SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to method for manufacturing of flooring, made of hard floor panels, which at least at edges of two opposite sides are equipped with connection elements, which interact between each other. Connection elements are equipped with mechanical locking facilities constituting a single whole, which prevent spread of two connecting floor panels in direction perpendicular to according edges and parallel to lower surface of connecting floor panels.
EFFECT: improved operational properties of floor.
10 cl, 25 dwg
The invention relates to a floor covering, consisting of hard floor surfaces, and also to a method of manufacturing such floor panels.
Primarily the invention is intended for the so-called laminated floors, but it can also be used for other types of floor coverings, consisting of hard floor panels, such as veneered flooring, precast flooring, or other floor panel, which can be used along with laminate floors.
It is known that such floor panels can be used in various ways.
In accordance with the first embodiment of the floor panel attached to a located underneath the floor or by gluing, or by itself remarkably similarly nails. This technology has the disadvantage that it is quite complex, and subsequent changes can be made only with the destruction of the floor panel.
In accordance with a second embodiment of the floor panel can be set freely on the lower floor where the floor panels are fastened to each other by connecting the locking groove, and for the most part they still are glued together by tongue and groove. Paul obtained in this way are also called floating parquet floors, has the advantage that it is easy to install and that the entire surface can move, which is often convenient to vosprinimatelnoe phenomena of expansion and contraction.
The lack of a floor covering of this type, when the floor panels are installed freely on the lower platform, mainly, is that during expansion of the floor and its subsequent compression of the floor panel may diverge as a result, can be formed of undesirable compounds, for example, if destroyed adhesive connection.
In order to rectify this, the invented technology, whereby between the individual floor panels are provided connecting elements made of metal, in order to hold them together. These connection elements, however, are quite expensive in their manufacture and, moreover, their software, or install takes a long time.
Examples of designs that use such metal compounds are described, inter alia, in WO 94/26999 and WO 93/13280.
In addition, well-known compounds that allow connection of one part of the floor with the other types of latches, for example, from WO-94/1628, WO 96/27719 and WO 96/27721. The effect of connection type latch, which creates these forms of embodiment, however, does not guarantee 100% optimal obstruct the development of gaps between the floor panels, in particular, due to the fact that actually must be provided with limited clearance for the button to have confidence, what connection type latches possible.
From GB 424.057 know the connection details of the parquet, which, given the nature of the connection is only suitable for solid wood flooring.
In addition, there are connections for panels known from document GB 2.117.813, GB2.256.023 and DE 3.544.845. These compounds, however, are not suitable for fastening of floor panels.
The invention aims at improved coverage for the specified type, floor panel which can be attached one to another in an optimal way, and/or floor panel, which can be used smooth, whereby excluded one or more of these shortcomings.
The invention also aims to cover the floor, which has the advantage that the installation process cannot be admitted errors such as gaps, and the like.
In addition, the invention is intended to cover the floor, in which there is no subsequent development gaps, or at least provides the best way of countering this, resulting in more and minimizes the possibility of dust and moisture.
Thus, the invention is a floor covering, consisting of hard floor panels, which, at least on the edges of two opposite sides provided with coupling parts, interacting between the fight, mainly in the form of tongue and groove, characterized in that the connecting parts supplied components of the whole mechanical locking means which prevent the divergence of the two joined floor panels in a direction perpendicular to the respective edges and parallel to the bottom surface of the connected panels. Thus, these fittings have been improved so that they create an opportunity to oppose the formation of any form of backlash and to exclude it.
The components of the whole mechanical locking means comprise a fixed part of the floor panel or by attaching fixed to the floor panel, or by their education as a whole.
In the first preferred form of embodiment of the connecting parts provided with locking means in the position of connection of two or more of such floor panels transmit tensile force from one to the other, it presses one panel to another. The result is not only opposition to the formation of gaps during installation, but also to inhibit the development of gaps at a later stage resulting in whatsoever.
In accordance with another feature of the invention the connecting parts are made in the form of a single the CSOs whole with the main part of the floor panel.
In accordance with the second preferred form of embodiment the specified improvement is that the floor covering is the following combination of characteristics: coupling parts and locking means made in the form of a single whole with the main part of the floor panel, the connecting parts are shaped so that two subsequent floor panel can be connected to one another solely by snapping and/or rotation, whereby each successive floor panel can be inserted from the side in the previous fasteners provide mutual connection free of play in all directions in the plane that is perpendicular to said edges; the possible difference between the upper and lower lip of those protrusions that limit specified groove, measured in the plane of the floor panel and perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the grooves is less than the total thickness, the total thickness of each respective floor panel is greater than or equal to 5 mm; and the main material of the floor panel, which is formed above the main part and the locking means consists of a powdered product which using binders or through joint fusion is a homogeneous mixture, and/or product on the basis of si is thetic material, and/or from particle Board with a thin shavings.
Due to the fact that fasteners provide mutual connection without play, and also due to the fact that these fittings are manufactured as a single unit from the main material of the floor panel can be always guaranteed a flawless connection between adjacent panels of the floor, even with repeated expansion and contraction of the floor.
This combination of characteristics may be combined or not combined with these early characteristics, in accordance with which the locking means transmit the tensile stress from one to the other.
In accordance with a third preferred form of embodiment, the characteristics of which can be combined or not combined with the characteristics of the designs described above, flooring differs in that the lower lip, which limits the lower side of the groove, extends further upper lip, which locking means is formed by at least part of which is inclined downwards facing the inside of the hand, and that this part is at least partially located in the area of the lower lip, which extends further upper lip. The advantages of these features will be apparent from further description.
In accordance with the preferred form of konstruktivnogo performance of the floor panels consist of elongated panels, and fittings, described above, is installed along the longitudinal sides of these panels.
In accordance with a specific form of embodiment of the connecting parts is also installed on the other two sides and have described or other structure.
In the most preferred form of embodiment as the base material using the above product, which, as indicated, crushed, using a binder form a homogeneous mixture. More specifically, for the main part use finely ground wood, which preferably glue, more preferably, can be glued tightly. More specifically, as the main part uses the so-called HDF (fibreboard, high density) or plate MDF(fibreboard medium density).
The fact that the invention is applied to the floor panel, the base material which is composed of the above material, gives the advantage that when it is processed very smooth surface, the result can be implemented very thin connections that are primarily important in the case of connection type latches and/or compounds of rotation without backlash. In addition, special forms of fasteners can be made simple pic is BOM, because the materials of these types can be processed particularly easily.
The surface obtained with HDF and MDF, also have the advantage that the interconnected floor panels can be smoothly moved next to each other, even when they are connected by tensile force.
The inventor also found that these materials, in particular, HDF and MDF, have excellent characteristics in order to connect the above-mentioned type, because these materials have the appropriate parameters of elastic deformation in order to, on the one hand, to realize the effect of connection type latch, and on the other hand, elastically to absorb the force produced by the expansion and compression, whereby to prevent separation of the panels or damage.
In the case when the main part of the used material based on synthetic substances may be used in solid synthetic substance or a mixture of synthetic substances, possibly composed of substances reuse.
Flooring is created preferably by attaching one floor panel to another without glue. Thus, these compounds have properties such that the floor panel can be removed without damage to them, so that, for example, when you move you can take in order to believe again. is, however, obviously, the adhesion of the tongue to the groove is not excluded.
The invention also relates to floor panels, which give the opportunity to realize the specified floor covering.
The invention also relates to a method of production of these panels, which represents the advantage that the tongues and/or grooves, including appropriate locking devices, can be performed on the floor panel with high performance without problems. More specifically the aim is a method, which enables to perform a rather complex form of tongue and groove for the specified floor panel cutter, the diameter of which may be chosen independently from the running form, so you may not have to use small cutters, such as bolt cutters, the diameter of which is less than the depth of the tongue or groove.
In this case, in the way that the tongue and groove are performed through a milling process, consisting of at least two consecutive cycles of milling cutter, which are located at different angles relative to the respective floor panel. In continuation of each of these cycles milling is achieved essentially final form one side of the tongue or groove.
Thus, for these two cycles milling cutters are used, to the which are located outside of the groove or tongue. More specifically, the diameters of these cutters must be at least 5 times, and even better in 20 times greater than the thickness of the floor panel.
Use these cutters diameter has the advantage that it can be maintained normal production speed, which are used when milling classically straight tongue and groove. Another advantage is that the installation of such cutters associated with only a small additional cost or lack of it, as such cutters can be placed directly on the motor shaft and/or can be used for conventional cars.
For a better illustration of the characteristics in accordance with the invention in a further example permissive character described more
preferred forms of embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:
Figure 1 depicts the floor panel floor coverings in accordance with the invention;
Figure 2 is a transverse section on an enlarged scale along the line 11-11 in figure 1;
3 and 4, the connection of the two floor panels with coupling parts of figure 2;
5 is a cross section on an enlarged scale along the line Y-Y in figure 1;
6 and 7, the connection of the two floor panels with coupling parts on Figure 5;
Fig-11 - a number of variants of fasteners on the panels;
Fig - schematic is the image of the execution of the connecting parts on the floor panel;
Fig - transverse section along the line XIII-XIII in Fig;
Fig-21 - processing mills, which are shown in Fig leaders from F14 to F21, on an enlarged scale and in cross section;
Fig - floor panel in accordance with the invention;
Fig connection of two panels on the floor Pig in an enlarged scale;
Fig and 25 are two ways to connect the panels to one another in accordance with Fig.
The invention relates to a floor covering which is made up of solid floor panel 1, for example, as shown in figure 1. These floor panels 1 can be of various shapes, for example rectangular or square, or any other form.
In the most preferred form of embodiment, they may be made elongated, as shown in figure 1, for example, a length of from 1 to 2 meters. The thickness, however, may be different, but preferably is from 0.5 to 1.5 cm, and more specifically, 0.8 cm
Each floor panel 1 has at least the edges of two opposite sides 2-3 connecting elements 4-5, which provide the ability to interconnect two adjacent floor panel 1.
In accordance with the invention, the connecting elements 4-5, as shown in Fig.2-4, equipped with a mechanical connection locking means 6, which prevent the divergence of the two connected panels is Ola 1 in the direction D, perpendicular to the corresponding sides 2-3 and a parallel bottom surface connected to the floor panel 1; the connecting elements 4-5 and locking means 6 are made as one piece with the main part 8 of the floor panel 1; the connecting elements have 4-5 such a way that the following two floor panels 1 can be connected to one another solely by connection type latches and/or rotation, whereby each successive floor panel 1 can be inserted into the previous side; and connecting elements 4 and 5 provide mutual connection without play in all directions in the plane that is perpendicular to these edges.
In that case, if the floor panels 1 are provided with elongated shape, as shown in figure 1, the respective connecting elements are 4-5 on the longitudinal sides 2-3.
The connecting elements 4-5 can be made of various shapes, although most are typically the tongue 9 and the groove 10.
In the form of embodiment according to Figure 2-4 the corresponding floor panel 1 is equipped with connecting elements 4-5 and locking means 6, which give the possibility of mutual connection of the two floor panels 1 by means of a turning movement, it does not create effect connection type “latch”.
In the present example, the locking means 6 SOS the SNF from the first locking element 11, formed by a protrusion having a curved circular shape, the bottom side 12 of the tongue 9 and the second locking element 13, formed by a recess having a curved hollow form in the bottom wall 14 of the groove 10.
The locking elements 11-13 provide such a connection in which two floor panels 1, which are connected to one another, can not move sideways in a horizontal plane one relative to another.
To the two floor panels 1 can be inserted one into the other by means of a turning movement, the curve preferably has a round shape. The bottom side 12 is formed by a curve having a radius R1, the center of which coincides with the corresponding upper edge 15 of the floor panel 1, while the bottom wall 14 is a curvature radius R2, which is equal to the radius R1, whereby its center coincides with the corresponding upper edge 16. Can also be applied to the radii R1 and R2, which are more or less than the distance to the top edge 15, 16, respectively, and/or differ from one another in value.
The upper side 17 of the tongue 9 and the upper wall 18 of the groove 10 preferably are flat and are located in the horizontal plane.
The front side 19 and 20 of the tongue 9 and the groove 10 two interconnected floor panels 1 are preferably not phoneutria one the other, thus is created between them an intermediate space 21, in which the remnants of the dust can be pushed through the tongue 9.
The tongue 9 and the groove 10 preferably have the shape associated together in such a way that when connecting two floor panels 1 tab 9 exactly fits between the top wall 18 and bottom wall 14 of the groove 10, whereby the pressure P acting on the upper lip 22, is perceived not only this lip 22, but the whole design, because the pressure can be transmitted through the tongue 9 and the lower lip 23.
It is obvious, however, that may be some minor deviations from these conjugated forms, which, in any case, have little or no impact on the reception and transmission of pressure forces. For example, can be provided, as shown in Fig.2-4, chamfer 24 and the recess 25, which results in that the subsequent floor panel 1 can be easily inserted one into another, with no possible scars will not present difficulties for the proper insert.
As shown in Figure 5-1, the floor panel 1 in accordance with the invention can also be provided along the sides 26 and 27, which are located at right angles to the sides 2-3, fittings 28-29, which also have locking means 30. The connecting parts 28 and 29 preferably also perform the I-shaped tongue 31 and grooves 32. Thus, the locking means 30 need not be of the same type as the locking means 6.
Preferably, the sides 26 and 27 have been applied such locking means, which have the possibility of contact and mutual connections only through the translational motion of T, as shown in Fig.6 and 7. With this purpose, the locking means 30 is composed of a connection type latches with locking elements 33 and 34, which engages behind one another.
As shown in Figure 5-7, the locking element 33 preferably consists of a projection of the bottom side 35 of the tongue 31, which can be located in the recess 36 in the bottom wall 37 of the groove 32. The locking element 34 is formed upward part, which limits the recess 36.
In this case, the locking elements 33-34 have contact surfaces 38-39, which are parallel to one another and preferably extend at an angle in the direction, which simplifies the connection type latch. Tangent L, which is defined by the contact surfaces 38-39, thus forming an angle a with the bottom surface 7, which is less than 90°.
The locking elements 33-34 preferably provided with inclined sections 40, 41, which when connecting two floor panels 1 interact with one another so that the locking elements 33-34 can l the GKO to promote one over another as long until they engages behind one another through the effect of connection type latch.
The thickness W1 of the tongue 31 is preferably equal to the width W of the groove 32, thus the upper lip 42 when it is pressure P, relies on the tongue 31, which in turn then rests on the lower lip 43.
Similarly, the chamfer 24 and the recess 25 on the edges 28-29 provided by the recess 44 and chamfer 45.
It is noted that such a connection type latches may also be applied on the edges of 2-3. Thus, it can be a connection type latches similar to those shown in Figure 5-7, however, it may also be a connection latch type which makes use of fasteners other forms, such as shown in Fig and 9. In contrast to the locking elements 33-34, which consist of relatively small projections, in the forms of embodiment according to Fig 3 and 9 are the locking elements 46-47, which, compared with the total width of the connection, extend over much longer distances.
In this case, the locking elements 46-47 also provided on each side 12 of the tongue 9 and the bottom wall 14 of the groove 10.
In accordance with Fig the locking elements 46-47 have contact surfaces 48-49, which are located at an angle to the plane of the floor panel 1. Thus soy is inania, which closes particularly well.
As shown in Fig.9, the locking elements 46-47 can be designed in such a way that essentially took place only linear contact, for example, because the contact surfaces facing each other, are made with a different curvature.
The surface of the locking elements 46-47, facing each other, thus consist of curved surfaces. Tangent line L forms an angle a, which is less than 90°, and even better, if less than 70°.
Thus, the locking element 46 preferably has two sections of different curvature, with one side of the plot 50 with a large curvature and on the other hand the area 51 with a smaller curvature. Section 50 from the greater curvature provides for the formation of the surface of a solid connection. Area 51 with a smaller curvature makes it easy to insert fasteners 4-5 one another. The intermediate space S forms a chamber into which can enter and settle the dust.
In the case of connection type latches, for example, such compounds, as shown in Fig.7-9, the tongue 9-31 preferably always has such a shape that the bottom he purified and can interact with the expanding section of the groove 10.
Figure 10 shows a variant in which at least the height of the upper edges 15-16 provided for sealing the first material 52, the result can be guaranteed airtight seal. This sealing material 52 may consist of a strip or coating, which is previously provided on the floor panel 1, or on one or both of the upper edges 15-16.
Figure 11 presents an additional option, in which the locking means 6 is formed with an upward section 53 on the tongue 9, which is a result of the rotary movement is inserted behind the downward section 54 in the upper wall 18. More specifically this is achieved by running the top side 17 and the top wall 18 with a curvature radius R3, the center of which is located on the edges 15-16, and run the bottom side 12 and bottom wall 14 with a radius R4, the center of which is also located on the top edges 15-16, respectively. These radii R3-R4 can also be selected otherwise.
B General, in accordance with the invention, the difference between the radii R1, R3, respectively, on the one hand and the radius R2, R4, respectively, on the other hand should not exceed 2 mm.
It is preferable that the centers of these radii were located within their respective circles C1, C2, which are conducted with a radius R5, equal to 3 mm, around the upper edges 15, 16 respectively, as shown in figure 2.
Ultimately it should be noted that in accordance with the invention the lower lip 23-43, as shown in Fi is.2-7, can be made longer than the upper lip 22-42. The advantage of this is the ability to perform the connecting elements 4-5-28-29 easier way by milling or the like. In addition, it simplifies the connection of two floor panels 1, as each subsequent floor panel 1 in the process of Assembly can be placed on a prominent lower lip 23-43, resulting in the tongue 9-31 and groove 10-32 automatically placed in front of each other.
The structural design, in which the lower lip 23 is equal to or shorter than the upper lip 22 in turn have the advantage that on the outer edge of the floor does not remain outstanding lip 23, which could create problems when finishing.
In order to create the possibility for a smooth Assembly in order to guarantee the necessary stability and strength and to limit the amount of material that must be removed, the difference E between the upper lip 22-42 and the lower lip 23-43, measured in the plane of the floor panel and perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the groove 10, preferably should be less than the total thickness F of the floor panel 1. To ensure the sustainability of this typically the total thickness of F should not be less than 5 mm.
The small size of the difference E gives the advantage that the lower lip is not necessary to strengthen through the reinforcing tape or similar is wow.
In accordance with a specific form of embodiment the Central line M1 conducted through the tongue 9 and the groove 10, is located lower than the center M2 of the floor panel 1, so that the upper lip 22-42 thinner than the lower lip 23-43. First of all this is essential in this type of connection, because it bends the lower lip 23-43, so that on the upper side of the floor panel 1 is not possible deformation.
As stated in the introduction, the main part of the 8 selected material from the following row:
- powdered product which using binders or through joint fusion is a homogeneous mixture;
the product, which is based on synthetic material;
- chipboard with fine shavings.
The invention is useful in the first place, it is preferable for the layered floor coverings for the reasons stated in the introduction.
As shown in the examples in figure 2-11, this layered floor covering preferably consists of a main part 8 made of MDF boards, HDF plate or similar, with at least the upper side of the main part 8 is provided with one or several layers of material.
More specifically, it is preferable that the laminated flooring was provided with a decorative layer 55 and the top protective layer 56. The decorative layer 55 is what the layer, resin-impregnated, for example, made of paper that can be printed many designs, for example, pattern type, pattern in the form of stone, cork or the like, or even ornamental pattern. Protective top layer 56 preferably also consists of a layer saturated with resin, such as melamine resin, made of permeable material.
Clear that can be applied to other layers, such as intermediate layer 57, on top of which may be provided with a decorative layer 55.
Preferably, the lower surface 7 was printed lining layer 58 forming the element opposed to the upper layers, thus guaranteeing the stability of the shape of the floor panel 1. This backing layer 58 may consist of material such as paper, resin-impregnated, for example, melamine resin.
As schematically illustrated Fig, the tongue 9 and the groove 10 and preferably also the tongue 31 and the groove 32 are performed by a milling process. If the profile should be performed on all four sides, the floor panel 1 must navigate through two perpendicular movements Y1 and Y2, and the continuation of the first movement are profiles on each of two opposite edges, in this case, the longitudinal edges, using a milling device 59-6, at that time, as during the second motion profile run on other edges, in this case, the short edges, using a milling device 61-62. In the continuation of the processing of the floor panel 1 is preferably placed so that the decorative layer facing down.
In accordance with an important feature of the invention, each respective tongue 9-31 and groove 10-32 performed by a milling process, consisting of at least two successive cycles of the milling cutter, which are located at different angles relative to the respective floor panel 1.
This is depicted in Fig, 14 and 15, which shows the groove 10 by means of two cycles milling using two cutters 63 and 64. On Fig and 17 show how the tongue 9 by means of the blades 65 and 66.
On Fig-19 and 20-21 presents a similar picture, showing how the tongue 32 and groove 31 by means of cutters 67-68 and 69-70, angled.
In continuation of each of these cycles milling each time essentially implemented the final form of the one hand. For example, the cutter 63 Fig determines the final shape of the lower side 71 of the groove 10, while the cutter 64 determines the final shape of the upper side 72.
As stated in the introduction, preferably which should be applied cutters from 63 to 72, which have a diameter of G is at least 5 times, and even better in 20 times greater than the thickness F of the floor panel 1.
In addition to these cutters are used and other cutters, for example, to remove a portion of material that must be removed in the continuation of the first cycle of preliminary mechanical processing.
On Fig-25 shows a particularly preferred form of embodiment of the floor panel 1 in accordance with the invention. Items that are taken from the previous forms of embodiment are denoted by corresponding references.
An important feature is that the coupling parts 4-5 features a locking means 6, which, when United, transmit tensile force from one to the other, resulting in United floor panel 1 pressed one to another. As shown, this is accomplished by the supply of fasteners elastic bendable part, in this case, the protrusion 43, which is in the connection state at least partially bent and thus creates a tensile force, which provides the pressing of the United floor panel 1 in the direction of one another. The resulting curve of V, as well as the tensile stress, which is created in the result, shown in enlarged scale in Fig.
To implement t the th, to the tensile stress To the led to mutual pressing of the United floor panel 1, fold detail, in this case, the lip 43, is preferably provided, as shown, are inclined inside surface of the contact 73, which can interact with a corresponding contact surface 74. These contact surfaces 73-74 resemble the contact surfaces 38-39 and also similar to the inclined sections of the lower lip figure 2-4.
In figure 2, and 5 parts form a conjugate form-fitting, however, it is clear that by modifying may also be implemented tensile stress, such as that shown in Fig.
Due to the fact that on the one hand the contact is carried out at an angle and with the other hand that creates a tensile stress, is formed component of the force K1, resulting in a floor panel 1 are attracted one to another.
Preferably, the angle between the contact surfaces 73-74 and the horizontal plane was between 30 and 70 degrees. First of all if you use the design that implements the tensile stress To the value of the angle And from 30 to 70 degrees is ideal, in order, on the one hand, to produce the optimum pressing together of the floor panel 1 and, on the other hand, to ensure that the floor panels 1 can easily connect the sterile and, respectively, to be separated.
Despite the fact that the contact force K1 is preferably transferred specified by the lip 43, the invention does not exclude other forms of embodiment, whereby this force is transmitted by other bendable parts.
It is noted that the curve V is relatively small, for example from a few hundredths to a few tens of millimeters, and does not affect the placement of floor coverings. Moreover, it is noted that such a floor covering is mainly located in the layer below, which is elastically compressed, resulting in bending of the V lip 43 leads to the fact that the underlying layer is locally compressed a bit more.
Due to the fact that the lip 43 is bent separately and that it remains somewhat bent in the position of the connection, creates the advantage that when the pressure of the floor covering, for example, when putting on his subject, the force of mutual pressure increases and, thus, creates even greater resistance to cracking.
It is noted that the inventor has found that in contrast to all expectations, the ideal tensile force can be realized by making the coupling parts 4-5, including the locking elements 33-34, and preferably the whole of the main part 8 of the plate HDF or MDF boards, although these materials provide the possibility is of minimal elastic deformation.
HDF and MDF also present the advantage that it creates a smooth surface, resulting in the locking elements can easily move one on top of another.
In accordance with a variant of the invention the tensile stress can also be transmitted through elastic compression of the material of the connecting parts, for the purpose of connecting these parts, and preferably all of the main part 8 in this case should be made of elastically compressible material.
An additional feature of the structural design on Fig-25 is that the floor panels 1 can be connected by means of a turning movement, as shown in Fig, as well as by moving them towards each other, as shown in Fig, preferably in such a way that in connection with the swivelling movement is the maximum bending Vmthe connecting parts, more specifically the lip 43, the curve of which Vmless pronounced or is not significant, as shown in Fig.2-4, compared with the curve of Vmthat happens when the connection of the floor panel 1 by moving them towards each other.
The advantage is that the floor panels 1 can easily be connected through rotary motion without the need for this in the tools, the time is I have the ability to connect the floor panel, thereby moving. This last method is useful primarily when the last panel must be placed under the door frame or the like. In this case, the floor panel 1 can be pushed under the door frame by the party that should not be included in the connection and possibly using tools, can be connected connection type latches with adjoining floor panel 1.
It is noted that the shape of the connecting elements 4-5, shown in Fig-25, can also be used for connecting elements 28 and 29 on the short sides.
In accordance with the invention if the four sides 2-3-26-27 provided with connecting elements 4-5-28-29, these fittings can be designed so that in one direction the connection is more robust than in the other direction. In the case of elongated floor panel 1, for example, as shown in figure 1, the connection at the short sides 26 and 27 preferably should be more durable than the elongated sides 2-3. The length of the connection at the short sides is smaller and, in principle, it is less durable. This is compensated by the fact that there is a stronger connection.
The difference in the connection can be obtained by completing the contact surfaces 73-74 different angles.
Preferably, the specified projection, more specifically the locking cell battery (included) is t 33, limited by at least two sections 75-76, respectively, of section 75 with a large slope, which makes it possible closure, and section 76 with a smaller slope, which makes the connection fittings easier. In the design on Fig-25 these areas 75-76 are formed by flat surfaces, but, as already described with reference to Figure 9, can be also used curved sections 50-51. Figure 5 they are represented by the contact surface 38 and an inclined section 40.
In a preferred form of embodiment of the floor panel 1 in accordance with the invention contain connective elements 4-5 and/or 28-29, which represent one of the following or a combination of two or more of the following characteristics:
the curvature 77 of the lower side of the tongue 9 and/or curvature 78 lip 43, which forms a guide during rotation of the two floor panels 1 one inside the other, the advantage of this is the ability to connect one floor panel 1 with the other during Assembly;
- rounding 79-80 on the edges of the locking elements 33-34, which creates the advantage that the locking elements can move easily on top of each other during the connection, and, accordingly, separation of the floor panel 1 and that the locking elements are not damaged, for example, are painted on the edges, even if the panel p is La are connected, and accordingly, disconnected repeatedly;
camera for dust 81 or space 21, as in figure 4, between all parties, facing sideways to each other, connected floor panels 1, the advantage of which is that the inclusion of that fall between the floor panel 1 during a call, do not render harmful influence on the proper connection;
the shape of the tongue 9, which is, for example, due to the presence of chamfers 82 that the upper side of the tongue 9 at the first contact is located under the lower side of the upper lip 42 when the floor panels 1 are moving towards one another at the same level, as shown in Fig that creates the advantage that the front end of the tongue 9 no pressure on the front side of the upper lip 42 when the floor plates are moving towards each other at the same level;
- inclined surface 83, formerly also called a sloped section 41 formed at the free end of the lower lip 43, which creates the advantage that the locking elements 33-34 move seamlessly on top of each other and that the lower lip 43 is bent evenly;
- in the direction of the connection, there is one important point of contact, which is formed by the segment 84, and is located on the upper side of the floor panel 1, which creates the advantage that the tensile force is optimally transferred to the upper side of the floor panels is 1 and generates a counter-development hole between the floor panel 1;
- contact surface 85-86, more specifically the support surface formed by the upper side of the tongue 9 and the upper side of the groove 10, which in a large plot their lengths are parallel to the plane which is defined by the floor panel 1 and the surface of contact, interacting with one another, formed by the curvature 77-78, that creates the advantage that it avoids the possibility of mutual displacement of two joined floor panels 1, even if the depth of the overriding of the tongue 9 into the groove 10 will change anything, in other words that there will be no difference in height between adjacent the floor panel.
In the form design on Fig-25 all these features combined, however, it is clear that, as can be seen from Figure 2-11, these traits may be present individually or in restrictive combination.
As becomes clear from Figure 5 to 7 and 22 to 25, an important characteristic of a preferred form of embodiment of the invention is that the locking means 6, in other words the part that provides the effect latch and connection, is located on that part of the lower lip 23-43 which extends further upper lip 22-42, more specifically, that the lowest point 87 of the locking part 33 is located under the top layer of the floor panel 1. For clarity, this upper layer is denoted by the and Fig-25 as a single layer.
It is noted that the combination of such features, like the fact that the lower lip 23-43 extends further than the upper lip 22-42 that the locking means 6 is formed at least through the portion which is inclined downwards facing the inside side, and that this part, at least in part, placed on the section of the lower lip 23-43 which extends further upper lip 22-42, creates, in particular, the advantage, inter alia, in comparison with connection for floor panels described in documents WO 94/01628, WO 94/26999, WO 96/27719 and WO 96/27721. Sloping plot creates the advantage that the floor panels 1 can be disconnected again. The fact that this sloping site is located on reaching the next area of the lower lip 23-43, in addition, creates the advantage that during the connection will not occur any deformations that occur in the upper layer.
In accordance with a preferred feature of the invention specified part, i.e. the contact surface 39 or 73, is arranged in such a way that the distance to the top edge 16 is reduced in the upward direction, in other words, so that, as shown in Fig, the distance x2 is less than the distance X1. This is also shown in Fig.7.
More preferably, this part was just beginning on the exact distance E from the upper lip 42.
It is obvious that the connection is Italy from 22 to 25 can also be made through the specified milling process.
In accordance with a specific feature of the invention the sides 2-3 and/or 26-27 floor panel 1 processed modifying substance, more specifically hardening the surface of the substance, which preferably is selected from the following range of products: permeative substance, sealing the pores of the substance, varnishes, resins, oils, waxes, etc.
On Fig also impregnation 88 is shown schematically. This processing can be performed on the entire surface of the sides 2-3 and/or 26-27 or only on certain areas, for example, solely on the surface of the tongue 9 and the groove 10.
Processing of modifying the surface of the substance provides in combination with the effect of connection type latches the advantage that in some aspects are achieved the best performance of the connection. As a result of this coupling parts 4-5 and/or 28-29 better retain their shape and strength, even if the floor panels 1 are connected and disconnected repeatedly. Especially when the main part 8 is made of LEGS, etc. COULD, by means of this processing is achieved so better surface quality that is no wear of the material in the continuation of the connection and, accordingly, in further separation.
This processing also provides the advantage that at least in the case of surface hardening the effect of UE is ugogo tension increases.
The present invention is in no way limited to the forms of embodiment described in the examples and shown in the drawings, however, such a floor covering and suitable floor panel 1 can be implemented in various forms and dimensions, without going outside the range of the invention.
For example, different characteristics, which are described by means of the illustrated forms of embodiment may be combined with each other or not combined.
Moreover, all of the structural design of the connecting elements described previously, can be applied on the longer side, as well as on the shorter side.
1. The floor panel to provide a floor covering, which is rectangular, i.e. elongated or square, with the said panel (1) floor selected from the group of laminated floor panels, veneered flooring and pre-fabricated parquet, with the said panel (1) the floor is essentially flat bottom side (7) and essentially flat upper side and first and second pairs of opposite sides (2-3, 26-27), the bounding edge of the panel (1), the said panel (1) floor also differs in that it has the following a combination of signs: the edges of the first pair of opposite sides are provided with coupling parts (4-5, 28-29), which provide with the Union of two of such panels (1) to each other, mentioned coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) made essentially in the form of a tongue (9-31) and grooves (10-32)and said groove (10-32) is limited to the upper lip (22-42)having a distal end, and the lower lip (23-43), beyond the aforementioned distal end of the upper lip (22-42)mentioned coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) equipped with components of a unit with them mechanical locking means (6), which prevents the divergence of the two connected panels (1) sex in a direction perpendicular to the respective edges and parallel to the bottom side (7) of the United panels (1) floor-mentioned locking means (6) include only one locking element on said lower lip (23-43) and one locking element formed by a single protrusion on the underside of the above-mentioned latch (9-31), the said tongue (9-31) contains the direction (17, 85) flat top surface, which in the United condition of two of such panels (1) communicates with the lower lip (22-42)mentioned locking means (6) limit of the contact surface, respectively, mentioned lower lip (23-43) and mentioned the tongue (9-31), acting as locking surfaces which in the United condition of two of such panels (1) prevent the divergence of the panels (1), with the locking surface provided with Kanak the th (10-32), located in the lip (23-43) in place at the distal end of the said upper lip (22-42)mentioned coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) and locking means (6) is designed as a profile with cut edges located between the plane bounded essentially flat bottom side (7) of the panel (1), and plane, limited essentially flat upper side (7) of the panel (1)mentioned coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) and locking means (6) provide connectivity and consequent separation of the two such panels (1) by turning movements, resulting in the United state of the panel (1) are connected in such a way that prevents backlash, and the protrusion has a distally located lateral wall, which is inclined relative to the plane of the panel (1) floor, while on the lower side of the tongue (9-31) distal of said inclined transverse wall has an additional different wall section, acting as the surface of the lower tip of the tongue (9-31), so that the actual ledge is different on the distance from the tip mentioned latch (9-31).
2. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the said lower lip (23-43) beyond the aforementioned upper lip with distinction (E), which, as measured in the plane of the panel (1) the floor and perpendicular to continue the resultant direction of the said grooves (10-32), less than a single thickness of the panel (1) floor.
3. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the said locking surface in the United state of such panels (1) floor limit tangent line which is inclined relative to the bottom side (7) of the United panels (1) floor.
4. Floor panel according to claim 3, characterized in that the said tangent line forms an angle with the bottom side (7) of the panels (1) sex, which is 30-70 degrees.
5. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the said first upper surface on the tongue (9-31) parallel to the plane of the panel (1) floor.
6. Floor panel according to claim 5, characterized in that the upper lip on its lower surface provided with a corresponding flat contact surface.
7. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the panel (1) the floor has a thickness of 0.5-1.5 cm
8. Floor panel according to claim 1, characterized in that the panel (1) sex is the main part (8) and the fact that the said coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) and locking means (6) are designed as one part of the mentioned core (8).
9. Floor panel according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the said second pair of opposite sides is also provided with coupling parts (4-5, 28-29), essentially in the form of a tongue (9-31) and grooves (10-32), whereby these coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) equipped with components of a single unit is them mechanical locking means (6), to prevent the divergence of the two connected panels (1) sex in a direction perpendicular to the respective edges and parallel to the bottom side (7) of the United panels (1) floor.
10. Floor panel according to claim 9, characterized in that the said coupling parts (4-5, 28-29) also contain a groove (10-32), limited upper lip, forming the upper wall of the groove (10-32) and having a distal end, and the lower lip (23-43)extending in the transverse direction of said distal end of the upper lip, so that the said locking means (6)belonging to the second pair of edges, limit contact surfaces, respectively, at the said lower lip (23-43) and mentioned the tongue (9-31), acting as locking surfaces which in United condition of two of such panels (1) prevent the discrepancy panels (1), and the fact that the second pair of edges of the locking surface on said lower lip (23-43) is located in this lower lip (23-43) at the place beyond the distal end of the respective upper lip.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: methods involve fabrication of one or more moisture-resistant flooring panels and installation of panel (panels) of flooring on the construction of the building floor. Each panel of flooring includes wooden plate item and mat made from non-woven material bonded at least to one side of wooden plate item.
EFFECT: increasing floor moisture resistance.
20 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: compensation profile has two profile elements. There provided are attachment devices of each profile element to the corresponding floor or wall profiles. Profile elements are made with possibility of at least partial displacement relative to each other in the direction perpendicular to their edges; at that, the surface lying opposite the base actually forms common plane with upper sides of floor or wall panels connected thereto.
EFFECT: reducing labour input when laying compensation profile.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to floor panel. Each panel on longitudinal or transverse edge has a comb protruding beyond this longitudinal or transverse edge, and slot which corresponds to comb of adjacent panel on opposite longitudinal or transverse edge, being surrounded with side sections of panel. For fixation of two adjacent panels inserted into each other on at least one surface of comb in separate areas, at least one protruding fixing element is provided, and accordingly, in area of panel section (-s) corresponding to this fixing element with panels being joined to each other, there is a deepening (-s) provided as corresponding to fixing element (-s), besides area (B) of comb that bears fixing element and/or at least one of comb areas and sections of panel, which in case of comb insertion in slot prior to fixing element entry into deepening are in contact, accordingly is/are arranged as elastic so that this elasticity is more than elasticity of fixing element.
EFFECT: simplified assembly of panels.
23 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to floor boards of plank materials with mechanical connecting systems. Floor boards are described, which are equipped with mechanical connecting system comprising flexible rabbet in slot providing for displacement, which is displaced in process of motion in case of vertical folding. Besides rabbet making is described, as well as manufacturing and installation methods.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of floor boards installation and operational reliability of floor.
38 cl, 24 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to floor panel (1) of rectangular shape with base (2) of wood material and with decorative layer on upper side of panel. Side edges of panel are arranged as pairwise opposite to each other. Pair of side edges has geometrically closed responsive hook-like profiles: receiving hook (9), inverted to lower side of floor panel, and also fixing hook (10) on opposite side edge, inverted to upper side of floor panel (1). Both hooks have peripheral side surface, at least with one protruding fixator (13, 14), with which receiving pocket (21, 22) is matched in responsive receiving hook (9), and fixing hook (10) by means of fixing motion perpendicularly to plane of floor panel (1) is fixed with receiving hook (9). Between fixator (13, 14) of fixing hook (10) and upper side of floor panel there is distance provided equal at least to one third of the whole thickness of panel.
EFFECT: prevention of crack formation near decorative layer of panel.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laminated floor boards contain decorative patterns; surface finishes, which are mechanically embossed with matching; deepened perimeters and fixation mechanisms. Neighboring boards that are actually evened relative to each other makes it possible to create matched impressed patterns passing actually continuously through neighboring floor panels. Separate boards in flooring system may contain at least one incomplete subpanel having decorative pattern and/or impressed surface finish (i.e. pattern), which is complementary to pattern of adjacent incomplete subpanel or board. Each board may include edge patterns located near some part of board edge, and at least one main pattern, adjacenebt with edge patterns. Edge patterns on board or boards in flooring system are actually identical to each other. Main patterns create an actually continuous pattern with adjacent edge pattern on a separate board.
EFFECT: simplified assembly of floor and prevention of its premature wear.
22 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: decorative surfaces of panels are visually matched to each other at least on one side, so that in process of transition from one installed panel to another neighboring installed panel, a continuous pattern of decor is created. Continuous pattern in context of the present invention is represented as wood-type decor, when texture of reproduced wood is not visually interrupted in transition from one installed panel to neighboring installed panel, therefore, there is no displacement between according specified textures. The same is effective for other decors, for instance stone-type decors.
EFFECT: improved quality of coating.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry and namely to adjustable floors. Adjustable floor includes boarding joists with through threaded holes in which hollow support racks with external thread are screwed. Each rack consists of a vertical part and a bottom part with central hole for passing the fastening element and having flat external surface and internal cone-shaped surface converging in direction of the central hole. Joists are made in the form of bars from whole timber with pre-drilled threaded holes after timber has been dried up to humidity of not more than 12%. The rack is made from thermoplastic material of the group containing polystyrene, and ratio of minimum thickness of the wall of vertical rack part not considering the height of turns of thread in the area of its being attached to internal surface of the bottom part to minimum distance from internal surface of the bottom part to its flat external surface is 1:(2-6).
EFFECT: improving the floor operating reliability.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to floor coatings in regions with high humidity. Flooring board of hard wood includes base in the form of substrate and front layer in the form of lamel combined with it. Substrate on the side of lamel installation is arranged with grooves of dovetail type, in which according longitudinal inserts-slot wedges are fixed. Lamel, substrate and inserts-slot wedges are made of the same material. Grooves are arranged evenly along the whole length of substrate with identical pitch parallel to each other at the sharp angle to one of its lateral sides. Beginning of every groove installation pitch on one lateral side of substrate matches end of previous groove installation pitch on its opposite side.
EFFECT: higher resistance of flooring board to casting due to wedging of substrate with inserts-slot wedges.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns construction, particularly supporting structure for raised floor. Supporting structure includes multiple supports and stringers supporting floor panels and mounted between neighbour supports. Each support includes a strut with top support part with radial supporting lobes at the top end of strut and with a plate at the bottom end of strut. Each stringer has mainly "П"-shaped cross-section with two parallel side parts and link part resting against radial lobe of top support part. At least one side part at the end of stringer features cavity close to link part and guide line leading from distal edge of side part to the cavity. Cavity and guide line are formed by indent in the internal surface of side stringer part, with guide line running away from side part edge and entering cavity.
EFFECT: enhanced rigidity of support.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor structures in rooms adapted for electronic and electrical equipment installation.
SUBSTANCE: floor comprises height-adjustable stands with support plates to which beams with panels are connected. Each support plate has slots located in crosswise manner and opened from peripheral part thereof. Support plate is provided with covering plate having central orifice, cuts arranged in crosswise manner along its perimeter and radial extensions dividing covering plate into four equal segments. Panel plate corners rest upon segment surfaces. Covering plate has metal strips crossing at the 90o angle and disposed from lower side thereof. Two pair of slots are formed between covering plate cuts and extend in annular direction. Metal strip ends passing through above slots are bent on outer side of covering plate.
EFFECT: increased operational performance.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly adjustable floor supports.
SUBSTANCE: support comprises combined post including rod with outer thread connected to circular ring support plate and hollow tubular member connected to lower plate secured to floor underlay. Support plate has pair of slots arranged along plate perimeter in crosslike manner and provided with covering plate having central orifice. Covering plate comprises radial extensions for floor panels installation and cuts arranged in crosslike manner to provide free beam installation in mating slots of support plate. Hollow tubular member of post has inner thread engaging mating rod thread. Hollow tubular member diameter is equal to 0.2 - 0.3 of support plate diameter. Covering plate is provided with two metal strips crossing each other in central orifice area thereof. Two opposite pair of slots are made between covering plate cuts. Ends of metal strip pass through above slots and are bent on outer surface of covering plate.
EFFECT: improved service performance.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly adjustable supports for raised floor or double-floor structures.
SUBSTANCE: set comprises threaded rod with nut screwed on rod, short cylindrical member connected to plate by one end thereof and replaceable cylindrical head having inner conical surface. Difference between head end diameters is 0.4 - 0.6 mm. Method of support assembling involves placing cylindrical member on floor; putting replaceable head on cylindrical member and inserting threaded rod in head.
EFFECT: extended range of technical capabilities along with maintaining high connection reliability.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building units, particularly composite raised floors made of panels and defining space for laying electric cables and/or providing ventilation.
SUBSTANCE: support comprises rod fixedly secured to support panel and body formed as sleeve and having support flange on the first end and cylindrical flange on another one. Cylindrical flange may be axially displaced and fixed on rod. Sleeve side has part with curvilinear surface extending over at least half of sleeve length defined by flanges. Curvilinear surface is formed by rotation of second-order line segment around support axis.
EFFECT: increased strength characteristics, particularly directional stability of support body subjected to axial alternating loads when temporary compression force is applied to support body.
19 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly raised floor panels installed on adjustable supports and used for assembling floors in rooms equipped with computer or other electronic devices.
SUBSTANCE: panel includes inner load-bearing layer of resin-bonded chipboard material, upper and lower layers of sheet metal. At least two opposite sides of inner load-bearing layer are impregnated with primer and aqueous glue is applied to the sides. Above sides are then covered with polyvinylchloride coating. Primer and aqueous glue are acrylic-based and include dag. Inner layer comprises at least two layers with increased density cooperating with upper and lower panel layers. Electric resistance between outer surfaces of opposite panel ends covered with polyvinylchloride coating is not more than 0.1 Ohm.
EFFECT: improved service properties and increased panel rigidity.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly raised floors in offices adapted for heavy equipment installation.
SUBSTANCE: panel includes tray-like metal member forming panel base and side walls having folded inwards edges extending in parallel to panel base. Arranged inside tray is load-bearing layer covered with metal sheet. Load-bearing layer has non-uniform density along height thereof and includes groove extending along layer perimeter. Metal sheet has peripheral extension formed in lower side thereof and cooperating with groove. Folded edges are connected with metal sheet in area of contact between extensions and grooves, outer surfaces thereof are in plane with outer surface of metal sheet connected to inner load-bearing layer by depressions and/or glue.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity and rigidity.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly raised floors for offices equipped with computers.
SUBSTANCE: panel includes bearing plate of timber-based material enclosed with metal shell from all plate sides. Shell is formed as two boxes, namely upper and lower ones. Each box has rectangular part defining upper and lower panel sides, and side edges folded along rectangular part perimeter. Folded side edges extend over half of end panel side height. Area of rectangular part of upper box exceeds that of lover part by (4-5)δ value, where δ is thickness of upper box. Folded side edges of upper and lower boxes are equal in height. End parts of adjacent side edges of each end plate side are pressed together in overlapped manner.
EFFECT: improved antistatic properties of raised floor, increased reliability of panel connection.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building units, particularly false floors elevated above base and supported by adjustable supports.
SUBSTANCE: false floor defining a chamber for communication lines consists of panels. Floor panel comprises inner load-bearing layer of flakeboard, upper decorative layer of vinyl plastics and lower layer of sheet material. At least two opposite side surfaces of inner layer are impregnated with priming agent and aqueous adhesive is applied on above surfaces to which polyvinylchloride coating is further connected. Priming agent and aqueous adhesive are formed on acrylic base and dag is added to above substances. Inner layer includes at least two high-density sub-layers contacting with upper and lower panel layers. Electrical resistance between outer surfaces of opposite panel ends covered with polyvinylchloride coating is not more than 0.1 ohm.
EFFECT: increased strength of floor panel.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor members for underfloor heating/cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: floor member comprises sheet with at least one groove, heat-conducting layer extending over one main sheet surface and along each groove side to form depression for heat-conducting wire receiving opened from top side thereof. Depression tightly encloses wire and passes over half of cross-sectional perimeter thereof. Upper wire side is flush with upper sheet surface or located below thereof. Sheet has thin foldable foil with thickness of less than 200 μm.
EFFECT: reduced floor member thickness, increased simplicity of floor member dimension selection by cutting foil inside the groove.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor, ceiling and wall covering.
SUBSTANCE: support includes square lower bearing plate made of flexible metal sheet material and upper bearing plate. The plates have central orifices. Central orifice of lower plate comprises rod receiving recess and is surrounded with annular depression having depth not exceeding sheet thickness. Central orifice of upper plate comprises flange. The plates are provided with radial grooves located so that convex surfaces thereof face each other. Depression and grooves have oval cross-section and oval or wavy cross-sections in connection areas in-between. Upper plate is made of the same material as the lower one. Orifices for fastening members receiving formed in lower plate and holes for gasket fixing made in upper plate are coaxial and created along stiffening ribs extending along square diagonals.
EFFECT: increased support resistance and strength thereof along with reduced material consumption, decreased mass and simplified manufacture.
14 cl, 6 dwg