Electron beam generation method and device for realising said method (versions)

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, plasma chemistry and diagnostic measurements. The method of making an electron beam involves igniting high-voltage discharge in a gas-discharge cell by applying power supply voltage between a cathode and an anode. Additional flow of ions is provided in the space between the cathode and the anode, which provides additional ionisation of gas with an auxiliary electron beam whose electrons are accelerated in the strong field of the high-voltage discharge. The auxiliary electron beam is generated on the perimetre of the cathode surface on the inner wall of an annular electrode. The device for generating an electron beam has a cathode and an anode placed in a gas-discharge cell, and a high-voltage power supply which is connected to the cathode and the anode. On the inner surface of the cathode there is an annular electrode on the inner wall of which an auxiliary electron beam is generated. In order to reduce discharge current, the flat part of the annular electrode on the anode side is covered by a dielectric plate with an opening whose diametre coincides with the inner diametre of the annular electrode.

EFFECT: wider operating pressure range of gas, as well as provision for high discharge stability with respect to sparking.

5 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, plasma diagnostic measurements.

A method of obtaining an electron beam [Denisov S., assumption N.A., Fedyakov VP // Electrophysical apparatus. M.: Energoatomizdat, No. 20, pp. 80-82, 1982], which consists in the fact that by applying voltage between the cathode and the anode of the light high-voltage discharge in a discharge cell between the cathode and anode perform additional influx of ions, which provide additional emission of electrons from the cathode, which accelerate in a strong field of this high-voltage discharge, used for the anode in the form of a lattice (lattice anode) and thereby provide the slack of the electric field at the grating anode, and an additional influx of ions obtained by ionization of the gas at the grating anode of the auxiliary electron beam and the direction from ions between the anode-cathode with sagging in the lattice anode electric field. For the auxiliary electron beam using a separate high voltage power supply. For high-voltage discharge between the cathode and anode to provide the flow discharge in dependent form. Accelerated electrons, starting from the cathode surface in the form of a bundle, and vlekayut through the lattice anode foil, which have for the anode and scope of the auxiliary electron beam. Electron beam penetrated through the foil, used for a purpose.

The disadvantages of this method of obtaining e-beam: to implement the method requires a relatively complicated construction of the device, including the presence of two independent power sources. The main disadvantages of the method is the small size of the working gas pressure ~0.01 Torr and a small beam current of 200 μa/cm2. The device operates in conditions of sustained discharge between the cathode and the anode, i.e. when no auxiliary electron beam it is implemented extremely small pretprobojnu current. At a higher pressure method stops working because of self-discharge in the discharge decreases sharply when the slack of the electric field at the grating anode, due to the formation of anodic plasma with reduced magnitude of the electric field in it.

It is known device [S. Denisov, the assumption N.A., Fedyakov VP // Electrophysical apparatus. M.: Energoatomizdat, No. 20, pp. 80-82, 1982]that implements the method that contains the high voltage power supply and placed in a gas discharge cell, the anode and cathode, while the anode is a grid (lattice anode)that provides the slack of the electric field at the grating anode, and will complement the local flow of ions between the anode-cathode is provided by the ionization of the gas at the grating anode of the auxiliary electron beam and the direction from ions between the anode-cathode with sagging in the lattice the anode electric field. For the secondary electron beam is used to separate high voltage power supply. For high-voltage discharge between cathode and anode is used, the flow discharge in dependent form. Accelerated electrons, starting from the cathode surface in the form of a beam, is transmitted through the foil which is not covered by the anode and the scope of the auxiliary electron beam on the irradiation object.

The disadvantages of this device is relatively complex design of the device, including the presence of two independent power sources. The main drawbacks are a small amount of the working gas pressure ~0.01 Torr and a small beam current of 200 μa/cm2. The device operates in conditions of sustained discharge between the cathode and the anode, i.e. when no auxiliary electron beam it is implemented extremely small pretprobojnu current. At a higher pressure device stops working because of self-discharge in the discharge decreases sharply when the slack of the electric field at the grating anode with a low value of the electric field in it.

Closest to the proposed method is a method for electron beam [A.R. Sorokin // PJTF, v.33, No. 9, p.70-78, 2007], namely, that by filing a voltage between the cathode and the Academy of Sciences of the house lit the high-voltage discharge in a discharge cell, and in the space between the cathode and anode perform additional influx of ions, which provide additional emission of electrons from the cathode, which accelerate in a strong field of this high-voltage discharge, with an additional influx of ions between the cathode and anode to provide additional ionization of the gas along the surface of the cathode auxiliary electron beam, which is formed in a strong electric field at the entrance of the cathode cavity, one wall of which is used as a part of the metal flat bottom surface of the cathode with the tab, and the other wall of the dielectric plate with a hole, which is covered by the protrusion of the cathode and the portion of the bottom surface of the cathode, and an auxiliary electron beam spread over the bottom surface of the cathode, the open hole - D in the dielectric plate. For the electron emitter of the auxiliary electron beam is used cathode plasma, which is formed in the cathode cavity. A single high-voltage discharge is used simultaneously to obtain an auxiliary electron beam and to accelerate the electron beam toward the anode.

The main disadvantage of this method of obtaining an electron beam - limited range of operating pressures, which depends on the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode of the second cavity, defines the conditions for the formation of cathode plasma in the cathode cavity. For a fixed value of the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity mode discharge with the additional influx of ions between the cathode and anode (high-current electron beam), the upper limit of the operating pressure due to the disappearance of a strong electric field at the entrance of the cathode cavity and, consequently, the auxiliary electron beam, due to the closure of the anode plasma cathode plasma in the cathode cavity, the density of which increases sharply, and the lower with the abrupt pressure) drop in the intensity of the auxiliary electron beam. To increase the operating pressure required to reduce the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity, and less pressure is required to increase the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity, i.e. in both cases you want to make changes in the design of the device. In addition, at small distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity is necessary to lower the supply voltage, due to the formation of spark breakdown from the bottom of the cathode on the edge of the hole of the dielectric plate and next to the anode.

It is known device [A.R. Sorokin// PJTF, v.33, No. 9, p.70-78, 2007]that implements the method that contains the high voltage power supply and placed in a gas discharge cell, the cathode and the anode, with an additional influx of ions between the cathode and the anode is provided by additional ionization of the gas along the surface of the cathode auxiliary electron beam, which is formed in a strong electric field at the entrance of the cathode cavity, one wall of which is part of the metal flat bottom surface of the cathode with the tab, and the other wall is a dielectric plate with a hole, which covers the protrusion of the cathode and the portion of the bottom surface of the cathode, and an auxiliary electron beam is distributed over the bottom surface of the cathode, an open hole in the dielectric plate. For the electron emitter of the auxiliary electron beam serves as the cathode plasma, which is formed in the cathode cavity. A single high-voltage discharge is simultaneously to obtain an auxiliary electron beam and to accelerate electrons to high-current electron beam toward the anode.

The main disadvantage of this device is the limited range of operating pressures, which depends on the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity that defines the conditions of forming the cathode plasma in the cathode cavity. Defixiones distance values between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity mode discharge with the additional influx of ions between the cathode and the anode, the upper limit of the operating pressure due to the disappearance of a strong electric field at the entrance of the cathode cavity and, consequently, the auxiliary electron beam, due to the closure of the anode plasma cathode plasma in the cathode cavity, the density of which increases sharply, and the lower with the abrupt pressure) drop in the intensity of the auxiliary electron beam. So, for the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity 0.5 mm pressure range, when there is high current wide - D=22 mm electron beam, the working pressure is p≈2.2-20 Torr. To increase the operating pressure required to reduce the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity, and less pressure is required to increase the distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity, i.e. in both cases to make changes in the design of the device. In addition, at small distance between the metal and the dielectric walls of the cathode cavity is necessary to lower the supply voltage, due to the formation of spark breakdown from the bottom of the cathode on the edge of the hole of the dielectric plate and next to the anode.

The technical result of the invention is the extension of the working pressure range of the gas without modification in the design of the device, as well as provide is of high resistance discharge against the sparks. For this purpose, an auxiliary electron beam, which provide additional ionization of the gas along the surface of the cathode, is formed on the perimeter of the cathode surface with the inner surface of the ring electrode. The absence of the cathode cavity and related restrictions allowed, in particular, to work in a wider range of operating pressures, up to tens of Torr, without making changes in the design of the device. Current high-current electron beam up to order of magnitude higher than, for example, the total current in the device is equivalent to (voltage - U, the pressure p of the gas and the cross section S of the electron beam is fixed) abnormal discharge.

The technical result of the proposed method of obtaining an electron beam is achieved by the fact that by filing a voltage between the cathode and the anode of the light high-voltage discharge in a discharge cell, and between the cathode and anode perform additional influx of ions, with an additional influx of ions between the cathode and anode to provide additional ionization of the gas of the auxiliary electron beam, the electrons which accelerate in a strong field of high-voltage discharge, while the auxiliary electron beam formed around the perimeter of the cathode surface with the inner wall of the ring electrode.

The technical result reached is highlighted in the device for receiving the electron beam, containing the cathode and the anode, is placed in a gas discharge cell, and a high voltage power supply that is connected to the cathode and the anode, while on the inner surface of the cathode is made of a ring electrode with the inner walls of which form the auxiliary electron beam.

In addition, the technical result is achieved by the fact that in the previous device, additionally the flat part of the ring electrode on the anode side to reduce the discharge current on it covered with a dielectric plate with a hole the same diameter with the inner diameter of the ring electrode.

In addition, the technical result is achieved in that the device for receiving the electron beam, containing the cathode and the anode, is placed in a gas discharge cell, and a high voltage power supply that is connected to the cathode and the anode, in this case, the inner surface of the cathode is made of a ring electrode, separated from the cathode by a dielectric plate with a hole the same diameter with the inner diameter of the ring electrode and the ring electrode electrically connected to the cathode.

In addition, the technical result is achieved by the fact that in the previous device, additionally the flat part of the ring electrode on the anode side to reduce the discharge current it covered dialect the practical plate with a hole, the same diameter with the inner diameter of the ring electrode.

The essence of the proposed invention is illustrated in the following description and the accompanying drawings.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of the proposed device, in which the annular electrode is integral with the cathode. Figure 2 shows a variant of the proposed device is presented in figure 1, together with the scheme of measurement of the discharge parameters. Figure 3 shows a variant of the proposed device, in which the flat part of the ring electrode on the anode side is covered with a dielectric plate with a hole. Figure 4 shows a variant of the proposed device, in which the annular electrode, electrically connected to the cathode, separated from the cathode by a dielectric plate with a hole. Figure 5 shows a variant of the proposed device, in which the annular electrode, electrically connected to the cathode, separated from the cathode by a dielectric plate with a hole, and the flat part of the ring electrode on the anode side is covered with another dielectric plate with a hole. Figure 6 shows an example of waveforms of voltage and current discharge in helium pressure p=7 Torr for the device presented in figure 2. Figure 7 shows an example of waveforms of voltage and current discharge in helium pressure p=6.5 Torr for a device that not only the frame in figure 5.

In the drawings, showing: 1 - high voltage power supply; 2 - cathode; 3 - ring electrode thickness δ with internal and D external -Ddiameters; 4 - anode; 5 - mesh anode; d is the length of the discharge gap; 6 - collector; Ldthe drift of the electron beam; R1, R2 resistor divider for voltage measurement; R3 is a resistance for measuring the total current or collector current depending on the position of the switch - 7; 8 - dielectric plate with a hole, covering the flat portion of the ring electrode 3; 9 - dielectric plate with a hole that separates the cathode 2 and the ring electrode 3; 10, 11, 12 - waveform voltage U, current collector - jcmultiplied by 5.8, and the total current is j, illustrating the discharge in helium pressure pHe=7 Torr for the device, figure 2, D=23 mm,D=34 mm, d=14.2 mm, Ld=5.8 mm, δ=4 mm, mesh anode - 5 with geometric opacity = 0.56 and with holes 0.5 mm; 13, 14, 15 - waveform voltage, collector current, multiplied by 2, and the total current, illustrating the discharge in helium pressure pHe=6.5 Torr for the device, figure 5, D=22 mm, d=14.2 mm, Ld=5.2 mm, δ=4 mm, the thickness of the plate separating the cathode ring electrode is 1 mm, and the thickness of the quartz plate, covering the flat portion of the ring electrode is 3 mm

Consider the peculiarities of formation of the electron is s beams in smoldering bits of various types in comparison with features of the proposed method.

In [A.R. Sorokin // PJTF, v.33, No. 9, p.70-78, 2007] proposed a close-up discharge pressure gas to tens of Torr, which implements the mode, let's call it high-current, when the current of its electronic beam - jEBexceeds the total current is jADequivalent (voltage - U and the pressure p is fixed) abnormal discharge α=jEB/jAD>1 to order of magnitude. It is clear that the abnormal discharge current of its beam is only part of the jAD. In helium:

where Ucf- cathode potential drop (CAT). To evaluate jADyou can replace Ucfon U. In the known sources of electron beams (EB) high-current mode is implemented in the discharge with cathode plasma, i.e. when the electron emitter beam serves as the boundary of this plasma.

Currently widely used sources with α>1, in which the cathode plasma is formed using a separate low-voltage discharge, including low-voltage hollow cathode discharge. They are all low pressure: with wide-aperture beam to p~0.01 Torr, and with the beam small aperture to p~0.1 Torr. In them, the electron beam is extracted from the cathode plasma through a mesh electrode or through the electrode to the hole and accelerate individual dependent high-voltage discharge, i.e. in conditions of negligible ionization in it, and this limits what I maximum working pressure, as in the analogue. The sources for large R extends their use, and research in this direction does not lose its relevance.

In other sources from the cathode plasma and α>1 uses a high-voltage discharge with a hollow cathode in which a field of strong, accelerating electrons, fields adjacent to the entrance of the cathode metal cavity, and the emitter is the plasma in the cavity. But with the increase of the aperture D, pressure or voltage, the discharge becomes unstable. Forming a positive pole with spreading it out over the entire area between the anode and cathode. Anode plasma merges with the plasma in the cathode cavity, the density of which increases sharply, and the discharge enters a low-voltage form with increasing current by orders of magnitude without EP. For example, with α>1 and D<1 cm high-voltage form remained until p~0.01 Torr. The hollow cathode discharge has a high propensity to switch in low-voltage mode, and now sources EP was limited to be used and explored in voltage form. The main reason that limit the options of sources on the hollow cathode discharge, associated with the formation of a very dense plasma in a metal cathode cavity, and accelerating the electron beam in a strong field, due to the General downturn in the resistance of the discharge, not the able to stay in front of the entrance into the cavity.

In the source EP, taken as a prototype [A.R. Sorokin // PJTF, v.33, No. 9, p.70-78, 2007], the working gas pressure is increased due to the relative lower density cathode plasma replacement of one of the walls of the cathode cavity dielectric plate. For forming the same close-GeV beam, formed before entering into the cathode cavity is used as an auxiliary - EP. UP, spreading over the surface portion of the cathode (it is a sequel to the metal walls of the cathode cavity) open hole D in the dielectric plate, which serves as the second wall of the cavity, optionally ionises the gas. Current full - j and the main beam - jEBin the direction of the anode increases. In combination with the effect of lowering the emission of electrons for the auxiliary beam from the cathode plasma is allowed in order to expand opportunities for high-current source in General, and in particular, to work until the pressures in the tens of Torr. Auxiliary and main beams are formed from single pulse power supplied to the electrodes of the cathode-anode. In contrast to the known sources of high current EP in the proposed prototype design separated conditions source operating at elevated pressure, is determined by the size of the width of the cathode cavity δ (the distance between the metal and dielectric cavity walls), and the conditions shaping the Oia wide-aperture beam, is determined by the size of the hole D in the dielectric plate. The size of the aperture D of the main high-current beam from above is limited by the length L of the path of the electron auxiliary beam UP above the surface of the open part of the cathode, which, obviously, must be ≥D/2. To determine the length of the path of the electron - L with energy eUe=(100-104)eV by the formula:

For the path of the electron in the discharge - replacing in (2) Uefor Ucfand to evaluate the substitution Ueon the U.

For a fixed value of δ in the high current mode of the discharge on the anode, the upper limit of the operating pressure due to the transition of the discharge forming the beam UP, in the low voltage mode with the disappearance AP, and the lower with the abrupt pressure) drop in intensity UP. To increase the operating pressure required to reduce δ that for small δ leads to a spurious spark breakdown from the bottom of the cathode on the edge of the hole D in the dielectric plate and next to the anode. The supply voltage should be reduced, and limited to the upper boundary of R.

Thus, the range of operating pressures in the prototype depends on the value of δ, which determines the conditions for the formation of plasma in the cathode cavity. So, for δ=0.5 mm pressure range, when there is high (α≥1) close-up (D=22 mm electron beam, - R≈2.2-20 Torr. When is it for p=20 Torr, the burning voltage of the discharge beam with a duration of t EB=600 NS, due to the start sparking, could not exceed 1 kV, when α=1. For high-current beam at lower pressures required to increase δ.

In the proposed method of obtaining an electron beam supporting beam AP is formed on the perimeter of the cathode surface with the inner surface of the ring electrode thickness δ by the laws of traditional glow discharge simultaneously with the basic electronic signature (prototype high-current discharge regime could be preceded by a conventional glow discharge at the time of formation of the plasma in the cathode cavity and extends over the rest of the flat part of the cathode, in addition ionize gas than is achieved with α>1 for the main VC. The absence of the cathode cavity (deleted dielectric wall cavity) and related restrictions allowed, in particular, to work in a wider range of operating pressures without making changes in the design of the device. A single high-voltage discharge from a single high-voltage source used simultaneously to obtain an auxiliary electron beam and for acceleration of high-current electron beam toward the anode.

Consider how the proposed method of producing electron beam is implemented in the proposed device is presented in figure 2-5.

In experiments to determine the current EP - jEBpart of it is jcdirection is alas to drain through the mesh anode transparency µ=0.56, located at a distance d from the cathode surface, so that jEB=jc/µ. The holes in the mesh anode ≈0.5 mm Collector was placed at a distance of Ld(the area of the drift EP) from the grid. Size D was determined by the aperture of the primary high current EP toward the anode. The efficiency η of the formation of the main beam has been determined by considering µ:

where j is the total current category.

In addition to the parameter α, we introduce the parameter αj=j/jADcharacterizing the excess of the full discharge current over jAD. More current j is of interest for practical applications, for example, for excitation of a conventional gas-discharge lasers, require a high level of pumping. For higher currents, the length of the discharge gap d was chosen greater than the length of the region of cathode fall of potential - lcffor abnormal discharge:

For d<lcfthe effect of increasing discharge currents in the proposed method will also be present, but in this case, these currents should be compared not with the jADand with lower currents, which are implemented in the traditional high-voltage discharge with a weak distortion of the electric field in the discharge gap. Since the path length L of the electron beam increases with decreasing p, for small p to increase the degree of gas ionization by the beam AP PR is a small D should be used is not too high U. For large voltages should be increased D, for example, to L~D, when the length of its path, the electrons UP a large part of its energy will spend on the ionization of the gas. All experiments were conducted with helium in devices with cylindrical electrodes. With long electrodes can be obtained tape EP.

In the experiments with the device, figure 2, for small pressure p=1 Torr elements geometry of the discharge cell were as follows: D=23 mm,D=29.5 mm, d=30 mm, Ld=14 mm, δ=4 mm Area of interest to us, the surfaces of the electrodes was as follows: the bottom of the cathode - S=4.15 cm2to the inner surface of the ring electrode - Sw=2.9 cm2for a flat surface of the ring electrode - Sr=2.45 cm2. The parameters of the discharge excited by a rectangular pulse with U=2.23 kV, were as follows: jEB=0.1 A/cm2, j=0.24 A/cm2α=6.6, αj=8.8, η=0.75. The current VC is related to the square S+Srand full current to the S+Sw+Sr. Obviously, in the discharge region cross-section D where the effect of increasing discharge currents, the parameters α, αjwill be higher than the average for larger sections.

For more pressure p=7 Torr was used in the device of figure 2, with different sizes: D=23 mm,D=34 mm, d=14.2 mm, Ld=5.8 mm, δ=4 mm, S=4.15 cm2, Sw=2.9 cm2, Sr=2.45 cm2. The discharge parameters, 6, moment, marked with a vertical line, when U=1.25 kV, were as follows: jEB=0.75 A/cm2, j=4.9 A/cm2α=3.1, αj=20.4, η=0.15. The calculation for normal abnormal discharge [A.R. Sorokin // PJTF, t, No. 24, s.89-94, 2000], if we take Ucf=U, the parameter η should be η=0.44. A significant decrease in η in comparison with the estimated value of η was due to redistribution of the potential along the length of the interval d, leading to a real reduction of Ucfand to increase the potential drop in the positive column of the discharge. Since the efficiency η is determined by the value of Ucfthen η is reduced simultaneously with Ucf. The most sharply at small Ucfwhen sharply decreases the efficiency of emission from the bombardment of the cathode by fast atoms that occur in the processes of charge exchange of positive ions. Assessment of replacing UcfU fair, when d is not much, for example, several times greater than the length lcfthe area of the cathode potential drop. In the present case, lcf=0.7 mm <<d=14.2 mm For the same reason, the current jADdefined by (1), replacing UcfU have been overstated, and the parameter α is underestimated. In experiments with smaller thickness of the ring electrode, δ=1.5 mm parameter α decreased roughly proportional to δ.

With the device, figure 3, when the currents on the surface Srcovered dielectrics the second plate - 8, can be neglected, similar to that just discussed case the conditions of discharge, the parameter α, as expected, increased and amounted to α=7.8.

In all considered cases the electron beam AP embedded in the transmission region at part of the surface of the cathode section D and thereby ionize gas, reduce the number of recharges ions in CPR and the number of fast atoms bombarding the cathode. The parameters α and η are reduced. To avoid this, the device 5 in which the dielectric plate 9 serves to separate IP from the area of the checkpoint. The thickness of the dielectric plate - 9 must be >lcf.

In experiments at pressure p=6.5 Torr with the device 5, the geometric dimensions of the elements of the discharge cell were as follows: D=22 mm, d=14.2 mm, Ld=5.2 mm, δ=4 mm, the dielectric plate 9 with a thickness of 1 mm, the discharge Parameters, Fig.7, at the time marked by the vertical line, when U=1.5 kV, were as follows: α=10.7, αj=23, η=0.47. The calculation for normal abnormal discharge and Ucf=U, the parameter η should be η=0.49. For p=50 Torr, when - lcf=0.1 mm: α=0.05, αj=2.2, η=0.02, U=1.25 kV. In addition to the increased effect of the redistribution of the potential along the length of the interval d, the additional decrease occurred because only a small portion of the beam reaches the collector - path length of electrons EP to the manifold(2) with the substitution U eon U, which in this case is substantially overstates L, get L=7.7<d+Ld=19.4 mm To mid D does not reach and the beam EP. In this case, the optimum gap d is smaller when the same U increase Ucf.

The instability of the discharge for the proposed method, limiting the operating range U, p, associated with the transition of the discharge in the spark. Arcing can occur for three reasons: for devices 1, 2, 4, due to the development of sparks on the surface of the dielectric wall of the discharge cell from the place of contact of the ring electrode 3 with a dielectric wall of the discharge cell on the anode 4, or 5; for devices 3, 5, instability develops with the ring electrode 3 on the edge of the hole in the dielectric plate 8 and further to the anode 4 or 5. The third type of instability for all devices figure 1-5 - spark directly from the cathode to the anode is a typical unstable glow discharge in General, in the absence of spurious edge effects. The first type of instability manifests itself at smaller values of U, R. the Second and third causes of instability can have the same value.

The parameters depend on the type of gas, its pressure, supply voltage, cathode materials, the ring electrode and the dielectric plates. In our experiments we used duralumin cathode and the ring electrode, the dielectric layer is a - 9 of the glass and the dielectric plate 8 made of quartz. In all devices, if the EP is used in conjunction with the discharge in the gap d, the anode of a solid - 4. If EP is out-of-discharge in the region - Lddrift EP, the anode mesh - 5.

Device, 1, 2, contains: cathode 2 and the anode 4 or 5, which form the discharge gap d, the annular electrode 3 with the inner and outer diameters, respectively, D andD. All these elements are placed in a single discharge cell. Devices 3, 5 additionally contain dielectric plate 8 with a hole equal to D. Device 4, 5, additionally contain another dielectric plate 9 with a hole equal to D, and the cathode is electrically connected to the ring electrode. High-voltage power supply 1 is connected to the cathode 2 and the anode 4 or 5. Collector - 6, switch 7 and the resistance R1, R2, R3 are not elements of the device and are used for measurements of discharge parameters.

The proposed device are as follows. A discharge cell is filled working gas. By feeding the voltage from the high voltage power supply - 1 on the cathode 2 and the anode 4 (or mesh anode - 5) ignite the discharge in the gap d. As a result, the perimeter surface of the cathode 2 with the inner surface of the annular electrode 3 is formed by electron beam, which entering is carried out over part of the surface of the cathode 2 section D, causing further ionization of the gas in the anode - 4 (or mesh anode - 5) from the surface of the cathode extends high-current electron beam used in the field of d (or mesh anode) to the destination.

The use of the present invention, in comparison with the prototype, you can take a number of limitations associated with the presence of the cathode cavity. The absence of the cathode cavity and the associated principal limitations allowed, in particular, to work in a wider range of operating pressures, up to tens of Torr, without making changes in the design of the device. Being more versatile device than the device prototype, it is additionally possible to adjust the parameters of the discharge, but changing elements in the cathode node. So, changing the thickness of the ring electrode δ, it is possible to adjust the intensity of the additional ionization of the gas and, consequently, the discharge currents. To improve the efficiency of formation of the EP can ring electrode to separate from the rest of the cathode dielectric plate so that AP not implemented in the region of cathode fall of potential of the main discharge. In the proposed device, 3, 5, ensures greater stability of the discharge in relation to sparks than in the prototype. The operation of the device in steady-state conditions the x excitation discharge allows to conclude about the possibility of his transfer in continuous mode.

1. The method of obtaining the electron beam, namely, that by filing a voltage between the cathode and the anode of the light high-voltage discharge in a discharge cell, and between the cathode and anode perform additional influx of ions, with an additional influx of ions between the cathode and anode to provide additional ionization of the gas of the auxiliary electron beam, the electrons which accelerate in a strong field of high-voltage discharge, characterized in that the auxiliary electron beam formed around the perimeter of the cathode surface with the inner wall of the ring electrode.

2. A device for receiving the electron beam, containing the cathode and the anode, is placed in a gas discharge cell, and a high voltage power supply that is connected to the cathode and the anode, characterized in that on the inner surface of the cathode is made of a ring electrode with the inner walls of which form the auxiliary electron beam.

3. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the flat part of the ring electrode on the anode side to reduce the discharge current on it covered with a dielectric plate with a hole the same diameter with the inner diameter of the ring electrode.

4. A device for receiving the electron beam, containing the cathode and the anode, placed in the gas is Otradnoe cell and high-voltage power supply that is connected to the cathode and the anode, characterized in that the inner surface of the cathode is made of a ring electrode, separated from the cathode by a dielectric plate with a hole the same diameter with the inner diameter of the ring electrode and the ring electrode electrically connected to the cathode.

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the flat part of the ring electrode on the anode side to reduce the discharge current on it covered with a dielectric plate with a hole the same diameter with the inner diameter of the ring electrode.



 

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EFFECT: enhanced main-charge stability due to enhanced efficiency of gas pre-ionization in main discharge gap from pre-ionization source disposed within main discharge space.

4 cl, 5 dwg

The invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, rechentechnik, spectroscopy, plasma diagnostic measurements

FIELD: quantum electronics, spectrometry, and plasma chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for firing sparkless discharge in solid gases includes ignition of main charge between first and second electrodes by applying high-voltage pulse minus across first electrode and its plus, across second one, gas being pre-ionized with aid of low-energy electron beam, photons, and plasma electrons produced directly within main-discharge space; low-energy electron beam is produced by means of open barrier discharge with high-voltage pulse applied between first electrode made in the form of grid disposed on insulator surface and additional electrode disposed on opposite side of insulator; main charge is fired not earlier than ignition of open barrier discharge; the latter and main discharge are ignited within one gas-filled chamber. Device implementing proposed method has first and second electrodes forming main discharge gap, and high-voltage pulsed power supply; first electrode is made in the form of grid disposed on insulator surface whose opposite side mounts additional electrode; high-voltage pulsed power supply is connected through minus terminal to first grid electrode and through plus one, to second electrode; it functions to ignite main discharge; additional high-voltage pulsed power supply for open barrier discharge is connected through plus terminal to first grid electrode and through minus one, to additional electrode; first grid electrode, second electrode, additional electrode, and insulator are mounted in same gas-filled chamber.

EFFECT: enhanced main-charge stability due to enhanced efficiency of gas pre-ionization in main discharge gap from pre-ionization source disposed within main discharge space.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: high-voltage electrovacuum engineering; arc-control vacuum chambers, including direct-current ones, for various switches used in power engineering, industry, and transport.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum current switch incorporating proposed vacuum chamber with magnetic field that serves as OFF-operation factor applied to high-voltage gap formed by axisymmetrical electrodes disposed in insulating shell, at least one of electrodes being made movable due to connection to shell through bellows affording high-voltage circuit closing and opening during its reciprocation, has electrode system built of two basic parts: (a) contact part proper with electrodes held in one of two states (open or closed) and (b) permanently open electrode part (arc-control chamber) separated from contact members and made in the form of two electrodes (such as coaxial ones) installed so that as they move away from part (a), discharge current path increases and currents in adjacent electrodes flow in opposite directions, and direction of magnetic field set up due to them affords arc movement from part (a) to arc-control chamber. Such design of arc-control chamber provides for disconnecting currents ranging between 300 and 10 000 A at voltages up to 10 kV.

EFFECT: facilitated manufacture, reduced size and mass of chamber.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and can be used in physical electronics, quantum electronics, plasma chemistry and diagnostic measurements. The method of making an electron beam involves igniting high-voltage discharge in a gas-discharge cell by applying power supply voltage between a cathode and an anode. Additional flow of ions is provided in the space between the cathode and the anode, which provides additional ionisation of gas with an auxiliary electron beam whose electrons are accelerated in the strong field of the high-voltage discharge. The auxiliary electron beam is generated on the perimetre of the cathode surface on the inner wall of an annular electrode. The device for generating an electron beam has a cathode and an anode placed in a gas-discharge cell, and a high-voltage power supply which is connected to the cathode and the anode. On the inner surface of the cathode there is an annular electrode on the inner wall of which an auxiliary electron beam is generated. In order to reduce discharge current, the flat part of the annular electrode on the anode side is covered by a dielectric plate with an opening whose diametre coincides with the inner diametre of the annular electrode.

EFFECT: wider operating pressure range of gas, as well as provision for high discharge stability with respect to sparking.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and a method of changing properties of a three-dimensional formed component (2) using electrons, having an electron accelerator (3a; 3b) for generating accelerated electrons and two electron outlet windows (5a; 5b). Both electron outlet windows (5a; 5b) are opposite each other. Both electron outlet windows (5a; 5b) and a reflector (7a1; 7a2; 7b1; 7b2) bound the process chamber in which the surface or outer layer of the formed component (2) is bombarded with electrons. Energy density distribution in the process chamber is recorded from spatial measurement using a sensor system.

EFFECT: uniform modification of the entire surface or outer layer of a formed component, increased efficiency of the installation.

25 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: discharge is ignited between a flat cathode and an anode, which is made in the form of a thin needle with a small radius of rounding. The proposed invention makes it possible to produce a stable microdischarge with a quite simple and inexpensive method, which does not require vacuum plants and does not require external injection of electrons, since the discharge burns in atmosphere and is independent. The invention may be used to create plasma-chemical reactors and gas analysers, and also in plasma sputtering and alloying of materials in sections of micron size.

EFFECT: increased stabilisation of a smouldering microdischarge under atmospheric pressure.

7 dwg

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