Method for dyeing of textile materials

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of dyeing-finishing production, namely to steam-phase dyeing of textile materials or natural suede. Proposed method of dyeing includes generation of unsaturated vapors of dye in process of dye evaporation in combination with thermoplastic polymer with their mass ratio of 1:3-1:5 at the temperature of 250-600°C and pressure of 5-10-4 - 5-10-7 mm of mercury column and simultaneous dyeing in mixture of generated dye vapors and thermoplastic polymer.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to improve extent of dye fixation on material with preservation of material physical and mechanical properties due to elimination of undesirable structural changes of polymer material in process of steam-phase dyeing.

1 cl, 2 tbl, 23 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of dyeing and finishing production, namely vapor dyeing textile materials made of natural, synthetic and artificial fibres, including teasing fabrics and paintings of the looping structure.

Currently, there is a method of dyeing textile materials of polyester or triacetate fiber processing their unsaturated vapors sublimated disperse dye in an air environment at a temperature of 140-220°C for 20-50 min (see Melnikov B.N. and other Modern state and prospects of development of technology of dyeing textile materials. - M: Light and food industry, 1983, s). The disadvantage of this method is the low degree of fixation of the dye on the material component of 10.2 and 11.8 g/kg, due to the complex influence on the dyeing process several factors. First, even within the same class of dyes and the same fibre-forming polymer is due to the chemical structure of dyes and different as a consequence, the ability to form relationships with fibrous material, and diffusion mobility in the fiber. Secondly, in pairs sublimated disperse dye is the Association of the dye molecules, which complicates its adsorption on the surface of the partition solid - PA is. Finally, since the adsorption of the dye occurs only in the amorphous regions of fibre-forming polymer, the rate and extent of absorption of the dye is greatly influenced not only chemical but also physical structure of the fiber, at the same time sufficiently long (20-50 min) high temperature (140-220°C) warming contributes to the flow of relaxation processes in the fiber, which leads to an increase (change) its crystallinity and, consequently, to decrease the adsorption of the dye and the degree of fixation on the material. As a result, obtaining uniformly and intensely colored textile materials in this case is possible only if the poor performance of the dyeing process.

Closest to the claimed method is a method of dyeing textile material of polyester or triacetate fibres processing of unsaturated vapors sublimated disperse dye in an air environment at a temperature of 140-170°C. in air impose additional unsaturated pair benzyl alcohol or furfural with a partial pressure of 25-345 mm Hg, and the dyeing process are 5-10 min (see A.S. USSR №730905; MCI2D06 5/00; B. I. No. 16, 1980). The disadvantages of this method should also include low degree of fixation of the dye on the material component of 13.2 and 17.7 g/kg there specifications the economic influence of the organic solvent as sublimation properties of disperse dyes, and sorption properties of fibre-forming polymer.

On the one hand, with the introduction of the gas phase vapor of organic solvent is a sharp decrease in the vapour pressure of the dye, due to the selective adsorption of organic solvent on the surface of the crystals disperse dyes and form a condensed film. Thus slows down the process of sublimation and decreases the effective concentration of the dye in the gas phase. As a result of intensive and uniform dyeing of the textile material by the above method it is necessary to increase the duration of the dyeing process, while providing a very narrow limits of temperature and concentration of vapors of an organic solvent. In conjunction with high temperature dyeing (140-170°C) this leads to a decrease in the adsorption of the dye and the degree of fixation on the material. On the other hand, an organic solvent plasticizes fibre-forming polymer, which increases the adsorption of the dye and the degree of fixation on the material, but increasing the degree of saturation vapor dye relatively reduces the efficiency of the effect of organic solvent. However, given the fact that the fibers are not strictly standardized product, it is practically impossible will provide the optimal concentration of organic solvent, which would allow him pastificio fibre-forming polymer, not to reduce the effective concentration of the dispersed dye in the gas phase and to provide intensive and uniform coloration of a textile material with a high degree of fixation of the dye on the material.

It should be noted also that the textile material in the dyeing process is heated to a temperature vapor dye 140-170°C and undergoes when this undesirable structural modifications, in particular the increase in the crystallinity of fibre-forming polymer. As in the case of the known method of dyeing textile material, it has a considerable effect not only on the quality of dyeing - reducing the adsorption of the dye and the degree of fixation on the material, but also on the properties of the textile material increases its rigidity, reduces the drape, that is, the deterioration in the neck.

In addition, use as a stimulating reagent vapors of organic solvents makes additional demands on sealing equipment, the regeneration system, etc. it Should also be noted the limitations of this method as the range of the coated textile material (polyester or triacetate), and assortment of dyes (only disperse dyes).

The technical object of the present invention I had was to increase the degree of fixation of the dye on the textile material, and maintenance of the physico-mechanical properties of a textile material by eliminating unwanted structural changes of fibre-forming polymer in the process vapor dyeing.

The essence of the invention is that a method of dyeing textile material is carried out by obtaining the unsaturated vapour evaporation of the dye and its subsequent application to the textile material, and the evaporation of the dye are in the presence of a thermoplastic polymer at a temperature varying between 250 and 600°C., and dyeing are in the vapor mixture of the colorant and a thermoplastic polymer, taken in the ratio 1:3-1:5, at a pressure of 5.10-4-5·10-7mm Hg In this case, the pair of thermoplastic polymer is heated to the necessary for each specific pair of dye-polymer evaporation temperature in the range varying between 250 and 600°C, mixed with pairs of dye or disperse the particles and form a dispersion-steam phase. Dispersion-vapor phase may contain fragments of macromolecules thermoplastic polymer, of different size and chemical structure, free radicals, a pair of dye and a disperse dye particles, including activated by free radicals. At a pressure of 5.10-4-5·10-7mm Hg dispersion-vapor phase dye-polymer is deposited on the textile material, is in the process of co-deposition of dye and thermoplastic polymer under vacuum on the surface of the textile material is formed painted with a continuous film of polymer, smooth and uniform in thickness and intensity of the coloration, which is firmly fixed on the fibre-forming polymer. The process of forming the colored film is possible only in a vacuum, as in a joint precipitation of the dye and thermoplastic polymer in the presence of air at the temperature of evaporation of the pair of the dye-polymer is partially oxidized, as thermoplastic polymer and dye, without leading to the formation of active dispersion-vapor phase dye-polymer. In this case the particle dispersion-vapor phase dye-polymer acquire the ability to smooth deposition on the surface of the textile material at a pressure of less than 5 x 10-4mm Hg, as, in such conditions, there is collision of particles of the dispersed-vapor phase dye-polymer with molecules of residual gas. As further reducing the pressure increases the length of the free path of the particles of the dispersed-vapor phase dye-polymer that allows for the evaporation of a pair of dye-polymer without heating the textile material to a temperature close to the temperature of evaporation pair of dye-polymer.

When conducting the process in the absence or the lack of one component dispersion-vapor phase dye-polymer is impractical, since the excess is termoplastycznego polymer (or the lack of dye on the surface of the textile material is formed uneven smooth film of polymer, while the pieces in the form of drops. When the excess of dye (or lack of thermoplastic polymer) dye is not fixed on the textile material, that is, the coloring does not occur. This is because the process of dyeing textile material at a pressure of 5.10-4-5·10-7mm Hg allows to maintain the temperature directly coated textile material at a level not exceeding the glass transition temperature of fibre-forming polymer. The temperature of the textile material while significantly below the evaporation temperature of a particular pair of dye-polymer (within 260-600°C). In low-temperature textile material actually thermoplastic polymer is capable of forming a uniform continuous thin film on its surface, and the dye from its own vapor phase is not adsorbed molecules fibre-forming polymer and is not fixed on the surface of the textile material.

On the other hand, carrying out the dyeing process at a temperature of textile material, not exceeding the glass transition temperature of fibre-forming polymer, lets at least do not impair the physical and mechanical properties of a textile material in the dyeing process. In this case, does not increase the internal stresses in the textile material from naturalnych fibers and does not increase the stiffness of textile material made of artificial or synthetic fibers, associated with undesirable structural changes in the fibre-forming polymer when it is cooked.

All of the above together, you can create textile material a thin, continuous, smooth and evenly colored film which, enveloping each element (fiber) of a textile material, prevents the penetration of air and steam through the painted material. At the same time, the lack of direct contact of the dye with the air protects color from exposure to external factors, increasing its resistance to mechanical and physico-chemical treatments. The smooth surface provides high optical and, accordingly, the aesthetic quality of the dyed textile material - uniformity of the reflection and dispersion of light. If this film does not degrade the neck tissue, its softness and drape, and protective character formed on the textile material film eliminates the need for finishing fabric (crease resistance and the like).

In addition, the proposed method of dyeing textile materials can be used as dye pigments, disperse dyes and/or their mixtures, phthalocyanine dyes and fluorescent dyes. This significantly extends the application of the proposed method and allows the quality of relevate textile materials of natural (wool, cotton), synthetic (rayon, diacetate, triacetate) and synthetic (nylon, polyester, polyacrylonitrile) fibers and/or mixtures thereof, including teasing fabrics and paintings of the looping patterns, as well as paper and natural leather.

The comparison of the proposed solutions not only prototype, but other solutions in this field of technology is not allowed to reveal in them the features distinguishing the claimed solution to the prototype, as well as getting a new technical result allows to conclude that the criterion of "inventive step".

The method is as follows. Textile material in a roll is placed in a vacuum chamber, where there is a partial removal from the pores of the material to air, excess moisture, and medicines applied to the material in the previous stages of production. Then in the process of winding at a pressure of 5.10-4-5·10-7mm Hg occurs dyeing textile material in a vapor mixture of a colorant and a thermoplastic polymer. To do this, under the canvas textile material is evaporating device in which the dye and thermoplastic polymer is heated to the necessary for each specific pair of dye-polymer evaporation temperature in the range varying between 250 and 600°C. When this pair of thermoplastic polymer are mixed with pairs of dye or disperse the particles and form a dispersion-steam phase dye-polymer, moreover, the ratio of dye and thermoplastic polymer is 1:3-1:5. Dispersion-vapor phase dye-polymer at a pressure of 5.10-4-5·10-7mm Hg deposited on the textile material on which this results in the colored continuous film that is smooth and of uniform thickness and intensity of their color, are firmly fixed on the fibre-forming polymer. The temperature of the textile material does not exceed the glass transition temperature of fibre-forming polymer, which allows, at least not to worsen the physico-mechanical properties of a textile material in the dyeing process.

In the proposed method can be used to dye and thermoplastic material in the range varying between 250 and 600°C, regardless of their individual temperature sublimation sharing.

The proposed method of dyeing refers to nanotechnology - environmentally friendly and economical because it eliminates the use of liquid-phase processes and, consequently, the cost of wastewater from dyes and textile auxiliaries. Method of dyeing permits the use of cheap, grubokolotaya (non-dusting) forms of dyes and thereby improves working conditions at the preparatory areas.

Examples of the method.

As examples of specific realizational dyeing textile materials examples of dyeing textile materials made of natural, artificial and synthetic fibers and/or mixtures thereof, including teasing fabrics and paintings of the looping patterns, as well as paper and leather different dyes - pigments dispersed, phthalocyanine, fluorescent dyes. As thermoplastic polymer used polyesters, polyamides and polypropylene molecular weight 1500-20000.

Example 1.

Textile material in a roll was placed in a vacuum chamber under vacuum conditions in the process of winding a textile material with a speed of 20 m/min was in the process of dyeing textile material. To do this, in the evaporation device was placed thermoplastic polymer and the dye was heated them and received unsaturated pair of dye and thermoplastic polymer.

Modes of carrying out the process of dyeing textile materials of different fibers of different dyes in combination with various thermoplastic polymers, taken in different ratios, as well as achieved results are presented in table 1.

As can be seen from table 1, the optimal conditions for obtaining rapidly and firmly dyed textile material are: the evaporation temperature of the dye and thermoplastic polymer varying between 250 and 600°C, the vapor pressure of the mixture of dye and thermoplastic polymer in the dyeing process 5.10-4-5 is 10 -7mm Hg; the ratio of the components of the dye:polymer of 1:3-1:5.

Table 2 presents comparative data on the impact of the method of dyeing textile materials on the quality of dyeing (the degree of fixation of the dye), as well as on the physico-mechanical properties of the textile material after dyeing (neck tissue).

Neck tissue, characterized by rigidity and drape of the fabric was determined as follows: the stiffness of the fabric according to GOST 10550-75; drape fabric according to the method Miyahara (see Sukharev M.I. Textile materials. - M. - L., 1973, s).

As textile materials, presented in table 2, were used triacetate silk, capron velour, Mylar fabric cotton fabric and woolen fabric, dyed in accordance with the claimed method (see examples 5, 1, 23, 15 and 19 of table 1), and triacetate silk and Mylar cloth, dyed in accordance with the method of the prototype.

As can be seen from table 2, the degree of fixation of the dye when using the proposed method is 18.8-24.5 g/kg, and when using the method according to the prototype of 13.2 and 17.7 g/kg, that is, the use of the proposed method of dyeing textile material can increase the degree of fixation of the dye in 1.5 times. In the dyeing process using the proposed method does not deteriorate the neck tissue (virtually unchanged stiffness and drape), and when dyeing with the use of the method according to the prototype of the stiffness of the textile material after dyeing increases on average by 2.5%, and the drape after dyeing bad, that is, after dyeing worsens the neck tissue.

Experimental studies of the proposed method of dyeing textile materials showed that the proposed method provides a degree of fixation of the dye on the textile material at the level of 18.8-24.5 g/kg, which is 1.5 times higher than that of the method of the prototype. In the dyeing process without degradation of physical and mechanical properties of a textile material by eliminating unwanted structural changes of fibre-forming polymer in the process vapor dyeing.

The headspace method of dyeing textile material or suede, including the production of unsaturated vapor dye and dyeing, in which the evaporation of the dye are combined with thermoplastic polymer at a mass ratio of 1:3-1:5 at a temperature varying between 250 and 600°C and pressure of 5·10-4-5·10-7mm Hg with simultaneous dyeing in a mixture of vapor formed dye and thermoplastic polymer.



 

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2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

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1 cl, 2 tbl, 23 ex

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FIELD: physics.

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6 cl, 2 ex

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6 cl, 2 ex

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6 cl, 2 ex

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3 tbl, 38 ex

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