Method for lifting of heavy quarry equipment modules
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to machine building support of mining industry, namely as combination of processes in servicing of excavators and roller-bit drilling machines designed for production of minerals by open-cut method. Method for lifting of heavy quarry equipment modules, in which lifting force is developed by power hydraulic cylinders, at the same time energy of high pressure working fluid is used, during the whole process of lifting, possibility is provided for automatic blocking of hydraulic system elements failures. Besides power hydraulic cylinders are equipped with parallel-acting screw jacks, the latter are used, at the moments of modules lifting, to set possibility of synchronous motion with power hydraulic cylinders without formation of lifting force, and at the moments of lifted modules slanting, to provide for the possibility of its leveling.
EFFECT: broader field of application, increased reliability, making process of modules lifting independent.
The invention relates to a machine providing the mining industry, in particular as a way formed the basis of the equipment for maintenance repairs and installation and dismantling during the operation of heavy loading and drilling equipment used in mining operations open pit mining method.
Features of the quarry loading (excavators) and drilling (machines) equipment are the aggressiveness of the environment through its chemical exposure, abrasion of rocks, differing widely in their fortress, high energy consumption and intensity of work of large dimensions and weight. The last hundred tone.
These peculiarities lead to intensive wear excavators and drilling rigs.
In addition, there are regulatory restrictions location of maintenance personnel during maintenance and repair work in providing this security.
Specified determines the need for routine maintenance repair work is usually performed in terms of career and related disassembly (Assembly) major components and their mutual displacement. For example, dismantling crawler excavator moves or drilling machine, requiring lifting, respectively, turning and drilling platform.
World who have technical solutions, in which is implemented a way of lifting the drilling module mine setup with a view to its discrete-lateral movement, doing repairs, diagnosis of individual elements performed using hydraulic Jack, hydraulic locks and valves, guides, transverse rollers and other[1, 2, 3, 4]. However, these developments have significant disadvantages: limited use; the complexity of engineering solutions; unreliable because of the possibility of creating an emergency situation in case of failure of elements of the hydraulic system.
The closest of the known technical solutions adopted for the prototype of the claimed invention, for the intended use, operations, implementation, modular design, metrics, applications, functionality, weight and dimension characteristics is a technique used in the system to retrieve wheeled motor steam railway locomotives . According to the method prototype effort lifting locomotive create the jacks due to the energy of the hydraulic system by which serves the working fluid of high pressure individually to each of the hydraulic jacks, in some moments lifting locomotive ensure the sustainability raised (posted) equipment and block in these moments possible failures of the hydraulic system.
Analysis of the operations of the JV is soba-prototype and technical solutions for its implementation indicates the presence of disadvantages.
- Limited sector utilization and disparity regulatory constraints in terms of ensuring the safety of operators. The latter is connected with the necessity of finding staff under raised by hydraulic jacks equipment, i.e. points in the installation safety of the cylindrical rings, and making and action on personnel psychological discomfort influences due to finding his (staff) under raised loads in the tens and hundreds of tons.
- The probability of accidental fall of the raised (posted) equipment in the period before full production back-up ring because of failure of the hydraulic system.
- Occurrence of distortions due to uneven loading of the hydraulic jacks and, as a consequence, the presence of excessive dynamic loading and reducing the resistance raised (posted) equipment from tipping over.
The last of the disadvantages is due to the influence of the uneven distribution of weight raising equipment between hydraulic jacks, i.e. due to raznoobraznost center of mass of the equipment from the contact points of the jacks raised by the module.
The objective of the proposed method of lifting modules career heavy equipment implemented in the system of lifting modules turning or drilling platforms, respectively excavate the and or drilling rig, extension of field of use, reliability and security, the achievement of invariance (independence) of the process of recovery from possible failures of the hydraulic system, creating a comfortable and safe working conditions repair personnel.
The problem is solved in that in the method of lifting modules heavy surface mining equipment, in which the lifting force create due to the energy of the working fluid of high pressure, serves the working fluid individually to each of the hydraulic jacks, in some moments of the lifting block possible failures of elements of the hydraulic system and in these moments provide the stability of the raised equipment from tilting and tipping, optional blocking of failure of the hydraulic system and the stability of the raised equipment provide throughout the lifting process, the blocking action is generated by the permanent efforts of screw jacks, drive them outside dimensions of the raised equipment.
Thanks to new operations were carried out the task: first, increase reliability, and creating a comfortable and safe environment maintenance staff, expanded the scope of use of the basic method.
Comparative analysis of the proposed techniqueschristina with the prior art found no effect of the known solutions to achieve a positive result according to the task.
Thus, this solution meets the requirements of utility, novelty and inventive step, is intended for use in industry - mining industry, implemented using existing components and materials (hydraulic and mechanical jacks, Gidromontazh high pressure pumping station, ratcheting mechanisms, valves, power cylinders double acting and others who have passed industrial testing, certification and serial production in production), as well as the recognized scientific methods and in its implementation in terms of quarries Krivoy Rog mining and processing complexes in the complexes for lifting the rotary platforms, excavators EKG-4, ECG 5 and ECG-8, EKG-10 (codes d, respectively P and P, developer design documentation Institute, Nieroda Krivoy Rog) achieved practical results than meet the requirement of industrial application, which is sold by the author.
The invention is illustrated by the drawing and the description of its constituent elements. Part of implementing the system includes the oil station 1 remote 2-based control valves and instrumentation software 3; in turn, the remote controller 2 via the valves 4, Gidromontazh 5 is connected to the hydraulic jacks . The latter is equipped with hydraulic locks, and hydraulic system to limit emergency pressure level protected adjustable valve; purity of the working fluid of high pressure provide appropriate filters - items not shown. Parallel to each hydraulic cylinder 6 or (jacks) group total bearing area in the form of a single block has a pair of screw jacks 7, each equipped with manual actuator 8 and the ratchet 9 bilateral actions. Union jacks 6 are used when it is necessary to increase efforts to raise when using the latter in relation to the excavators weighing more than 300 tons (EKG-10).
The force of the hydraulic cylinders 6, and security screw jacks 7 are aimed at raising module (platform) 10 the stability of the process control devices 3. Functional interaction of the components is as follows. First carry out organizational and technical preparations for the lifting of the turntable, such as EKG-8: staff training, adherence drive pumping station 1 to the grid, the arrangement of the workplace is the last feature in the career of at least 10 meters from the edge of the ledge, his horizontial with subsequent concrete placement until kratom - the thickness of the concrete 600 mm with dimensions 1200×4000 mm2for block rams (7-6-7) and 1200×8000 mm2for block rams (7-6-6-7). Further, the excavator is placed on the working platform and the lifting blocks are placed as follows: single (7-6-7) in pairs at a distance of 2000±200 mm from each of the caterpillar truck at the rear of the excavator (near congresa), and paired (7-6-6-7) - axis excavator at a distance of 500±100 mm from its front end side (from the bucket). Oil station 1 come from the rear of the excavator on its axis at a distance of not less than 15 m from the excavator, the operator is near the console 2, and assistant operator is outside the bounds of the raised platform in the region where actuator 8 screw jacks 7. Before starting the pumping station 1 sound signal security, and valves 4 is enabled to supply the hydraulic communications 5 working fluid to the hydraulic cylinders 6.
Next, the operator using the control valves of the control panel 2 summarizes the hydraulic Jack 6 to the platform 10 excavator and begins its rise in real terms the rate of rise does not exceed 1 mm/sec. The operator and his assistants control the positioning of the platform to its horizontal position. There is a limit violations of the horizontal raised platform 2°. Assistant operator actuator 8 b the th screw Jack 7 pick them up (7) sequentially with the lifting jacks 6, thereby eliminating the impact of possible failures of elements of hydraulics.
In violation of the horizontal operator of the valves of the remote controller 2 changes the flow of the operating fluid, seeking recovery of horizontality. It is possible arrangement of the development of automatic control of the hydraulic system on the basis of the flow of working fluid to each of the hydraulic jacks with regard to their workload.
The imbalance loading jacks occurs because the specified previously uneven loading of the cylinders of the jacks . Manual drive 8 screw jacks 7 may be replaced by electrotherapist with remote control.
Upon lifting the turntable 10 excavator on technological reasonable height (in the real system 630 mm) and fixing it in the posted state screw jacks 7 shut off the flow of operating fluid from the jacks 6 and turn off the oil station 1. Remove crawler truck from under the turntable for their subsequent repair, and leave the platform in the posted position indefinitely. When spare caterpillar trucks are replacing bred and produce the descent of the platform 10 by reverse drive of the screw jacks 7 using hrapovic mechanisms 9.
Sources of information
1. SU 218096, AS 11/02, 29/22, 17.08.1966.
2. SU 626201, ES/22, 11/02, 29.04.1977.
3. UA 42825, AS 11/02, 29/22, 15.11.2001, bull. No. 10.
4. UA 12809, EV 21/00, 15.03.2006, bull. No. 3.
5. Industrial hydraulic tools. Directory OK-0311-12, 2004, "Energoprom"www.energoprom.ru, 74, 75.
A way of lifting modules heavy surface mining equipment, in which the lifting force create power hydraulic cylinders, use the energy of the working fluid of high pressure, throughout the process of raising the enable automatic blocking of failure of elements of the hydraulic system, wherein the power hydraulic cylinders equipped paralleelnimetusi screw jacks, the last moments of lifting modules, set the synchronous movement with power hydraulic cylinders without forming an effort lifting and through which the moments of occurrence of the distortions of the raised module, provide the possibility of leveling.
SUBSTANCE: cog unit of earthmover bucket comprises cog with seat, which is open at the back and is a female part, besides specified cog has hole for fitting of fixing stud, adapter, having ledge, which is a male part that matches shape of specified seat, besides mentioned ledge is crossed with matching site for fixing stud, fixing stud inserted into specified hole of cog and into specified matching site in adapter and serving for cog fixation to adapter. At least one of specified opposite surfaces of ledge has lowered or deepened area arranged around matching site for fixing stud. At least the wall of seat that is inverted towards specified surface of ledge has relief part additionally to specified lowered or deepened area, having shape of boss that gradually increases in direction of open part of seat. Specified hole in seat walls and specified matching site in ledge have according flat back surfaces, which are matched to each other. Fixing stud has flat back surface, which simultaneously lies onto specified back surfaces of hole and matching site.
EFFECT: simplified design of cog unit for manufacturing, lower costs, avoidance of cog disconnection from adapter under severe operation conditions.
32 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: excavator comprises carrier with travel mechanism and rotary platform, where the following components are installed - cabin, working equipment, which comprises boom, handle, bucket, double-leg stand, on which boom is fixed by means of anchor ropes, body with lift and rotation mechanisms, discharge mechanism. Rotary platform consists of two parallel boxy beams, which are produced by pair vertical metal sheets and upper and lower metal belts. Central part of platform is arranged between beams, and its height is equal to height of vertical metal sheets. Metal sheet is installed at front ends of boxy beams and central part of platform, and vertical ribs are rigidly fixed on it symmetrically to external vertical sheets of boxy beams. Excavator is arranged with the possibility of unification due to application of rope and rack discharge mechanism. Axis of rack discharge mechanism boom is placed in holes provided into vertical ribs, and distance between brackets of anchor ropes fixation on double-leg stand is equal to distance between anchor ropes at upper part of boom.
EFFECT: excavator unification, namely, such arrangement of rotary platform that makes it possible to install working equipment with rope or rack discharge mechanism on a single base, depending on developed object, with preservation of machine parametres.
FIELD: mining machinery.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining machinery DC drives operated at lower temperatures and variable loads. Proposed adjustment method comprises monitoring control system malfunction via determination of electric drive time constants and generation of feedback signal, which allows decreasing motor RPM in case control system malfunctions. Proposed device incorporates drive component active parametre pickups, data acquisition and processing device, indication device and operator electronic key.
EFFECT: reduced dynamic loads at lower temperatures and control system malfunction.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to mining engineering and construction industry, namely to construction machine, particularly for vibration generation. Construction machine includes transfer mechanism, at least one hydraulic drive and hydraulic system for providing hydraulic drive with hydraulic medium. At that, at least one lubrication hydraulic line by means of which hydraulic medium can be supplied to transfer mechanism as lubrication means is branched off hydraulic system. At that, in lubrication hydraulic line there provided is dosing device by means of which supply of lubrication means can be changed depending on operating mode of transfer mechanism.
EFFECT: improving operating reliability of machine.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machinery field, provided for implementation of digging and loading operations, particularly to machinery of type of frontal bucket loader. Load-carrying system is formed by front half-frame, hinged to back half-frame, consisting two longerons with bearing of beam, counterbalance, accumulator boxes. On back ends of longerons it is rigidly fixed transverse beam with guidlines, on which there are mounted counterbalance and back lamellar element, fixation of which to transverse beam is implemented by means of releasable connection. Counterbalance is implemented as changeable and composite with "П"-shaped openings and mass, providing stability of motion and manageability of loader with cargo, and accumulator boxes are implemented as demountable and fixed to back lamellar element and longerons. Accumulator boxes allow openings for installation of clearance lamps and backup lamps.
EFFECT: invention provides for stability increasing of frontal bucket loader at changing of vehicle capacity of frontal bucket loader ensured by variation of counterbalance mass, and also simplification of erection and dismantling, increasing of maintainability and serviceability.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of machines intended for performance of earth and loading works, namely to machines such as single-bucket hydraulic diggers. Bearer frame of loader-digger working equipment comprises longitudinal beams with elements of bearer frame fixation on tractor, cross beams that are rigidly connected to longitudinal beams, bracket installed on upper bases of longitudinal beams with lugs that have openings in bushings for installation of rotary column of excavator equipment and hydraulic cylinders of its rotation, and brackets for installation of outriggers and hydraulic reservoir. Bracket is arranged from two vertical sides installed at the angle to each other, between which lugs are installed. Base of the lower lug is located on the same vertical level with lower edges of sides and is rigidly connected to upper bases of longitudinal beams, and also by means of two ribs with side surface of cross beam. Upper and middle lug are connected with rib, which is rigidly fixed to lower plane of upper lug and its bushing, and on the other side - with upper plane of middle lug in zone of openings for hydraulic cylinders of column rotation, at that bent sheet stands are connected to external sides of longitudinal beams, and these stands are also connected to sides of bracket, creating rigid space structure.
EFFECT: simplification of design and technology of loader-digger bearer frame manufacturing technology, reduction of nomenclature of roller stock rigging used in bearer frame design.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to equipment used in mining for excavation and earth movement, more specifically to control of mine excavators using electrical actuation. The method involves, in excavation mode, limiting of the current to the turning motor armature to a threshold value of the control signal, equal to 20-30% of the shutoff current value. The state of the excavation mode is established from readings of sensors for length of cables, stroke length of lift arms, and sensor for actuating lift and the current to the turning motor armature is automatically limited. Proposal is also given of a device for implementing this method.
EFFECT: reduction of dynamic lateral loads on the working equipment of the mining excavator, which lead to fatigue accumulation in stress concentration zones in metal and fatigue flaking.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions pertain to construction, namely, to hydraulic hammers hung on to construction excavators. Method of protection of the excavator from the influence of hydraulic hammer blowing mass of the hammer pin over the wedge of the hydraulic hammer according to which oscillation damping of the working equipment from the mass action of the hammer pin during its idle run is performed through main hydraulic cylinders of lead control. Oscillation damping of the working equipment is performed both through the main hydraulic cylinder and through a balancing pneumatic - hydraulic cylinder. Whereat balancing pneumatic - hydraulic cylinder is made with constant gas pressure characteristic, and head ends of main hydraulic cylinders of lead control are connected with hydropneumatic accumulator with variable characteristic of gas pressure in its air bladder.
EFFECT: facilitation of hydraulic hammer operation.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: construction, pipeline.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to hydraulic actuators of carrying and lifting machines, namely, to front loaders handling supplies and construction materials in the scoop on construction sites and off-the-road. Protection device of the hydraulic actuator of a front loader contains a heavy hauler, working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and, at least, one balancing cylinder, head end whereof is connected with a gas cylinder. Accumulator, reverse-flow valve and an adjustable choke are switched to the head ends of the boom hydraulic cylinders. Valve "OR" is installed into the hydraulic line connecting distribution unit with rod ends of the boom hydraulic cylinders.
EFFECT: protection of hydraulic actuator from the negative effect as on working equipment lifting - down casting as in wheels movement over abrupt supporting surface.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to construction machine control systems and can be used in hydraulically-operated construction machines. Hydraulically-operated construction machine actuator movement control method consists in reference-input signal generated by manipulating handle with inductive position sensor, formation of control effect on hydraulic drive with the help of electric hydraulic converter. In addition hydraulically-operated construction machine actuator speed is measured, and manipulating handle position sensor output signal is compared with output signal of hydraulically-operated construction machine actuator speed measuring unit. Eventually the first difference signal which is converted in integral control, and the output signal of which is compared with output signal of speed measuring unit, is generated, and after that the second difference signal which is converted in second-order two term controller is generated, and then it is supplied to electric hydraulic converter of actuator hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: improving process reliability due to smooth movement of actuators as well as the possibility of obtaining wide range of speed control at variable load of hydraulic drive.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: lifting unit is comprised of lifting mechanisms, each of which is connected with pressurising source (oil station). Besides each lifting mechanism is represented as telescopic body with extending section being implemented on external surface and provided with guiding grooves. The solid keys are installed as a counterpart in the fixed section of body so that they can be self-adjusted. A jack is installed on spherical support inside extending section. The jack rod is coupled with the upper part of extending section through the spherical support. Floating support interacting with swinging circle is installed on the same spherical support.
EFFECT: improved reliability and extended lifecycle of lifting unit operation.
SUBSTANCE: at first and second stages of motion, length of supports (2) and (3) is varied. At the same time the chassis length is changed. Also combined bearing (13) is used to vary angular position of chassis components relative to each other. All aforesaid changes are coordinated in time and size to ensure smooth translation of truck cabin (4) along horizontal line.
EFFECT: improved smoothness of truck cabin motion.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: transport vehicle includes body (2) and base (1), wheels (7) fixed in base (1). Pulse propeller is installed in base (1) and consists of elastic power element (5) and impeller (4) with alternate eccentricity, which actuates engine (3). Base (1) rests on wheels (7) with the help of Z-shaped supports (8) with elastic elements that work for twisting. Drive to wheels (7) is realised via Z-shaped gear from engine (3). Elastic power element (5) may be arranged in the form of movable plate spring fixed at an angle to base (1) on guides (6), with the possibility of its complete drawing inside body (2). Elastic power element (5) is able to rotate relative to base (1).
EFFECT: lower dynamic loads in jump and possibility to use any engine with rotary output shaft for drive of pulse and wheel propellers.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wheeled truck platform comprises a base accommodating platform floor and sides. Crane-manipulator (14) is mounted on the platform floor nearby the front side. The platform base is linked up with holder (22) arranged behind crane-manipulator (14) and accommodating the shaft with outrigger fitted thereon. The crane-manipulator is shifted to the platform lateral side under which the said outrigger is mounted. Aforesaid holder is furnished with supports representing the plates welded thereto to form feet with holes to mount the ladders. Note that the support posts are attached to the platform base lengthwise beams to form eyelets for the ladders to be mounted.
EFFECT: simpler design and higher reliability.
2 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed support incorporates fixed outside tubular body housing inner tube translating there inside. The aforesaid outside tubular trough-shaped body has U-shaped section with its bends' ends furnished with two flanges coming outward parallel to the U-shaped section back. Open part of the said U-shaped section is closed by rear wall (15) to form a guide duct for the aforesaid inner tube (13).
EFFECT: simpler design.
9 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for vehicle self-drawing contains movable traction element. One end of traction element is mounted on vehicle frame and is connected with power drive. Its other end is connecter with working element interacting with position regulator of working element. The device is fitted under vehicle frame. Power drive is executed as hydraulic with double-acting hydraulic cylinders. Traction element is made as multilink articulation linkage of parallelogram type. Center pivot axis of first links of the said mechanism is rigidly mounted on frame. The said links are extended beyond central pivot in direction opposite to working element. Link ends are pivotally connected with hydraulic cylinders rods directed toward each other in mechanism plane. Link bodies are pivotally connected with frame. Working element is positioned with possibility of self-installation in transport and working position in the body mounted on the axis of central pivot of the last link of parallelogram linkage. Transport position regulator of working element is made as tilted plate with central slot and chamfers. Working element is provided with cone head to interact with mentioned above slot.
EFFECT: vehicle flotation improvement.
2 cl, 18 dwg
SUBSTANCE: jack comprises an air-proof chamber mounted into the telescope rest, guides opening and retuning the chamber and rest sections into a preset or initial position, a restrictor to limit the rest sections motion in whatever direction, a nipple for connection to compressed air supply and for release of air, a ridged plate for the car to rest upon. The jack can be connected to the compressor and can be made integral with it, in either split or permanent joint version. The said compressor can be connected to the car dash panel lighter.
EFFECT: ease of use, manufacture, repair and servicing of the car.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mounted appliances designed for mobile repair machines, particularly, those used for repair of hatches of gondola cars. Frame 1 of mounted appliance is secured by means of brackets 2, 3 on carriage of mobile repair machine. Forklift 4 with horns is installed on frame 1 and also movable stop 5 with power cylinder 6, fixed stops 7 and locks 8 of forklift 4. Forklift 4 and power cylinder 6 are made detachable, basing, respectively, on platforms A and B of frame 1. Front plane of frame 1 is installed at angle to vertical position. In process of repair, appliance is suspended at preset height by moving the carriage and is fed to hatch of gondola car. Then forklift 4 catches hatch between movable stop 5 and fixed stops 6 and forces it out of gondola car in inclined position. Straightening of hatch is provided by force action of movable stop 5.
EFFECT: simplified design.
FIELD: devices for maintenance and storage of wheeled vehicles and agricultural equipment, in particular, sowing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: supporting-and-hanging apparatus for sowing equipment has base, movable tine and immovable tine with locking member. Immovable tine is made in the form of pressure member-holder fixed on drill frame and equipped with slot and locking member for movable tine. Movable tine is pivotally connected to pressure member-holder and base. Length of movable tine is L≥R+h, where R is radius of wheel; h is distance from wheel to supporting surface (h=50-70 mm).
EFFECT: simplified construction and enhanced quick action in hanging of sowing equipment.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting devices with speed-changing gear trains, and it can be used for lifting vehicles. Proposed screw jack has lead screw connected with output shaft of two-speed reduction gear with speed change clutch. According to invention, reduction gear is made in form of differential planetary gear train and two worm pairs whose worms can be connected with input shaft of two-speed reduction gear. First central wheel of differential planetary gear train is connected with screw, and second one, with wheel of second worm pair for rotation in opposite direction relative to first one, and carrier is coupled with wheel of first worm pair. Worm of first worm pair is installed for axial displacement and is connected with clutch member, and clutch second member is installed on input shaft of two-speed reduction gear.
EFFECT: increased load-lifting capacity without increasing motor power owing to reduction of lead screw.
FIELD: railway transport; repair facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mounted appliances for mobile repair machines used for repair of rail vehicles without cutting out, particularly for replacement of bogie springs and friction wedge. Proposed mounted appliance has platform body 1 secured by brackets 2 on frame-adapter of mobile repair machine. Post 3 with lever 5 is secured on platform body 1. Hydraulic jack 7 is installed on platform body 1 by means of ball support 9, being coupled with lever 5 through joint 10 of rod 11. Fork grip 6 is locked in bogie members, pressure is fed into hydraulic jack 7, and platform body 1 is moved to thrust against ground, and at further travel of rod 11, appliance lifts up bogie releasing spring set from weight of vehicle. Spring set and friction wedge are demounted and transported to repair station on platform body 1. Procedure is reversed for mounting spring set and friction wedge.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and increased service life.