 300 MHz to about 100 GHz or any sub-range of these frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum with the aim of obtaining information on the crack geometry and size of the cracks. In one of the embodiments of the invention frequency less than or equal to approximately 3 kHz can be effectively transmitted through the proppant located in the basement of the crack, and can be used to determine the crack geometry. The obtained relative to the crack geometry information will provide a new and improved method of well completion optimization or cracks.

In the method successfully used propping agents and particles, which have a dielectric "q" (hereinafter dielectric constant), higher than or equal to about 2. In one of the embodiments of the invention the particles and propping agents have a dielectric constant that is higher than or equal to about 6. In another typical embodiment, particles and propping agents have a dielectric constant greater than or equal to approximately 10. In another typical embodiment, frequent the hospitals and propping agents have a dielectric constant, greater than or equal to approximately 20. In another typical embodiment, particles and propping agents have a dielectric constant equal to or greater than approximately 40.

The method is based on the existence of different modes of wave propagation with the passage of electromagnetic waves through located in the fracture proppant compared with the modes of wave propagation from the surrounding geological structures. Typically, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the environment of the breed, especially in an environment containing water, greatly weakened. Changing the properties of the riving materials, which are usually injected into the crack for the structural stabilization of the crack, you can influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves in it. This way the crack can be converted into a microwave-conductive environment similar to the waveguide, but are irregular in shape.

In one of the embodiments, the method includes introducing into the crack conductive particles (additives and/or fillers that do not support the stability of cracks) or propping agents (particles that transmit the pressure and support the underground wall cracks) and the transmission of electromagnetic radiation into the crack from a transmitter having a frequency from about 300 MHz to about 100 GHz or any sub-range of these frequencies. As was the noted above, the preferred frequency less than or equal to approximately 3 GHz. Electrically conductive particles and propping agents are distributed along the walls of the crack and play the role of the waveguide. Particles and/or proppants agents that reach the end of the crack, i.e. the part of the crack, which is the farthest from the wellbore, called particles on target. Particles and/or proppants agents in contact with the walls of cracks close to the end, is called secondary particles and/or propping agents. Electromagnetic radiation is reflected from the conductive particles and/or particles of the target, and/or proppant, and/or from surface cracks and enters the receiver. Signal passed from conductive particles and/or propping agents, is processed in a computer based database and receive information about the geometry of the crack.

In another embodiment, as noted above, particles and/or proppants agents contain ceramics and have a dielectric constant greater than or equal to about 6, more specifically greater than or equal to about 10, still more specifically greater than or equal to about 20 and, more specifically, greater than or equal to about 40. These vysokoreaktsionnye particles and/or proppants agents contain a metal carrier, which is a ceramic coating, is within a dielectric constant of greater than or equal to about 6. In one of the embodiments, when the particles and/or proppants agents having a dielectric constant greater than or equal to about 6, used in underground fissure, preferably using electromagnetic radiation with a frequency below or equal to approximately 1 GHz.

In yet another embodiment, the particles and/or propping agents can be produced and/or modified in the crack in the reaction of any predecessor with crack particles and/or propping agents. The precursor reacts with the formation of conductive, semi-conductive or non-conductive particles, which, in one of the embodiments, are deposited on the walls of the cracks. Then the particles reflect or absorb incident electromagnetic radiation. The reflected radiation is then analyzed, and it gives when analyzing information regarding the geometry of the crack.

In yet another embodiment, the particles and/or proppants agents can absorb incident electromagnetic radiation. The difference in intensity of the signal received from reflective particles, and the signal received from plots cracks that contain absorbing particles and/or propping agents can be used to define the geometry of the crack.

The borehole penetrates into predstavljajushej interest underground reservoir, which should be subjected to hydraulic fracturing to facilitate the flow of resources (i.e. oil and/or natural gas) from the reservoir into the wellbore. During the formation of cracks in it is injected fluid for fracturing containing propping agents or particles. Propping agents are used to maintain the crack in the open state with the aim of providing enhanced flow (conduction) of natural resources from the reservoir into the well. Particles do not play a significant role in maintaining the cracks in the expanded state, but may reflect any feed electromagnetic radiation having a frequency from about 300 MHz to about 100 GHz.

More specifically, in the borehole sonde is lowered to a level bordering on the lower part of the reservoir. The downhole probe includes a transmitter and a receiver of electromagnetic radiation. Sonde is equipped with an antenna, which allows you to send and receive electromagnetic radiation having a frequency from about 300 MHz to about 100 GHz or any part of it. It is desirable to have sonde with antennas, the size of which allows you to send and receive electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of less than or equal to 3 GHz. In one of the embodiments it is desirable to have sonde with antennas, the size of which allows you to pass in order to receive electromagnetic radiation with a frequency less than or equal to 1 GHz.

Sonde also includes transmitters and receivers that can be used to transmit and receive other electromagnetic frequencies outside of the range from 300 MHz to 100 GHz. Sonde may also contain equipment such as ultrasound devices, x-ray equipment and infrared equipment to transmit and receive data from other sources, which facilitates the determination of the geometry of the crack. The downhole probe may also contain a gyroscope, which would allow to determine the direction of the signal. The determination of the direction signal of electromagnetic radiation allows to determine the direction of the crack.

Sonde raise so that he crossed the seam from the bottom to the top. Sonde also rotate in the borehole to determine the position of the crack. In the process of moving and/or rotating the downhole probe passes into the reservoir 11 of the electromagnetic radiation having a frequency from 300 MHz to 100 GHz or any sub-range of these frequencies. Electromagnetic radiation appropriate to send the downhole probe into the crack in the form of pulses. The receiver collects signals of electromagnetic radiation from propping agents, particles, wall cracks or other surface cracks and transmits these signals up the wellbore into the computer, which may analizirovat these signals and using software to create an image of the crack. Image cracks provides data on the length and height of the crack (and azimuth, or direction).

Table 1 gives information about the different bands in accordance with the classification of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers), which can be used to determine the geometry of the crack.

Table 1
DesignationThe frequency range in GHz
HF0,003-0,030
VHF0,030-0,300
UHF0,300-1,000
L-band1,000-2,000
S-band2,000-4,000
C-band4,000-8,000
X-band8,000-12,000
Tou-band12,000-18,000
K-band18,000-27,000
Toand-band27,000-40,000
The millimeter range40,000-300,00
Submillimeter range>300,000

In one embodiment, the implementation of a typical frequency that can be used to image cracks range from about L-band up to aboutand-bands. In another embodiment, typical frequency, which can be used to image cracks range from about UHF bands up to about S-band.

For determination of fracture geometry can be used various additives and/or fillers. Additives and/or fillers (further additives and/or fillers will be referred to as "particles") can be conductive, semi-conductive and non-conductive. Conductive particles can be used to reflect electromagnetic radiation signals. Semi-conductive and non-conductive particles can be used to absorb electromagnetic radiation signal or for dissemination in radar operations and/or operations for image formation. Particles and/or propping agents may be conductive, semi-conductive and non-conductive. In one of the typical embodiments of the particles and/or proppants agents are electrically conductive and capable of reflecting the incident electromagnetic radiation. E is Chronologie particles facilitate the transfer of the incident and reflected electromagnetic radiation. In another typical embodiment, the particles have a high dielectric constant and can contribute to the waveguide the signal radiation.

In one embodiment, the implementation of semi-conductive and non-conductive particles are transparent to electromagnetic radiation signal, i.e. they pass the signals of electromagnetic radiation without any significant attenuation. In another embodiment, semi-conducting and/or non-conductive particles are opaque to electromagnetic radiation signal, i.e. they fully absorb the electromagnetic radiation signals.

In one of the embodiments to facilitate imaging of cracks in it may be a combination of semi-conductive, conductive and non-conductive particles and/or propping agents. To improve the "fine" of process capability can be used a combination of different types of particles and/or propping agents. For example, to facilitate the creation of images of some parts of the crack, it may be appropriate to screen certain areas of the crack. Different types of particles and/or propping agents may be injected into the crack either sequentially or simultaneously. When using a combination of different types of particles and/or proppants is hentov, particles and/or proppants agents can first be mixed together and then injected into the crack. In another embodiment, a certain proportion of conductive particles and/or propping agents may be injected into the crack before entering a certain share of non-conducting or semi-conducting particles and/or propping agents. In yet another embodiment, a certain proportion of non-conductive particles and/or propping agents may be injected into the crack before entering a certain percentage of conductive and/or semi-conducting particles and/or propping agents.

Examples of the electrically conductive particles are metal particles, conductive particles, metal-coated carbon particles, conductive metal oxides, conductive polymer particles, etc. or a combination containing at least one type of the above particles. Examples of suitable metals that can be used in metal particles are transition metals, alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, rare earth metals, metals of main groups, etc. and a combination containing at least one type of the above metals. Can also be used alloys. Examples of suitable metals are copper, aluminum, steel, iron, brass, Nickel, cobalt, silver, etc. and combined the situation, containing at least one type of the above metals.

Examples of non-conductive particles that can be coated with metals to make them electrically conductive), are polymers, such as thermoplastic polymers, thermosetting polymers, ionomers, dendrimers, etc. or a combination containing at least one type of these polymers. Examples of suitable polymers are polyolefins, polyamides, polyesters, polyimides, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, fluoropolymers, liquid crystal polymers and the like, or a combination containing at least one type of these polymers. The polymers generally are electroisolators, but can be made electrically conductive by coating them with a layer of electrically conductive metals. In one typical embodiments the conductive particles and non-conductive particles with a metallic coating can be magnetic or can be magnetized. Magnetic and magnetic particles have the advantage that they can form frames or they can be made to form frames, applying a magnetic or electric field after entry of the particles into the crack. The frames of conductive particles can successfully reflect the incident particles, the electromagnetic radiation signal, providing, thus, information about geome theory of cracks.

When non-conductive particles coated with metal, causing the metal coating on the polymeric substrate, it is normally desirable that the coated particles had a bulk density from about 0.5 to about 4.0 g/cm3. In one of the embodiments covered with non-conductive metal particle has a bulk density less than or equal to about 2.0 g/cm3. In another embodiment, coated with non-conductive metal particle has a bulk density less than or equal to about 1.0 g/see, it is Desirable that the polymer substrate was kept temperatures in the wellbore. In one of the embodiments, it is desirable that the polymer substrate withstand temperatures up to about 300°C.

Examples of the carbon particles are carbon black, coke, graphite particles, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes, double wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, etc. or a combination comprising at least one type of the aforementioned carbon particles.

In order to reflect the electromagnetic radiation can also be applied to various types of conductive carbon fibers. Carbon fibers are usually classified according to their diameter, morphology, and degree of graphitization (morphology and the degree of graphitization of interrelated). These features and at the present time is determined using the method used for the synthesis of carbon fiber. For example, carbon fibers with diameters up to at least about 5 μm and graphene band structure, parallel to the axis of the fibers (in the radial, planar or annular arrangement) are produced on an industrial scale pyrolysis of organic precursors in fibrous form, including phenolic compounds, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) or pitch.

Carbon fibers typically have a diameter of about 1000 nm (1 μm) to about 30 μm. In one embodiment, the implementation of carbon fibers generally have a diameter of from about 2 to about 25 microns. In another embodiment, the carbon fibers generally have a diameter of from about 5 to about 20 microns. In yet another embodiment, the carbon fibers generally have a diameter of from about 7 to about 15 microns.

In one embodiment, the implementation of the carbon fibers have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to about 3. In another embodiment, the carbon fibers have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to approximately 100. In yet another embodiment, the carbon fibers have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to about 1000. In yet another embodiment, the carbon fibers have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to approximately 10,000.

In one embodiment, propping agents or particles can in order to keep the ceramic substrate or polymeric substrate, which is covered with a conductive coating containing polymers, carbon nanotubes and/or carbon black. Conductive coating typically has a volume resistivity less than or equal to about 105omsm In another embodiment, conductive coating usually has a volume resistivity less than or equal to about 10 ASM

Examples of suitable electrically conductive metal oxide particles and/or propping agents are those containing indium oxide-tin, tin oxide, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above-mentioned metal oxide particles. Examples of suitable initially conducting polymers are polyacetylene and its derivatives, polypyrrole and its derivatives, polyaniline and its derivatives, polythiophene and its derivatives, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the initially conducting polymers. Among the conducting polymers also include polymers that are mixed with conductive metal particles, carbon particles, conductive metal oxides, etc.

It is desirable that the electroconductive particles and/or proppants agents had an electrical resistance of less than or equal to about 1012Ohm·see In one embodiment, electrically conductive particles and/or proppants agents have

the resistivity of less than or equal to about 10 8Ohm· see In another embodiment, electrically conductive particles and/or proppants agents have a resistivity less than or equal to about 105omsm In yet another embodiment, electrically conductive particles and/or proppants agents have a resistivity less than or equal to about 103Ohm·see

Semi-conducting particles may contain silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium selenide, cadmium sulfide, zinc sulfide, lead sulfide, indium arsenide, indium antimonide, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above types of semi-conducting particles.

Non-conductive particles and/or propping agents include insulating polymers such as those listed above. All referred to here as the non-conductive particles and/or proppants agents and semi-conducting particles and/or proppants agents are at least electrically non-conductive or semi-conductive. Non-conductive particles are also called dielectric particles. Non-conductive particles include inorganic oxides, inorganic carbides, inorganic nitrides, inorganic hydroxides, inorganic oxides with hydroxide coatings, inorganic carbonitrides, inorganic oxynitride, inorganic borides, inorganic borocarbide, etc. or a combination containing at least oneof the above inorganic materials. Examples of suitable inorganic materials are metal oxides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal hydroxides, metal oxides with hydroxide coatings, carbonitrides of metals, oxynitride metals, borides of metals, borocarbide metals, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above inorganic materials. The cations of the metals used in the above-mentioned inorganic materials, can be transition metals, alkaline metals, alkaline earth metals, rare earth metals, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above metals.

Examples of suitable inorganic oxides include silicon dioxide (SIO, SIS2), aluminum oxide (Al2About3), titanium dioxide (Tio2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), ceria (CEO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), iron oxides (for example, FeO,-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4and the like), calcium oxide (Cao), manganese dioxide (Mno2and MP3O4), or a combination containing at least one of the above inorganic oxides. Examples of inorganic carbides include silicon carbide (SiC), titanium carbide (TiC), tantalum carbide (TAC), tungsten carbide (WC), hafnium carbide (HfC), etc. or is ombinatio, containing at least one of the above carbides. Examples of suitable nitrides include silicon nitride (Si3N4), titanium nitride (TiN), etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above nitrides. Examples of suitable borides include bored lanthanum (L6), chromium borides (CrB and GMT2), borides of molybdenum (MoB2Mo2B5and MoB), bored tungsten (W2B5), etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above borides. Typical inorganic substrates are those that contain natural or obtained by synthetic silica and/or alumina.

Other examples of inorganic materials that can be used for the substrate are silica (sand), ashanit (oxide-hydroxide REM/yttrium/titanium/niobium), anatase (titanium oxide), birdemic (oxide-hydroxide of lead/antimony), bixbyite (manganese oxide/iron), brookite (titanium oxide), chrysoberyl (beryllium oxide/aluminum), columbite (iron oxide/manganese/niobium/tantalum), corundum (aluminum oxide), cuprite (copper oxide), euxenite (REE oxide/yttrium/niobium/tantalum/titanium), fergusonite (REE oxide/titanium), hausmannite (manganese oxide), hematite (iron oxide), ilmenite (iron oxide/titanium), perovskite (calcium oxide/titanium), periclase (magnesium oxide), polycrase (RH oxide is/yttrium/titanium/niobium/tantalum), pseudobrookite (iron oxide/titanium), members pyrochlores groups, such as benefit (oxide-hydroxide REM/calcium/sodium/uranium/titanium/niobium/tantalum), microlith (oxide-hydroxide-calcium fluoride/sodium/tantalum), pyrochlore (oxide-hydroxide-sodium fluoride/calcium/niobium), etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above members of the group; ramsdellite (manganese dioxide), romanechite (aqueous barium oxide/manganese), group members rutile, such as cassiterite (tin oxide), plattnerite (lead oxide), pyrolusite (manganese oxide), rutile (titanium oxide), stishovite (silicon dioxide), etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above members of the group rutile; area(Y) (REE oxide/yttrium/iron/titanium), senarmontite (antimony oxide), members of the spinel group, such as chromite (iron oxide/chromium), franklinite (zinc oxide/manganese/iron), ganit (zinc oxide/aluminum), magnesiochromite (manganese oxide/chromium), magnetite (iron oxide) and spinel (manganese oxide/aluminum) and the like, or a combination containing at least one of the above members of the spinel group; taaffeite (beryllium oxide/manganese/aluminium), tantalite (iron oxide/manganese/tantalum/niobium), Tapiola (iron oxide/manganese/tantalum/niobium), uraninite (uranium oxide), Valentina (antimony oxide), cenzic (zinc oxide/margana is a), hydroxides, such as brucet (manganese hydroxide), gibbsite (aluminum hydroxide), goethite (oxide-hydroxide of iron), limonite (water oxide hydroxide of iron), manganite (oxide-hydroxide of manganese), psilomelan (oxide-barium hydroxide/manganese), romaic (oxide-calcium hydroxide/sodium/iron/manganese/antimony/titanium), stateedit (oxide-hydroxide of silver/antimony), stibiconite (oxide-hydroxide, antimony and the like, or a combination containing at least one of the above inorganic materials.

Non-conductive particles and propping agents include conductive metal substrate or a non-metallic inorganic substrate, which is covered elektronoprovodyaschie polymer coating or elektronoprovodyaschie ceramic coatings.

One typical class of non-conductive particles and/or propping agents include particles and/or proppants agents with a high dielectric constant. In one of the embodiments of the particles and/or proppants agents with high dielectric constant, typically contain conductive substrate on which there is coated with a high dielectric constant. In another embodiment, the particles and/or proppants agents with a high dielectric constant, typically contain inorganic oxide substrate, on which the Torah has a coating with a high dielectric constant. Inorganic oxide substrate may be a sand or ceramics. Examples of ceramics are inorganic oxides or oxides of the metals listed above. Particles and/or proppants agents with a high dielectric constant typically have a dielectric constant of greater than or equal to approximately 2. Examples of suitable electrically conductive substrates are copper, aluminum, steel, iron, brass, Nickel, cobalt, silver, vanadium, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above substrates. Examples of suitable visokoelasticnih materials are solid metal oxide ceramic powders, such as perovskites. Examples of suitable visokoelasticnih materials are oxide lithium/tantalum (LiTaO3), lithium oxide/niobium (LiNb3), Sasi3Ti4About12, fused stabilized zirconium oxide yttrium oxide (YSZ), lanthanum oxide/strontium/gallium/magnesium (LSGM), aluminum oxide, tantalum oxide, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above high dielectric materials.

One of the classes of non-conductive particles and/or propping agents contains a non-conductive polymer substrate dispersed in the particle filler. A non-conductive filler may contain non-metallic is Neorganicheskie particles, organic particles of natural origin, such as ground or crushed shells of nuts, ground or crushed shells of seeds, ground or crushed fruit, processed wood, ground or crushed animal bones, obtained synthetically organic particles, etc. or a combination containing at least one of particles of natural origin.

Another class of non-conductive particles are granules containing porous glass or ceramics, which can absorb the incident electromagnetic radiation. Suitable granules may contain ferrite, such as Nickel-zinc or barium-ferrite, where the ratio of the mass of carbon in ferrite is more 0,225. Examples of such materials are described in patent application WO 02/13311. These granules have an average size of from 0.2 to 4.0 mm, the Total porosity is from about 70 to about 80 vol.%. Bulk density is from about 0.5 to about 0.8 g/see

Examples of suitable powdered or crushed shell is the shell of nuts such as walnut, pecan, almond, ivory nut, Brazil nuts, peanuts, pine nuts, cashews, sunflower seeds, hazelnuts, Australian nut, soy nuts, pistachios, pumpkin seeds, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above nuts. Examples of suitable ground elikolani husk of grains (including fruit) are the seeds of fruits, such as plums, peaches, cherries, apricots, olives, mango, breadfruit heterophyllous, guavas, anon scaly (net), pomegranate, melon; ground or crushed seed shells of other plants such as maize (e.g., rods piece of corn), wheat, rice, Indian sorghum, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above derevoobrabativaushich materials, such as materials derived from such woods as oak, Hickory, walnut, poplar, mahogany, including such species that have been processed by grinding, breaking, or any other form of grinding.

The particles can have any desired geometry and any desired distribution of particle size. The geometry of the particles can be lamellar, spherical, spheroid, cubical, conical, cylindrical, tubular, polygonal, etc. or a combination containing at least one of the above geometries. The particles may have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to about 1. Aspect ratio in this case denotes the ratio of the largest dimension of the particle to its smallest size. In one of the embodiments, it is desirable to have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to about 5. In another embodiment, it is desirable to have an aspect ratio greater than the Lee of approximately 50. In yet another embodiment, it is desirable to have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to approximately 100.

As noted above, in one of the embodiments of the particles and/or proppants agents after their entry into the cracks can be modified. For example, elektronoprovodyaschie particles and/or proppants agents after their entry into the cracks can react with the formation of the electrically conducting or semi-conducting particles and/or propping agents. In one of the embodiments elektronoprovodyaschie particles before they enter into a crack can be deposited on a substrate. The substrate may be proppant, a porous inorganic substrate, an organic substrate, fiber, etc. In one of the embodiments elektronoprovodyaschie particles can be applied to the substrate and can be in the form of a solid coating on the substrate. In another embodiment, elektronoprovodyaschie particles may be present on the substrate in the form of separate particles. After entering into a crack elektronoprovodyaschie particles into the reaction in the conductive or semi-conductive particles.

The reaction may include oxidation, recovery, or other reaction mechanisms in chemistry. For example, non-conductive particle containing aluminum nitrate, can be restored with the formation of aluminum in rez is ltate reaction with a hydrogen-containing gas mixture. Aluminum can be applied to the wall cracks and serve to reflect incident electromagnetic radiation. The reflected radiation can then be analyzed to obtain information about the geometry of the crack.

Examples elektronoprovodyaschego particles are metal salts, such as sulfates of metals, nitrates metals, metal chlorides, chlorates of metals, metal fluorides, metal hydroxides, iodides of metals, metal hydroxides, metal carbonates, acetates, metals, bromides of metals, etc. Elektronoprovodyaschie particles can react with gaseous or liquid reagent with the formation of the conductive particles. The reagents may be contained in hydralazine fluid and can be entered into the crack to facilitate reactions regardless hydralazine fluid. Examples of suitable metal salts include aluminum nitrate, copper sulfate, copper nitrate, etc. or a combination containing at least one of these salts.

It is desirable that the smallest particle size was about 0.1 nm or more. In another embodiment, the smallest particle size may be about 10 nm or more. In yet another embodiment, the smallest particle size may be about 100 nm or more. Finally, in yet another embodiment, the smallest size of particles m which may be of the order of 1000 nm or more.

Particles can also be combined into patterns, aggregates, agglomerates, the structure of the agglomerates and the like, or a combination containing at least one of these associations particles. The structure represents a group of particles having a particular order. Examples of structures are woven patterns, fabrics, meshes, strands, etc. or a combination containing at least one of these structures. These structures can be formed before the entry of particles into the crack or by self-Assembly, either through forced Union. Alternatively, these structures may be formed after entry of the particles into the crack by self-Assembly. Magnetic particles and/or magnetic particles can spontaneously unite in such structures after entering into a crack. To facilitate self-Assembly of the particles after their entry into the cracks can be applied corresponding to the "stimulus". An example of a suitable stimulus is an electric field or a magnetic field.

The aggregates are formed, as a rule, particles, uniting among themselves due to mechanical limitations of degrees of freedom or due to the formation of hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van-der Waals forces, or combinations of these forces. Clusters are aggregates form agglomerates. To create the image of a crack can be used as AG is agati, and agglomerates of particles. Agglomerates in combination with aggregates or individual particles can also form patterns. Such structures are called the structure of the agglomerates. The structure of the agglomerates can also optionally be formed as a result of self-Assembly.

In one of the embodiments, it is desirable that at least part of the electrically conductive, semi-conductive and non-conductive particles and/or propping agents stuck to the walls or the end of the crack. This will allow the particles to reflect the electromagnetic radiation signals, transmitted or distributed in the depths of the cracks. In order to contribute to the particles to stick to the walls of the cracks, it may be desirable to cover a portion of the particles of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymer, the glass transition temperature which is lower than the temperature in the fracture. The polymer will contribute to the adhesion of particles to the walls of the crack.

In another embodiment, gidrorazryva fluid environment in which the suspended particles may contain a sticky substance that promotes the adhesion of particles to the walls of the cracks. More details will be discussed next.

Conductive particles, conductive particles and/or semiconductor particles are injected into the crack, either simultaneously or sequentially hydralazine fluid medium. When the leader of a suitable hydralazine fluid is Wednesday, containing water, potassium chloride up to about 2 wt.%, water-soluble polymer, cross-linking agent, a pH regulating additive (also called a buffer), a surfactant for reducing surface tension, particle (additives and/or fillers) and regulating the viscosity of the additive.

The water may be replaced by foam, fluid medium based oils (such as paraffin oil or emulsion. In the case when water is used, a typical water-soluble polymer is guar gum, used in quantities of from 0.1 to about 3 wt.% the total weight of the water. Cross-linking agents include borates and compounds of titanium, zirconium or aluminium. As noted above, gidrorazryva fluid medium may contain a sticky substance that facilitates the adherence of the conductive particles, semiconductor particles and conductive particles to the walls of the cracks. When water is used as the basis for hydralazine fluid, it may be appropriate introduction to hydralazine the fluid adhesive substances on the basis of water. The adhesive may stick to the walls, allowing you to stick to the walls of the cracks particles target and auxiliary particles.

In one of the embodiments gidrorazryva fluid medium may contain reagents to facilitate the conversion of the elect is approvedas particles and/or propping agents in electrically conductive particles and/or semiconductor particles. Appropriate reagents can be catalysts, acids, bases and other Chemicals are usually present in concentrations sufficient to convert at least part elektronoprovodyaschego particles and/or propping agents in conducting or semi-conducting particles and/or proppants agents.

Suitable adhesive substances for hydralazine fluid water-based are acrylic polymers, cellulosic polymers, polymer emulsion copolymer emulsion, etc. In the case of the fluid oil-based, it is desirable to use adhesives that are compatible with oil based. Examples of suitable adhesives that may be used in fluid-fluid oil-based, are epoxy resins, phenolic resins, polymers based on butadiene, based polymers of isoprene, etc.

In one variant of implementation, which uses one of the input options of the particles and/or propping agents into the fracture, it is preferable to enter into a crack electrically conductive particles and/or proppants agents with subsequent input propping agents with a high dielectric constant. As noted above, particles and/or propping agents may be injected into the crack together hydralazine fluid medium. In one embodiment, about what westline preferably, to the conductive particles contained particles with high aspect relations (e.g., fiber), and particles with low aspect relations (e.g., spherical particles). In another embodiment, all entered into the crack of the particles are similar in size aspect ratio. Sticking to the walls of the cracks, particles can be a useful way to form a conductive structure along the walls of the crack. Conductive propping agents in addition to the fact that they facilitate the reflection/transmission of electromagnetic radiation, can serve as a mounting aperture in the cracks. Propping agents with high dielectric constant can be used to facilitate the sending waves along the length of the crack.

In another embodiment, following the introduction into the crack of conductive particles in the crack introduced with the aim of strengthening the propping agents are transparent to electromagnetic radiation signal (for example, elektronoprovodyaschie particles). Because these propping agents are transparent to electromagnetic radiation signals, they can provide a passage through them of signals without attenuation. This combination of conductive particles and/or propping agents along the walls of the cracks with a non-conductive particles located in the middle of cracks, allows the incident signal e is magnitnogo radiation to move deeper into the cracks due to the reflection of the signal from the conductive particles, along the walls of the crack. The conductive particles along the walls of the cracks, forming the waveguide, thereby facilitating the passage of the signal of electromagnetic radiation along the walls of the crack. The signal is then reflected from particles located at the end of the crack. Particles located at the end of the crack (i.e. in the part of the crack, which is as far from the wellbore), usually called particles on target. Reflected from the particles of the target signal can be collected in a receiver and analyzed in a computer to collect and/or obtain information about geometry of the crack.

In yet another embodiment, which uses a different method to determine the geometry of the crack, the crack is introduced first group of conductive particles having a first set of characteristics conductivity. The first group of particles will form particles of the target. Then the crack is introduced, a second group of conductive particles having a second set of characteristics of conductivity. In one embodiment, the implementation after the entry into the cracks of the first group and the second group of conductive particles in the crack can be entered, but not necessarily, propping agents, transparent to electromagnetic radiation signal (for example, elektronoprovodyaschie particles), to strengthen the cracks. In one variant the implementation after the entry into the cracks of the first group and the second group of conductive particles to strengthen the cracks with simultaneous submission of incident and reflected light in the crack can be entered riving agents with a high dielectric constant, which can serve as a waveguide for electromagnetic radiation signal (for example, elektronoprovodyaschie particles).

Some of the incident electromagnetic radiation signal is then passed into the crack from the downhole probe 20. Characteristics of the reflected signals from the first group of conductive particles will differ from the characteristics of the reflection from the second group of conductive particles. The reflection from the first group of conductive particles can be used to determine the crack length, while the reflection from the second group of conductive particles can be used for more information on the crack geometry. In another embodiment, to obtain information about the geometry of the crack can be used the difference between the first and second sets of reflections.

In yet another embodiment, which uses another method for determining the geometry of the crack, at first in the crack introduces a non-conductive particles, which will completely absorb/attenuate the signal of electromagnetic radiation. Non-conductive particles will settle at the end of the crack, i.e. they will be by the end of the crack, the most remote from the wellbore. Directly after entering into a crack non-conductive particles in the crack introduced electrop is responsible particles. As a non-conductive and conductive particles, along with the fact that they interact with the signal of electromagnetic radiation, can serve as propping agents. After entering into the crack of the first group and the second group of conductive particles with the aim of strengthening optionally cracks in it can be entered particles that are transparent to electromagnetic radiation signals (for example, conductive particles). Some of the incident electromagnetic radiation signal is transmitted into the crack from the downhole probe 20. From the first group of particles will not follow the diffracted reflectivity, as these particles are completely absorbing, while the signals from signals of the second group of particles will be different, since the latter are electrically conductive. The difference in the signals can be used to obtain information about the geometry of the crack.

As noted above, the downhole probe 20 includes transmitting element and receiving element. The combination of transmitter and receiver is called a transceiver. The transmitting element capable of transmitting signals of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 100 GHz or any of its sub-range. In one of the embodiments can be transmitted into the crack without a ripple. In another embodiment, domestic the signals can be transmitted in a crack in the form of successive pulses. This method is based on the fact that pulsating electromagnetic radiation characterizes the geometry of the crack as a function of distance from the transceiver. Method of using pulsed frequencies has the advantage that it provides multipath immunity and very high resolution. A typical pulse of electromagnetic radiation has a duration of only 1-2 nanoseconds. The spectral composition of the emitted pulse is determined by its own frequency characteristic of the transmitting antenna, but often exceeds 1 GHz. Themselves pulses of electromagnetic radiation created with the help of the "scheme of the pulse generator when using differential input switches, delay lines, speed diodes with charge accumulation and pulse filters. The usual type of pulse of electromagnetic radiation is the Gaussian monocycle, which is similar to smooth odnotsiklovoy sine wave. As noted above, the electromagnetic radiation is directed into the crack using specially selected for this particle.

In yet another embodiment, the electromagnetic radiation may include a continuous wave signals with spread spectrum. Peak to average power in continuous wave signals is small, which makes possible the emission of signals by electron gitogo radiation down the well shaft by means of fibre-optic cable and photodiode.

As narrowing the width of the crack width is the distance between the walls of the cracks) energy from a pulse of electromagnetic radiation will be returned and the spectral composition of the returned pulse will contain useful geometric information that can be used to characterize the cracks. Possible many schemes Desk. May, for example, be useful to trace the return energy in a narrow band as a function of time (frequency domain) or reliable data can be obtained using a sample with high resolution in a very narrow interval of time and move this interval through the following pulses for filing a response (time domain). To use the valuable phase information when moving the antenna up and down the wellbore can also be applied to interferometric methods of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Finally, in order to enable the mapping of response within a very wide range of frequencies, it may be useful to apply the pulses of the multiple frequency bands using different antennas. In one of the embodiments of the downhole probe can have more than one antenna, along with a corresponding scheme that allows the use of multiple frequencies for ek is animowane and the fracture geometry. In another embodiment, the downhole probe may have an adjustable antenna that allows the transmission and reception frequencies in a wide range of wavelengths.

In one embodiment, implementation of the crack can be transmitted electromagnetic radiation having a different frequency. By entering into a crack different propping agents with different frequency characteristics can provide information about the geometry of the crack. For example, proppant, absorbing electromagnetic radiation at one frequency, may be transparent to radiation at a different frequency. In another example, proppant, absorbing electromagnetic radiation at one frequency, may be transparent to radiation at the same frequency at different temperatures.

Energy to the downhole sonde can be fed either from the surface or from batteries, built-in transceiver wellbore. Data can either be transmitted to the surface using a fiber-optic connection using coaxial cable, or can be written into the wellbore on magnetic media or flash media. Methods of presenting features include standard signal processing methods for interpretation of data time-domain or frequency domain data obtained using the detector with the eating. Radiofrequency energy is directly generated from the modulated laser beam. We use the bias voltage should optimally shift diodes, and in some cases it may be desirable or necessary.

The advantage of this method is that it does not use radioactive material that can contaminate aquifers or adversely affect the natural environment. In addition, the definition of the geometry of the cracks is very important to improve production of oil and natural gas. With this knowledge (and therefore controlling) geometric aspects of the crack leads to great economic and commercial consequences, so as to enhance oil production required suitable for this crack.

In one of the embodiments obtained using the above method, the information about the crack can be successfully used to improve the technology gap for subsequent operations gap in this layer. Get on cracks information gives a new and improved optimization method for completing wells in General and for hydralazine works in particular. This method aims to optimize the materials used (fluid, proppant crushing tools and so on) of the OPE the emission gap, as well as the optimization of the height, length and width of the gap, providing optimized processing of cracks based on the desired economic aspirations. Geometry created cracks depends on the stresses within the oil - or gas-bearing reservoir and surrounding formations. This voltage will determine the geometry of the crack and can be modeled in three-dimensional modeling crack the device, and this geometry can be used to optimize processing of the crack.

In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention can be used for validation and optimization of reservoir models, such as three-dimensional fracture model and design program processing. Instead of starting with different hydralazine materials on the basis of someone's personal knowledge and preferences of individuals and conduct simulations and economic analysis in order to design possible ensuing production and cost, the present invention begins with a definition of the profile of the crack geometry for a given collector, which was subjected to rupture. The profile geometry of the crack can be used in connection with other production data, which may be obtained from the conductivity profile. After receiving conductivity profile with regard to repetitive pressure drop in on the managing deep into the cracks in terms of this collector along with any other loss, such multiphase flow or damage to the gel, the materials required to obtain this profile, conductivity, defined according to their characteristics and economic factors. Materials are selected based on their ability to provide conductivity and their class based on economic value for the purposes conductivity cracks (for example, about propping agent is judged on the strength and balance of cost and conductivity for these conditions collector, voltage, temperature, etc.). In the result of inappropriate materials discarded at the beginning of the analysis, allowing the materials that need to be evaluated in the selected project, represent only those materials with which it is possible to achieve the target conductivity economical manner. While the former approach could lead to a very large number of combinations of materials, measured from the point of view of achieving the desired results by trial and error, this approach significantly reduces the number of combinations of materials for the design process and creates a situation in which the materials in the evaluation process are only those that ought to be examined for conditions collector. Due to this, when the final simulation are technically suitable materials that I have are the most valuable for the desired level of conductivity. To optimize the cracks should be checked using the methods of the present invention the desired theoretical length, designed for the simulation. The new approach can reduce the number of iterations required for the operation of the gap, and significantly reduce process redesign on the site of the well.

Thus, the present invention can be defined as simulated using the computer method of fracturing and completion of wells, comprising: testing using electromagnetic radiation signal in the underground wells to obtain data regarding the geometry of the crack and enter data into the computer; determining in the computer and in response to data of the desired initial crack length and conductivity for forming cracks in at least one earth formation traversed by the borehole; determining in the computer and in response to data and the desired initial crack length and conductivity - proppant and hydralazine fluid medium, proposed to be injected into the well to break the earth formation; determining in the computer - program processing for pumping fluid and proppant into the well; and pumping fluid and proppant into the well in accordance at least with a part of the program processing. This method may d is further include: measuring - in real-time while simultaneously pumping fluid and proppant - parameters of the wellbore; modification - on the computer and in response to the measured parameters of the wellbore - processing programs; and continuing the injection of the fluid and proppant in accordance with the modified program.

In one embodiment, the implementation of the method of completing wells in order to obtain the desired performance includes sensing wells with the aim of obtaining the data used in the measurement of physical and mechanical properties of an underground formation traversed by the borehole; input computer data; use of data and curves productivity growth encoded in the signals to be stored in the computer, determining in the computer a desired crack length; determining in the computer and in response to the entered data - expected-width cracks; determining in the computer and in response to the desired length of the crack and the expected width of the cracks is desired deposition proppant;

determining in the computer and in response to stored computer data set is desired concentration of proppant; determining in the computer and in response to the input data are the temperature in the borehole; determining in the computer and in response to the received temperature - hydralazine of fluid that must be pumped into the well for the purpose of fracturing; running on the computer simulation program header and program simulating economic characteristics; using the obtained proppant and fluid, to determine the desired processing for pumping fluid and proppant into the well; and pumping fluid and proppant into the well in accordance with the processing program. The latter may also include additional data relatively well during pumping fluid and proppant and modifying treatment programs in real time so that the injection is continued in accordance with the modified program.

In another embodiment, a method of determining hydralazine processing for a well includes storing the data on the physical properties applied to the selected well in the computer that stores data defining the set according to increase flow rate and given the dependence of the deposition and concentration of proppant; auto receive on the computer in response to data on the physical properties and data defining dependencies increase flow rate and specified according osuzhdeni and the concentration of proppant - data defining the proposed processing program cracks, including a proposed system proppant and fluid; testing the proposed processing program cracks in stored in a computer program simulating the crack; and carrying out on a computer the economic analysis of the proposed processing program cracks. The method can also include repeating the operations perform actions, testing, and analysis to produce at least one processing program cracks; and selecting one of the processing programs cracks for management hydralazine processing with respect to the selected well.

Although the invention is described with reference to typical embodiments of specialists in this field should be borne in mind that in the framework of the invention various changes and elements of the invention can be replaced by their equivalents. In addition, remaining mostly in the framework of the invention, it is possible to make many modifications to adapt a particular situation or material to the present invention. Thus, it is assumed that the invention is not limited to a specific embodiment, disclosed as the best option to implement this invention.

1. The method for determining the geometry of the underground is Noah cracks, contains operations that are injected into the crack particle-target and/or proppant; enter into the crack of electromagnetic radiation with a frequency from about 300 MHz to about 100 GHz; and analyzing the reflected signal from the particle-target and/or surface cracks to define the geometry of the crack.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which the particle-target and/or proppant is electrically conductive, electronproton, semi-conductive, or a combination, where the particle-target and/or proppant take the position at the end of the crack or at the end of branches protruding from the cracks.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which electrically conductive particles and/or proppants agents contain metal particles and/or proppants agents, non-conductive particles and/or proppants agents with a metallic coating, carbon particles and/or proppants agents, conductive metal oxides, conductive polymer particles or a combination containing at least one type of the above particles.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the metal particles and/or proppants agents contain metals, the metals include copper, aluminum, steel, iron, brass, Nickel, vanadium, cobalt, silver, or a combination containing at least one of the above metals.

5. The method according to claim 3, in to the m electrically conductive particles and/or proppants agents contain carbon particles or electrically conductive metal oxides, when the carbon particles are carbon black, coke, graphite particles, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, single-walled carbon nanotubes, double wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, or a combination containing at least one type of the aforementioned carbon particles.

6. The method according to claim 1, in which particles of the target and/or proppant contain a particle with a high dielectric constant and/or proppant having a dielectric constant that is higher than or equal to about 2.

7. The method according to claim 1, in which particles of the target and/or proppant contain a particle with a high dielectric constant and/or proppant having a dielectric constant that is higher than or equal to about 6.

8. The method according to claim 6, in which particles with a high dielectric constant and/or proppant contain metal poloko, which is applied to ceramic floor, with ceramic coating has a dielectric constant that is higher than or equal to about 2.

9. The method according to claim 6, in which particles with a high dielectric constant contains ceramics having a dielectric constant that is higher than or equal to about 2.

10. The method according to claim 9, in which the metal substrate contains copper, aluminum, steel, iron, l is Tun", Nickel, vanadium, cobalt, silver, or a combination containing at least one of the above metals.

11. The method according to claim 8, in which ceramics contains perovskites.

12. The method according to claim 8, in which ceramics contains lithium oxide/tantalum - LiTaO3the oxide lithium/niobium - LiNbO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, sintered zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide - YSZ, the oxide of lanthanum/strontium/gallium/magnesium - LSGM, aluminum oxide, tantalum oxide, or a combination containing at least one of the above ceramics.

13. The method according to claim 1, wherein the electromagnetic radiation has a frequency less than or equal to approximately 3 GHz.

14. The method for determining the geometry of underground fractures that contain operations, which is injected into the crack particle-target and/or proppant, while the particle-target and/or proppant contains ceramics with high dielectric constant greater than or equal to about 2; enter into the crack of electromagnetic radiation with a frequency less than or equal to approximately 3 GHz; and analyzing the reflected signal from the particles of the target to define the geometry of the crack.

15. The method according to 14, in which particles of the target and/or proppant contains ceramics having a dielectric constant equal to or greater than about 6.

16. The method according to 14, in kotromanic target and/or proppant contains a metal substrate, which is applied to ceramic floor, with ceramic coating has a dielectric constant equal to or greater than approximately 20.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which the metal substrate contains copper, aluminum, steel, iron, brass, Nickel, vanadium, cobalt, silver, or a combination containing at least one of the above metals.

18. The method according to 14, in which ceramics with high dielectric constant contains the perovskites.

19. The method according to 14, in which ceramics contains lithium oxide/tantalum - LiTaO3the oxide lithium/niobium - LiNbO3, Sasi3Ti4O12, sintered zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide - YSZ, the oxide of lanthanum/strontium/gallium/magnesium - LSGM, aluminum oxide, tantalum oxide, or a combination containing at least one of the above ceramics.

20. The method according to 14, in which the electromagnetic radiation has a frequency less than or equal to approximately 1 GHz.

21. Proppant comprising a metal or inorganic oxide substrate and a coating on a metal or inorganic oxide substrate, while the proppant has a dielectric constant equal to or greater than about 2.

22. Proppant according to item 21, in which the metal substrate contains copper, aluminum, steel, iron,brass, Nickel, vanadium, cobalt, silver, or a combination containing at least one of these metals.

23. Proppant according to item 21, in which the inorganic oxide contains sand.

24. Proppant according to item 21, in which the inorganic oxide contains ceramics.

25. Proppant according to item 21, in which ceramics contains perovskites.

26. Proppant in paragraph 24, in which ceramics contains lithium oxide/tantalum - LiO3the oxide lithium/niobium - LiNbO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, sintered zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide - YSZ, the oxide of lanthanum/strontium/gallium/magnesium - LSGM, aluminum oxide, tantalum oxide, or a combination containing at least one of the above ceramics.

27. A method of obtaining a proppant containing the operation, which are coated on the metal or inorganic oxide substrate, the addition of the coating to the substrate increases the dielectric constant proppant to a value greater than or equal to about 2.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions (versions) relates to exploration geophysics, in particular to the systems of equipment for conducting sea geoelectrical exploration and is meant for predicting accumulation of hydrocarbons and other minerals, as well as for studying deep structure of the earth's crust. Proposed is a modular bottom station based on combining a basic module for measuring electromagnetic characteristics of sea bottom rocks with additional modules containing equipment for measuring other parametres of the rocks. The additional modules are fitted by the basic module and a weight. All the recording and power supply systems are accommodated in the basic module and are connected to the other modules via pressure-sealed connectors in the housing of the module, and the modules themselves are fixed on the weight using Kevlar sheets which are fitted with an electrochemical releasing element. The additional modules of the bottom station are modules for magnetic and/or seismic measurements. "Rods" can be fastened at the lower part of the housing of the station and in the initial state they are directed upwards at an angle not less than 15° from the vertical and are held using retainers, which are joined to the releasing element of a hoisting device (HD). The "rods" can be telescopic. In another version of the proposed bottom station, the basic module can be used independently. In that case, a hard conical element "basin", made non-conducting material for example polyethylene, polyurethane etc can be placed between the module and the weight. The basic module can also be connected on a semi-rigid rod to a module for magnetic measurements.

EFFECT: measuring different parametres of sea bottom rocks in a single launch, provision for sensitivity of detectors, which exceeds that of stations with such single type measuring devices, compactness and convenient use.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates geophysics, particularly, to electromagnetic LF devices intended for analysing GST. Proposed device comprises two antennas arranged orthogonally and connected to receiver, one of them being installed vertically. Proposed device comprises additionally data processing device and third antenna arranged orthogonally to aforesaid two antennas and connected to aforesaid receiver. The later incorporates transmitter with its output connected to the data processing device input. Transmitter allows transmitting signals comprising data on mutually-orthogonal components Hx, Hy, Hz of natural pulsed electromagnetic Earth field to data processing device the later allows computation of Wzx (x, y)=Hz/Hx and Wzy (x, y)=Hz/Hy, determination of relationship Wzx=F(Δf) and Wzy=F(Δf), where "ДГ" is the range of received frequencies of mutually-orthogonal components Hx, Hy, Hz, from f0 to f and integration of aforesaid relationships Wzx and Wzy.

EFFECT: expanded performances, higher accuracy.

9 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurements.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to exploration geophysics. In compliance with this invention, bottom stations are installed on sea bottom along the line, i.e. profile, covering the area to be explored to form the observation profile (OP), the said station are spaced 1000 m apart. A ship incorporating a generating dipole is directed through the centre of one of electrode separations, close to the centre of explored area area, perpendicular to OP, to form an excitation profile (EP). The electric field magnitudes picked off the bottom station receiving electrodes are referenced to the centre of distance between the appropriate separations of aforesaid bottom station to form an area system of measurement profiles (MO). A one-dimensional inversion is performed for every MO. Proceeding from the data obtained, a 3D geoelectric model of the medium is constructed in units of specific resistance, or specific resistance and parametres of polarisability. Now, proceeding from their abnormalities it is possible to judge upon the presence of a deposit, its position in plan and depth. The ship can carry out researches both with horizontal generating dipole towed on sea surface, and with vertical or horizontal dipole towed on over sea bottom.

EFFECT: reliable forecasting at depths from 0 to 2000 m and deeper.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurements.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to geophysical methods of prospecting. An electromagnetic field is generated through generation of a pseudorandom bipolar sequence of packets of periodical current pulses in a transmitter coil. The value of the cross-correlation function is calculated for components (time derivative) of magnetic or electric field and the current form, either with zero-time shift ΔT between time-sequences of the cross-correlation function or without it. From the values of the cross-correlation function with increment, equal to the period of the current pulses, the impulse reaction of the geoelectric medium is determined, which in turn is used to determine the structure of the geoelectric medium. From the difference of impulse reactions on the background and in the absence of primary magnetic field, objects are identified depending on their induced magnetisation. The generator of electromagnetic field has a dc current source, a rectifier bridge, controlled generator of pseudorandom sequences of time intervals, synchronised by a stabilised clock-pulse generator, and a transmitter coil connected to a current sensor. Between the DC current source and the transmitter coil, a current switch is connected, synchronised by a stabilised clock-pulse generator. The generator of pseudorandom sequences of time intervals is connected to the stabilised clock-pulse generator through a frequency divider. In the second version, the transmitter coil generates recurrent packets of current pulses, uniformly distributed according to a random law on the time interval occupied by the packet. In the second version of the device, the current switch is connected to the generator of recurrent packets, randomly and uniformly distributed during pulses, which in turn is connected to the stabilised clock-pulse generator through a frequency divider.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of data from electrical prospecting and reduced labour input.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurements.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to electrical prospecting using an electrical resistance technique. The invention can be used chiefly, for detecting tectonically crushed, water permeable rocks, detection of ore-bearing objects, covered by loose formations, studying the spread of industrially contaminated underground water in the geological environment etc. One supply ground connection is put at infinity. In a well, several supply ground connections are arranged at a given distance from each other. These connections are successively connected to a current source. For each connection, the potential drop between receiving ground connections are measured using a measurement grid. The apparent electrical resistance values are determined from the potential drop values. Isolines for electrical resistance for all depths where the supply ground connections are drawn up. Presence and position of geoelectric irregularities is determined from the layout of the isolines. Within the boundaries of the detected irregular regions, one of the receiving ground connections is moved around the other. The potential drop between them is measured. In the direction of the receiving line, at maximum voltage value, the spread of linear-stretched irregularities or the position of local objects with increased electroconductivity can be determined.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of detecting irregularities in the geological environment.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electronics.

SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory includes creation with the help of transmitter and transmitting antenna the electromagnetic field oriented along direction of pneumatic puncher movement. At the output of receive antennas signals are extracted which are proportional to electromagnetic field component strength and which are separated using decoupler and alternatively supplied to receiver input where they are detected and amplified. According to difference of these signals the pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory is evaluated. As transmitting antenna a nonsymmetric dipole is used where pneumatic puncher is long arm and conducting material disk is short arm which disk is connected to it via dielectric disk. Electromagnetic field directional pattern is created in the form of cone in microwave frequency band against electric component. Deviation angle is evaluated according to difference of signal amplitudes at output of comparing device connected by its input to receiver output and by its output - to indicator.

EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency due to increase in accuracy, range capability and interference resistance relative to external natural and artificial noise.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: system includes recorder containing multichannel module of analog signal reception and transform; each channel of module includes low-pass filter, analog amplifier and analog-to-digital converter. The system also includes data control and processing module containing interconnected numeric processor, data memory and master microcontroller with program memory. The recorder contains AD converters overload detectors designed as timing units included in numerical processor. The recorder also contains built-in screen and keyboard assembly, connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory of data control and processing module. Differential operational amplifiers with controlled input are used as analog amplifiers in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder contains comprised in numerical processor timing units computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder input contains units, comprised in numerical processor timing, computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. Input of each specified unit is connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory, and output is connected through digital-to-analog converter to driving input of differential operational amplifier mounted in corresponding channel of module of analog signal reception and transform.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and reliability of received data and enhanced ease of use.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: sound vibrations are generated in a pipeline to cause mechanic vibration of metal pipe fittings in the magnetic field of Earth. Electric E and magnetic H components of induced electromagnetic emission, ground temperature and noise level environment in the medium transported by the pipe are measured. Pipeline is located by the maximum of E-H correlation function. Ground temperature indicates leakage. The device includes acoustic oscillator with magnetostriction exciter, and gauge. The gauge consists of a case with indicator of electromagnetic emission characteristics and digital temperature indicator installed in the front panel of the case. Battery-powered receiver of electromagnetic, thermal and acoustic emission with amplifier and comparator is placed inside. The receiver can be connected with remote thermal sensor, sensor of ground acoustic oscillations with built-in antenna receiving electromagnetic emission parameters, and geomicrophone.

EFFECT: simple and highly reliable search; wider functional capabilities.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: instruments.

SUBSTANCE: low-frequency electromagnetic signal is transmitted through the cable. Near the bottom of the water basin, above the cable and across its route, two identical equally oriented systems of magnetic probes tuned to the same frequency, placed at a fixed distance above each other, are moved. At the axis between the magnetic probe systems, a position transducer is placed, used to measure the angle Θ of deviation of this axis from the vertical. Under the lower magnetic probe system, an ultrasonic transducer is placed, used to measure the distance from it to the water basin bottom surface h. The signals from the magnetic probes, the position transducer, and the ultrasonic transducer, are sent to the processing unit. The underwater cable laying depth d is determined using the formula where D is the distance between the magnetic probe systems; α=EL/EU is the ratio of the magnetic field intensity measured by the lower magnetic probe system to the magnetic field intensity measured by the upper magnetic probe system.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and decreased cost.

1 dwg

FIELD: electric geological exploration.

SUBSTANCE: before submergence, clocks installed on the current dipole and the bottom stations are synchronized. The dipole is placed vertically, so that its upper end would be at a distance of no more than 200 metres from the sea surface, and the lower end would be no more than 100 m from the sea bottom (optimally, 20-30 m from the sea bottom). The dipole is excitated with alternating rectangular pulses. The bottom stations are used to record the sweep of the horizontal and vertical field components in time when the current is applied and when it is absent. During signal analysis, the change of primary and secondary fields in time is taken into account and data describing the medium resistance and its polarisation characteristics are determined. The system of equipment includes vessel with a generator and energising field generation unit, which are connected with a vertical dipole with current electrodes, submerged in water, and an onboard data recording and processing unit, using a cable. The system also includes set of bottom stations with horizontal and vertical electrodes and magnetic field sensors. The dipole and the bottom stations are equipped with clocks supporting synchronization.

EFFECT: possibility to obtain data about specific resistance and polarisability of strata during exploration of deep water areas, and provision of more accurate predictions.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil and gas producing industry, particularly to testing trial boreholes of hydrocarbon deposits of complex structure. During testing a trial borehole, a casing pipe is perforated, a production tree is installed, a long-length extreme line pipe is lowered to upper holes of a perforation interval and process fluid is replaced with water, while water is replaced with oil. As necessary level is dropped, the extreme line long-length pipe is lifted, inflow is initiated, and the bore hole is processed to a gas flare till stabilisation of wellhead parametres; further, there are lowered instruments for measurements of formation pressure and temperature, curve of pressure recovery is plotted, and depth and wellhead formation fluid is sampled. Upon this the extreme line long-length pipe is repeatedly lowered, the borehole is filled with water with successive replacement of water to process fluid and with installation of cement bridging; further, similar trial operations are performed at the overlying object. The borehole is abandoned upon testing all planned objects.

EFFECT: saving material and time expenditures at construction and test of trial borehole.

1 ex

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrodynamic research of oil and gas wells, and may be used to study physical properties of their layers. Device comprises implosion chamber, packer module, moisture gauge, resistivity metre, sampler, module of samplers, slide valve unit, additional pressure sensor arranged over packer module. Besides slide valve unit is equipped with valves and installed over module of samplers with the possibility to switch flow of samples over to implosion chamber arranged in upper part of device, and to module of samplers through sampler, which comprises differential pistons, and sampler and implosion chamber are connected to well bore zone via vertical channel, where moisture metre, resistivity metre, sensor of layer pressure and temperature sensor are installed.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of research of hydrodynamic characteristics of oil and gas wells and improved quality of formation fluid samples at various depth due to elimination of well fluid effect at results of samples analysis and taking.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: sounding electrode assembly execute fluid medium sampling from a borehole, going through underground reservoir with a fluid medium, located beyond a contaminated fluid medium layer, surrounding the borehole. The sounding electrode assembly contains a case, executed with ability to move forward from down hole equipment and a located in the case parker, with a distal surface for the full contact with the borehole section. The parker has internal and external peripheries, at that the external one limited with a channel, going through the parker. The parker additionally equipped with a channel (channels) executed in the distal surface and located with ability to limit a ring cleaning intake nozzle between the internal and the external peripheries. A bypass channel goes through the parker for natural fluid medium bypassing and/or the contaminated fluid medium between channels. In the parkers channel a sampling tube installed densely for the natural fluid medium bypassing to the second intake hole of the case and to equipment.

EFFECT: providing of required compacting with the reservoir, increase of clean fluid medium flow into the equipment, fluid medium flow into the instrument optimisation.

26 cl, 42 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus equipped with a pump (3), a sampler (6) wit a differential piston (7), samplers (13), a pressure controller (29, 30), located over and under a parker module and the pressure controller (31), located in a vertical channel (19), in which additionally located a receptivity metre (32), a drymetre (33), temperature controller (34). A parkering hermiticity defines with over and under parker pressure control, perform reservoir fluid injection a few times, measuring pressure and temperature, define water and hydrocarbons content of the pumped fluid from a separated reservoir space in a between parker zone. According to the temperature and pressure measurements draw a conclusion about reservoir fluids moving dynamics in a well, and according to the reservoir water content measurements and hydrocarbon content draw a conclusion about reservoir fluids samples content. At the presented factors positive dynamics sample in to the sample collectors.

EFFECT: device operation reliability increase, high quality reservoir fluids sampling.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underground formation analysis. Proposed device comprises instrument casing that can move inside wellbore extending into underground formation, probe housing carried by instrument casing and designed to isolate wellbore wall zone, actuating mechanism to move said probe unit between preset position whereat instrument casing moves and developed position intended for wellbore wall isolation. It comprises also perforator that passes through said probe unit to sink wellbore wall isolated zone section and pass through at least one of strengthened formations or casing strings, power source arranged in instrument casing and connected with perforator to control it. It uses also bypass line passing through instrument casing section and connected with at least one of the elements that follow, i.e. perforator, actuating mechanism, probe unit, and combination thereof to suck in brine fluid. It is connected also with pump arranged in instrument tool to suck in brine fluid into instrument casing through aforesaid bypass line.

EFFECT: higher accuracy.

18 cl, 24 dwg

FIELD: nuclear engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices designed to cut cores from well walls or channels and can be used in nuclear engineering to cutting graphite cores from channel-type uranium-graphite reactor lining. Proposed device comprises bearing rod with rotary drive, tubular cutter, and tubular cutter rotation-and-feed mechanism. The latter consists of drive bevel gear interacting with hollow gear shaft and fixed sleeve with outer thread arranged inside said hollow gear shaft. Note here that tubular cutter represents a sleeve with inner thread screwed on aforesaid fixed sleeve.

EFFECT: ease of cutting complete cores over entire width of graphite block at 90° to block location without using whatever means capable of destructing or fouling cores.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention related to oil-and-gas production, particularly to research method of oil reservoir distribution and its further development. Exploration wells used in the research method of oil reservoir distribution, which bored without destruction of hole integrity, in a way that firstly going down through well bottom hole and opening reservoir at previously determined coordinates with rising trajectory from bottom to top. Information about reservoir itself and saturating it fluids receive during geophysical research in exploration wells.

EFFECT: reservoir distribution data collection using bored well without it deconstruction.

4 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil production industry and is intended to assess parametres of underground bed, having primary fluid and contaminated fluid. In order to produce fluids from bed, fluid is extracted into at least two inlet holes. At least one assessment diverting line is connected by fluid with at least one of inlet holes for movement of primary fluid into well instrument. At least one cleaning diverting line is connected by fluid with inlet holes for passage of contaminated fluid into well instrument. At least one circuit of fluid is connected by fluid with assessment diverting line and/or with cleaning diverting line for selective extraction of fluid in it. At least one hydraulic connector is used to selectively pull hydraulic pressure between connecting lines. At least one detector is used to measure well parametres in one of diverting lines. In order to reduce contamination, fluid might be selectively pumped along diverting lines into assessment diverting line.

EFFECT: provision of flexibility and selectivity to control fluid flow through well instrument by detection, reaction and removal of contamination.

23 cl, 30 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil production industry and is intended to assess parametres of underground bed, having primary fluid and contaminated fluid. In order to produce fluids from bed, fluid is extracted into at least two inlet holes. At least one assessment diverting line is connected by fluid with at least one of inlet holes for movement of primary fluid into well instrument. At least one cleaning diverting line is connected by fluid with inlet holes for passage of contaminated fluid into well instrument. At least one circuit of fluid is connected by fluid with assessment diverting line and/or with cleaning diverting line for selective extraction of fluid in it. At least one hydraulic connector is used to selectively pull hydraulic pressure between connecting lines. At least one detector is used to measure well parametres in one of diverting lines. In order to reduce contamination, fluid might be selectively pumped along diverting lines into assessment diverting line.

EFFECT: provision of flexibility and selectivity to control fluid flow through well instrument by detection, reaction and removal of contamination.

23 cl, 30 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil production industry and is intended for assessment of bed, through which well bore passes. For this purpose method, well tool and bed fluid medium sampling system are developed. Bed fluid medium is extracted from underground bed into well tool and is collected in sampler chamber. Diverting discharge line in working condition is connected to sampler chamber for selective removal of contaminated or clean part of bed fluid medium from sample chamber. As a result contamination is removed from sampler chamber. At the same time clean part of bed fluid medium may be let through another sampler chamber for collection or contaminated part of bed fluid medium may be dropped into well bore.

EFFECT: provision of possibility to remove contaminated fluid medium from well tool and extraction of cleaner fluid medium from underground bed.

38 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes picking a sample of bed fluid under pressure by means of pump. Sample of fluid is then compressed by moveable piston, actuated by hydrostatic pressure in well through valve. Compressed sample of bed fluid is contained under high pressure inside the chamber with fixed volume for delivery to well surface. Moveable piston is in form of inner and outer bushings, moveable relatively to each other. At the same time several tanks for picking samples from several areas may be lowered into well with minimal time delays. Tanks may be emptied on well surface by evacuation pressure, to constantly provide for keeping of pressure of fluid sample above previously selected pressure.

EFFECT: higher reliability.

6 cl, 14 dwg

Up!