Method for blasting of rocks in open pits

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of blasting in mining and may be used in blasting of rocks by borehole charges of explosives in open pits. Method for blasting provides for drilling of blastholes, formation of gas cavity in bottom part of one or several blastholes, arrangement of explosive charge in each blasthole over air cavity with intermediate detonator and facilities for initiation of the latter and execution of explosion. Drilling of blastholes is carried out until elevation of underlying ledge foot, and prior to formation of gas cavity, reflector of shock waves is installed at the bottom of blasthole. As reflector of shock waves, it is possible to use loose substances with various density, value of which is in direct proportion to rock pressure. Intermediate detonator is installed over gas cavity in active part of explosive charge at the distance from lower end of specified charge within the limits of 1-1.5 of gas cavity height. Gas cavity may be formed with the help of elastic reservoirs filled with compressed air or other gas with maximum nondestructive pressure for these reservoirs or filled with granulated cellular polystyrene.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of blast-hole drilling works and to reduce scope of drilling works.

5 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of blasting in mining and can be used in the explosive blasting of rocks borehole charges of explosives at quarries.

Known methods blasting of rocks on open-pit mining, involving the drilling of blast holes, placing in each well of an explosive charge with an intermediate detonator and means of initiating the latest and manufacture of explosion (Kutuzov BN. The destruction of rocks by explosion. M, MHI, 1992, s-399). The drawback of such methods is the necessity of placing the bottom part of the charges of explosives below the soles of the underlying ledge in the area of the borehole, called pereboom, which leads to additional saturation of the lower part of the blasted rock ledge explosion energy and provides due to this high-quality crushing rocks and the desired treatment of the foot of the ledge.

Known methods blasting of rocks in the quarries, providing blasthole drilling, forming in the bottom part of one or more blastholes gas cavity, placing in each blast hole over the air cavity of the explosive charge with the intermediate detonator and means of initiation or explosion (see, for example, Kutuzov BN. The ruin is their rock explosion. M, MHI, 1992, s-449; Borehole charges of explosives with axial air cavity/ Salganik VA, vorotelyak GA, Mitrofanov V.V., of Philippi. NF Kiev., Technology, 1986, p.8 - 6, 9-10 prototype).

When implementing such methods, including the prototype, explosive wells are drilled with pereboom, positioning the bottom of the well is significantly below the foot of the escarpment, and in peribere form an air cavity. When the detonation wave reaches the boundary between the bottom end of the column charge and air cavity, in the direction of the last shock wave propagates with supersonic speed, and the products of detonation at the speed of sound waves spread of depression in the side of the mouth of the well, filled with stemming. The shock wave reaching the borehole bottom, is reflected from it. The front of the reflected shock wave dramatically increases the pressure of explosion products, resulting in a lower part of the bore of high pressure. Behind the front reflected from the material stemming the wave of rarefaction is the reduction of the initial peak pressure of explosion products on the walls of the well. This allows us to dramatically reduce the cost of energy of explosion at pereselenie environment in close proximity to the explosive charge and rational use of them to ruin more remote parts of massive greater extent. The pressure increase at the bottom of the well contributes to better study the soles of the ledge. The normal separation of the array at the bottom of the ledge.

The disadvantage of blasting rocks on the prototype is the necessity of drilling holes with pereboom since reached the maximum impulse of the explosion and when such technologies are insufficient for a complete renunciation of the accommodation charges of explosives in wells drilled without perebor. The necessity of drilling holes with pereboom leads, as in previously known methods blasting considerable unproductive losses of drilling activity, because after the explosion perebrannye part of the wells remain in the array of the underlying ledge, which subsequently, in preparation for blasting obrivaetsa with the original mark.

Technical task, designed to eliminate the disadvantage mentioned is the formation of maximum impulse of the explosion at the level of the foot of the ledge that will lead to the exclusion of perebor during the drilling of wells, i.e. the reduction of the volume of drilling operations at a constant output of ore from the unit, and to reduce the cost of production blasting in General.

The specified technical task is solved in that in the method of blasting rock quarries, providing drilling EOI is ywnych wells, the formation at the bottom of one or more blastholes gas cavity, placing in each blast hole over the air cavity of the explosive charge with the intermediate detonator and means of initiation or explosion, blasthole drilling carried out to mark the soles of the underlying ledge, and before the formation of gas cavities on the bottom of the blast hole install reflector shock waves. As a reflector of shock waves can be used granular substances with different densities, the value of which is directly proportional to the mountain of pressure. To improve the efficiency of the explosion intermediate detonator can be placed over a gas cavity in the active portion of the explosive charge at a distance from the lower end of the specified charge within 1-1,5 height of the gas cavity. The gas passage can be formed using a flexible containers filled with compressed air or other gas with a maximum non-destructive for these vessels pressure or filled with a granular polystyrene. To enable control the intensity of the destructive effect of the explosion, the ratio of the height of the explosive charge and HZARto the height of the gas cavity Hgasto ensure the passage of shock waves through the charging strips and after the explosion of a specified number of times P HCdefine the following dependencies:

In the inventive downhole charge, as in the famous charge, provides for the use of the gas cavity, which provides after detonation process in the explosive charge and the formation of a powerful stream of explosion products in the direction of the borehole bottom and one of the reflected shock wave compression generated when braking. However, in the inventive downhole charge with the distribution of the reflected shock wave compression of the charge cavity is provided more intensive loading of the array in the lower part of the ledge that is caused by the presence in this part of the bore of the reflector of shock waves and through which the shock wave has several times. The formation of the maximum impulse of the explosion at the level of bench bottom eliminates perebor wells, which reduces the cost of production blasting.

The positioning of the intermediate detonator in a special place causes a new thread of shock waves in the air cavity, and well the battery works as a generator of shock waves in the bottom part of the blast hole.

As a reflector of shock waves used bulk materials of different densities depending on the rock pressure, i.e. at the bottom of the hole where the mountain pressure is maximal, the reflector has a higher density, such as iron ore pellets, and above glass beads having a smaller density. In a preferred embodiment, an air cavity is created using tanks filled with compressed air to a maximum pressure, but you can also use a vessel filled with a granular polystyrene.

The use of these tools can significantly reduce the cost of forming a downhole charge due to the mechanization of their installation in the well.

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which schematically shows a downhole charge generated by the proposed method, where 1 blast hole; 2 - level foot ledge; 3 - ledge destructible rocks; 4 - bottom of the blast hole; 5 - reflector shock waves; 6 - air chamber; 7 - intermediate detonator; 8 - detonating cord; 9 - explosive charge; 10 - stemming.

The proposed method is as follows.

When blasting drill vertical or inclined blast hole 1 to level 2 soles of the ledge 3. At the bottom of the 4 wells 1 install reflector shock waves 5, lowering it by means of a cord. Then create an air cavity 6, is lowered into the well one of the above capacities. Over the air cavity 6 is placed intermediate the child is ATOR 7 detonating cord 8 in the active portion of the charge on the height, equal to 1-1,5 height of the air cavity 6, fill the hole explosive 9 and form the stemming 10. After that, well the charge is ready to explode. Thus take into account that the parameters of the charge can provide a specified number of shock waves, for example from 5 to 10.

With the explosion of the intermediate detonator in the wells of the excited charge detonation. When the detonation wave reaches the border of the lower end of the column of explosive charge 9 and the air cavity 6, in the direction of the last shock wave propagates with supersonic speed, and the products of detonation are waves of depression in the side of the wellhead, propagating with the speed of sound. The first shock wave, reaching the bottom of the 4 wells, is reflected from the reflector 5 shock waves at an angle of about 90°, destroying the rock in the bottom of the ledge. Educated vacuum explosives after the explosion of the intermediate detonator provides a reorientation of the second explosive momentum in the rarefaction zone, creating additional deforming load at the end of the blast hole. Also work subsequent explosive pulses.

Industrial tests of the proposed method was carried out on the explosions 1500 wells. In comparison with the results of explosions carried out by standard methods (prototype), analysis of blasted rock pok the hall almost the same degree of fragmentation and a good study of the soles of the ledge. However, due to the weight reduction of the charges in the wells and reduce the length of the blastholes the consumption of explosives was lower by about 80 tons, and the volume of drilling reduced to 1500 meters.

1. The method of blasting rock quarries, providing blasthole drilling, forming in the bottom part of one or more blastholes gas cavity, placing in each blast hole over the air cavity of the explosive charge with the intermediate detonator and means of initiation or explosion, characterized in that the drilling of blastholes lead to the level of the soles of the underlying ledge, and before the formation of gas cavities on the bottom of the blast hole install reflector shock waves.

2. The way blasting of rocks according to claim 1, characterized in that as a reflector of shock waves using bulk materials with different densities, the value of which is directly proportional to the mountain of pressure.

3. The way blasting of rocks according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the intermediate detonator is placed over a gas cavity in the active portion of the explosive charge at a distance from the lower end of the specified charge within 1-1,5 height of the gas cavity.

4. The way blasting of rocks according to any one of claims 1 to 3, the best of the decomposing those the gas cavity is formed using a flexible containers filled with compressed air or other gas with a maximum non-destructive for these vessels pressure or filled with a granular polystyrene.

5. The way blasting of rocks according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the height of the explosive charge and HZARto the height of the gas cavity
Hgasto ensure the passage of shock waves for charging the cavity after the explosion of a specified number of times PHCdefine the following dependencies:



 

Same patents:

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Combined plug // 2372583

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: combined plug, including thrust part, for instance in the form of cylinder with expanding top-down cavity into which from below by cable traction it is draw in thrust cone. Cylinder is implemented in the form of sleeve from elastic material, for instance from rubber. Walls of sleeve allow variable elasticity maximal in bottom. Thrust cone, implemented of organic material, for instance from plastic mass, rest into bottom of sleeve. In cavity of sleeve and from above up to wellhead it is located particulate part, for instance from drilling sludge.

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2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: invention provides to intensify rock crushing process, to reduce unit discharge of BB, to increase quality of rock crushing, to simplify design.

1 ex, 2 dwg

Combined plug // 2371670

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: combined plug includes suspended plug, allowing casing with axial cavity, in which below by cable traction it is pulled into expansion cone. Casing with axial cavity is implemented in the form of hollow truncated cone from flexible material of variable plasticity with the greatest flexibility in bottom part, for instance from rubber. Expansion cone is implemented from organic material, for instance from wood or plastic mixture, and from above to suspended plug it is located poly-factional particulate part with predominance of crushed stone of fraction 10-20 mm in first portions.

EFFECT: invention provides increasing of locking reliability of detonation production in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of enveloping rock by combined plug.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: in combined expansion-fill plug, including suspended plug, for instance in the form of slotted cylinder with no less thanc three long slots and conical extension of cavity downwards from bottom, in cavity of which from the bottom it is inserted expansion cone, connected to cable traction, according to invention, slotted cylinder and expansion cone are implemented from organic material, for instance cylinder from rubber-cord strip or plastic mixture, expansion cone - from wood or plastic mixture, and from above over expansion plug it is located fill part, for instance from chipping.

EFFECT: effectiveness increase of explosive crushing of rocks ensured by locking of detonation products in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of surrounding rock of combined expansion-fill plug, composed from expansion suspended plug and filling part above it.

1 dwg

Blast-hole plug // 2368867

FIELD: explosive materials.

SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to drilling and blasting operations, particularly to blocking of light-end explosion products in charge hole - i.e. blast hole and can be used at mining enterprises. Blast-hole plug contains cylindrical shells 1 with parting walls 4 and ridges 7. The shell is equipped with fixation device 3 and internal sealing valve 6 mounted in its tail end. Channel 2 is made in the shell body with the possibility of installation in it fixation device 3 of adjacent shell. Cone-shaped parting walls 4 in the with holes 5. The ridges 7 are made of rubber and helical curve positioned with a 45-70-degree slope to horizon with lead equal to 2D. Shell length 1 is taken as 6-8D where D is a blast-hole diametre, m.

EFFECT: design simplification, reduction in working hours of installation, mining safety improving, stemming cost saving.

2 dwg

Combined plug // 2365872

FIELD: mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device relates to drilling-and-blasting in competent formation field and can be used in different fields, using blasting in rocky formation massif. Combined plug contains bulk material 6 and cylinder 1 with channel for conductor of initiating pulse. Cylinder 1 is filled by bulk material and is implemented from plastic with openings 4, uniformly distributed by its sides. In bottom part cylinder 1 allows conical basis with vertex of cone angle from 60° up to 110°. From outer face of cylinder 1 it is installed rubber covering 2. Device diametre is accepted equal to 0.9-0.95D, where D - well bore, m, device's height is accepted not less than 2.5D. Internal diametre 4 is accepted equal to 0.1D. Distance between openings row 4 by vertical line is accepted equal to 0.3D. Channel for conductor of initiating pulse is implemented in the form of longitudinal hollow in cylinder 1.

EFFECT: invention provides design simplification, laboriousness reduction of installation and plug's cost price, and also safety increasing of mining implementation.

2 dwg

FIELD: explosive works.

SUBSTANCE: transmitter and attenuator of explosion denotation pulse relates to stoping method of block stone out of rocks in open-pit using blasting operations. Mixture consists of transmitter and attenuator of explosion denotation pulse in shothole represented by unexplosive material, disposed between explosive material and shothole walls. Mixture contains wt %: watersoluble thickener - 0.36-10.0; explosion absorbing additives - 1.45-3.0; component correcting hydrogen ion exponent - 0.06-0.6; the rest - water. Mixture has hydrogen ion exponent from pH 6 to pH 8 and relative viscosity from 8 to 20 seconds according to viscometer with nozzle of 6 mm. Transmitter and attenuator of explosion denotation pulse in shothole is obtained with consistence filling shothole except for small splits. Mixture transmits and evenly distributes decreased load on shothole walls, regulated by viscosity. Invention ensures qualitatively splitting along shotholes row without damaging rock block, reducing expenses on explosive material and harmful effect on ecology.

EFFECT: ensuring qualitatively splitting along shotholes row without damaging rock block, reducing expenses on explosive material and harmful effect on ecology.

9 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.

EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.

57 cl, 30 dwg

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