Method for blasting of rocks in open pits
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of blasting in mining and may be used in blasting of rocks by borehole charges of explosives in open pits. Method for blasting provides for drilling of blastholes, formation of gas cavity in bottom part of one or several blastholes, arrangement of explosive charge in each blasthole over air cavity with intermediate detonator and facilities for initiation of the latter and execution of explosion. Drilling of blastholes is carried out until elevation of underlying ledge foot, and prior to formation of gas cavity, reflector of shock waves is installed at the bottom of blasthole. As reflector of shock waves, it is possible to use loose substances with various density, value of which is in direct proportion to rock pressure. Intermediate detonator is installed over gas cavity in active part of explosive charge at the distance from lower end of specified charge within the limits of 1-1.5 of gas cavity height. Gas cavity may be formed with the help of elastic reservoirs filled with compressed air or other gas with maximum nondestructive pressure for these reservoirs or filled with granulated cellular polystyrene.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of blast-hole drilling works and to reduce scope of drilling works.
5 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the field of blasting in mining and can be used in the explosive blasting of rocks borehole charges of explosives at quarries.
Known methods blasting of rocks on open-pit mining, involving the drilling of blast holes, placing in each well of an explosive charge with an intermediate detonator and means of initiating the latest and manufacture of explosion (Kutuzov BN. The destruction of rocks by explosion. M, MHI, 1992, s-399). The drawback of such methods is the necessity of placing the bottom part of the charges of explosives below the soles of the underlying ledge in the area of the borehole, called pereboom, which leads to additional saturation of the lower part of the blasted rock ledge explosion energy and provides due to this high-quality crushing rocks and the desired treatment of the foot of the ledge.
Known methods blasting of rocks in the quarries, providing blasthole drilling, forming in the bottom part of one or more blastholes gas cavity, placing in each blast hole over the air cavity of the explosive charge with the intermediate detonator and means of initiation or explosion (see, for example, Kutuzov BN. The ruin is their rock explosion. M, MHI, 1992, s-449; Borehole charges of explosives with axial air cavity/ Salganik VA, vorotelyak GA, Mitrofanov V.V., of Philippi. NF Kiev., Technology, 1986, p.8 - 6, 9-10 prototype).
When implementing such methods, including the prototype, explosive wells are drilled with pereboom, positioning the bottom of the well is significantly below the foot of the escarpment, and in peribere form an air cavity. When the detonation wave reaches the boundary between the bottom end of the column charge and air cavity, in the direction of the last shock wave propagates with supersonic speed, and the products of detonation at the speed of sound waves spread of depression in the side of the mouth of the well, filled with stemming. The shock wave reaching the borehole bottom, is reflected from it. The front of the reflected shock wave dramatically increases the pressure of explosion products, resulting in a lower part of the bore of high pressure. Behind the front reflected from the material stemming the wave of rarefaction is the reduction of the initial peak pressure of explosion products on the walls of the well. This allows us to dramatically reduce the cost of energy of explosion at pereselenie environment in close proximity to the explosive charge and rational use of them to ruin more remote parts of massive greater extent. The pressure increase at the bottom of the well contributes to better study the soles of the ledge. The normal separation of the array at the bottom of the ledge.
The disadvantage of blasting rocks on the prototype is the necessity of drilling holes with pereboom since reached the maximum impulse of the explosion and when such technologies are insufficient for a complete renunciation of the accommodation charges of explosives in wells drilled without perebor. The necessity of drilling holes with pereboom leads, as in previously known methods blasting considerable unproductive losses of drilling activity, because after the explosion perebrannye part of the wells remain in the array of the underlying ledge, which subsequently, in preparation for blasting obrivaetsa with the original mark.
Technical task, designed to eliminate the disadvantage mentioned is the formation of maximum impulse of the explosion at the level of the foot of the ledge that will lead to the exclusion of perebor during the drilling of wells, i.e. the reduction of the volume of drilling operations at a constant output of ore from the unit, and to reduce the cost of production blasting in General.
The specified technical task is solved in that in the method of blasting rock quarries, providing drilling EOI is ywnych wells, the formation at the bottom of one or more blastholes gas cavity, placing in each blast hole over the air cavity of the explosive charge with the intermediate detonator and means of initiation or explosion, blasthole drilling carried out to mark the soles of the underlying ledge, and before the formation of gas cavities on the bottom of the blast hole install reflector shock waves. As a reflector of shock waves can be used granular substances with different densities, the value of which is directly proportional to the mountain of pressure. To improve the efficiency of the explosion intermediate detonator can be placed over a gas cavity in the active portion of the explosive charge at a distance from the lower end of the specified charge within 1-1,5 height of the gas cavity. The gas passage can be formed using a flexible containers filled with compressed air or other gas with a maximum non-destructive for these vessels pressure or filled with a granular polystyrene. To enable control the intensity of the destructive effect of the explosion, the ratio of the height of the explosive charge and HZARto the height of the gas cavity Hgasto ensure the passage of shock waves through the charging strips and after the explosion of a specified number of times P HCdefine the following dependencies:
In the inventive downhole charge, as in the famous charge, provides for the use of the gas cavity, which provides after detonation process in the explosive charge and the formation of a powerful stream of explosion products in the direction of the borehole bottom and one of the reflected shock wave compression generated when braking. However, in the inventive downhole charge with the distribution of the reflected shock wave compression of the charge cavity is provided more intensive loading of the array in the lower part of the ledge that is caused by the presence in this part of the bore of the reflector of shock waves and through which the shock wave has several times. The formation of the maximum impulse of the explosion at the level of bench bottom eliminates perebor wells, which reduces the cost of production blasting.
The positioning of the intermediate detonator in a special place causes a new thread of shock waves in the air cavity, and well the battery works as a generator of shock waves in the bottom part of the blast hole.
As a reflector of shock waves used bulk materials of different densities depending on the rock pressure, i.e. at the bottom of the hole where the mountain pressure is maximal, the reflector has a higher density, such as iron ore pellets, and above glass beads having a smaller density. In a preferred embodiment, an air cavity is created using tanks filled with compressed air to a maximum pressure, but you can also use a vessel filled with a granular polystyrene.
The use of these tools can significantly reduce the cost of forming a downhole charge due to the mechanization of their installation in the well.
The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which schematically shows a downhole charge generated by the proposed method, where 1 blast hole; 2 - level foot ledge; 3 - ledge destructible rocks; 4 - bottom of the blast hole; 5 - reflector shock waves; 6 - air chamber; 7 - intermediate detonator; 8 - detonating cord; 9 - explosive charge; 10 - stemming.
The proposed method is as follows.
When blasting drill vertical or inclined blast hole 1 to level 2 soles of the ledge 3. At the bottom of the 4 wells 1 install reflector shock waves 5, lowering it by means of a cord. Then create an air cavity 6, is lowered into the well one of the above capacities. Over the air cavity 6 is placed intermediate the child is ATOR 7 detonating cord 8 in the active portion of the charge on the height, equal to 1-1,5 height of the air cavity 6, fill the hole explosive 9 and form the stemming 10. After that, well the charge is ready to explode. Thus take into account that the parameters of the charge can provide a specified number of shock waves, for example from 5 to 10.
With the explosion of the intermediate detonator in the wells of the excited charge detonation. When the detonation wave reaches the border of the lower end of the column of explosive charge 9 and the air cavity 6, in the direction of the last shock wave propagates with supersonic speed, and the products of detonation are waves of depression in the side of the wellhead, propagating with the speed of sound. The first shock wave, reaching the bottom of the 4 wells, is reflected from the reflector 5 shock waves at an angle of about 90°, destroying the rock in the bottom of the ledge. Educated vacuum explosives after the explosion of the intermediate detonator provides a reorientation of the second explosive momentum in the rarefaction zone, creating additional deforming load at the end of the blast hole. Also work subsequent explosive pulses.
Industrial tests of the proposed method was carried out on the explosions 1500 wells. In comparison with the results of explosions carried out by standard methods (prototype), analysis of blasted rock pok the hall almost the same degree of fragmentation and a good study of the soles of the ledge. However, due to the weight reduction of the charges in the wells and reduce the length of the blastholes the consumption of explosives was lower by about 80 tons, and the volume of drilling reduced to 1500 meters.
1. The method of blasting rock quarries, providing blasthole drilling, forming in the bottom part of one or more blastholes gas cavity, placing in each blast hole over the air cavity of the explosive charge with the intermediate detonator and means of initiation or explosion, characterized in that the drilling of blastholes lead to the level of the soles of the underlying ledge, and before the formation of gas cavities on the bottom of the blast hole install reflector shock waves.
2. The way blasting of rocks according to claim 1, characterized in that as a reflector of shock waves using bulk materials with different densities, the value of which is directly proportional to the mountain of pressure.
3. The way blasting of rocks according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the intermediate detonator is placed over a gas cavity in the active portion of the explosive charge at a distance from the lower end of the specified charge within 1-1,5 height of the gas cavity.
4. The way blasting of rocks according to any one of claims 1 to 3, the best of the decomposing those the gas cavity is formed using a flexible containers filled with compressed air or other gas with a maximum non-destructive for these vessels pressure or filled with a granular polystyrene.
5. The way blasting of rocks according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the height of the explosive charge and HZARto the height of the gas cavity
Hgasto ensure the passage of shock waves for charging the cavity after the explosion of a specified number of times PHCdefine the following dependencies:
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, also to construction, and may be used in blasting of rocks in open pits, trenches, ditches. Method for breaking of rock unit by explosion is carried out in mining enterprises, where it is necessary to arrange water drain. In order to develop layers with various physical properties in rock massif, prior to explosion, directly under unit, at specified depth in layer of water saturated rocks, screen is created by means of water pumping from this layer, thus reducing its level in massif till required location of screen. Depth of screen location is identified by required depth of breaking or mining of rocks, by length of blasting wells or height of ledge.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of crushing at all technological stages of mining production and to reduce energy inputs in process of blasting.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, hydrotechnical construction and other industrial branches exploiting large-weight explosives and can be used in large-section drafts. Encased explosive is placed in casing from thermosetting film and explosive is compacted to preset density along with forcing excess air from aforesaid casings. Immediately after compaction, thermosetting film is heated by hot air. Casings with lower-density explosives are arranged on draft bottom, said casings having excess air not yet forced from casings. Then casing with explosives and air completely forced therefrom are placed on draft bottom. Charge upper part accommodates casing with explosive and air forced out as much as possible. Heating temperature is determined subject to properties of thermosetting film and requirements to explosive thermal safety and varies from 120°C to 200°C. In making the explosive charge, approximately equal density of explosive is ensured across entire charge, deviation from preset density not exceeding 10 to 15% depending upon external conditions.
EFFECT: higher quality.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, more specifically - to methods for production of cutting cavities when drilling underground mine tunnels by blast-hole drilling method in coal and mining industry under conditions of non-explosive mine atmosphere. Method includes drilling of central well and neighboring peripheral blast holes perpendicularly to bottomhole plane, charging of peripheral blast holes with cylindrical tier charges, and charging of central well with concentrated tier charges, and blasting of all charges in a certain sequence. Concentrated charges are arranged in well at the level of inertial plug located between charges in peripheral blast holes. Blasting of all charges is carried out with continuous moderation, starting from those adjacent to wellhead part of pass to more deepened, and in each tier - by alternation of simultaneous explosion of all cylindrical charges in peripheral blast holes with concentrated charge in well.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of making deep cutting cavity and to eliminate possibility of charges compression.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to methods for shooting of ore from massif with flaky texture. Method includes drilling of parallel rows of vertical wells at the angle χ to line of internal bench edge, charging of wells with charges of explosive substance (ES), assembly of internal well and surface blasting nets and row short-delay blasting of ES charges with production of flat blast compression wave in each row. Angle χ is identified from the following ratio: χ = (-1)nπ/2 + θ + (-1)n+1γ-arcsin(ctgα·tgψ), where π is angle equal to 180°; n is index of cutting direction, nl in case direction of cutting goes from left to right when looking at internal edge of bench and n=0 in case direction of cutting goes from right to left at the same view; θ is angle between line of ore layers spreading and line of internal edge of bench; γ is angle between line of wells rows and line of crossing of impact compression wave front plane with horizontal plane; α is angle of ore layers falling; ψ is angle between plane of impact compression wave front plane and vertical line. It is possible to accept the value of angle among two values of angle χ, which correspond to various directions of cutting, when it is most close to 90°.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency of softening of intergrain ore joints and technical and economical characteristics of the following ore processing.
2 cl, 10 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, construction, and also to chemical industry, and may be used in detection of relative serviceability of industrial explosives with high critical diametres. Method for detection of relative serviceability of explosives includes drilling of wells from upper surface of ledge, placement of explosives in them and explosion with rock tillage as ledge collapses. Results of tests of basis and tested explosives are used to compare difference in change of destroyed rock volumes before and after explosion in absolute indices. Then coefficient of relative serviceability of explosive is detected, by division of change in volume of rock of new explosive caused by explosion into change of volume of rock produced as a result of application of basis explosive. At the same time volumes of rock unit before and after explosion are efficiently detected with the help of laser scanning.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce expenses and increase efficiency of blast-hole drilling works.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: mixture for production of transmitting device and attenuator of remote impulse of firing hole comprises water-soluble thickening agent of 20% to 29% by weight and glass hollow microspheres ranging from 5 to 100 mcm in diametre by weight in quantity of 80% to 71% by weight. The method for production of mixture for transmitting device and attenuator of remote impulse of firing hole, wherein dry mixture shall be diluted in the ration of 1 part of dry mixture to 35-55 parts of water by weight, pH value and relative viscosity shall determined, pH value shall be modified to pH6-pH8 and when diluting with water the required relative viscosity shall be achieved. The diluted mixture transfers and distributes attenuated energy of hole firing. The mixture is used for excavation in block rock where it is added in the holes prepared for dislodging.
EFFECT: invention enables to quarry block rock without damage to block and with minimum blasting agent costs and minimum environmental damage.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: explosion operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in mining, railway construction, drilling and blasting driving of horizontal and sloping mines and railway tunnels. Method of cut-hole formation involves drilling of perimetre well and cut-holes around it, with distance between cut-holes and well depending on acoustic impedance rate of rock, charge diametre in blasting hole, charging density, explosive performance and rock density; and detonation of blasting holes. Minimum distance between generatrices of cut-hole and well is defined by expression accounting for fissility, physical properties of rock, detonation properties of explosives, overburden pressure and perimetre well diametre.
EFFECT: possible determination of distance between cut-holes and perimetre well depending on the listed parametres of drilling and blasting and physical and operational properties of rock, formation of high-quality cut-hole and given ratio of advance per blast hole during pit and tunnel driving, enhanced safety level of driving works.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: explosion operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and railway construction, particularly drilling and blasting driving of horizontal and slightly sloping mines and railway tunnels. Method of cut-hole formation involves drilling of advance slightly sloping well and filling it with water. Further the cut-holes, relievers and cropper holes are drilled. Explosive charges are loaded into blast holes and well. Pinpoint blasting charge weight in the well is calculated by the well diametre, cut-hole length, physical and operational properties of cut-hole rock, overburden pressure and explosive detonation speed. Explosion of pin-point blasting charge in water generates hydroshock wave reducing shock hazard in a bump-hazardous rock bed in the zone of new face.
EFFECT: high-quality cut-hole, increased ratio of advance per blast hole during pit and tunnel driving.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be implemented at development of mineral deposits by method of explosion for destructing between-chamber and under-goaf pillars of ore deposits, and also for block caving under conditions of increased mine pressure. The method of destruction of pillars consists in drilling boreholes in the pillar and in placing charges of explosion material EM in them, in driving upward boreholes and in placing chamber charges of EM in them, in successive explosion with formation of system of opposite relieving cavities into two opposite surfaces of pillar exposure and in final destruction of the pillar by explosion of the chamber charges of EM. Coaxially with project contours of reliving cavities additional boreholes are drilled. The additional boreholes are arranged symmetrically to the lengthwise axis of the pillar, and charges of EM are placed into them. Initially the relieving cavities are formed on ends of the pillar, further other cavities are formed. Charges of EM in additional boreholes located on ends of the pillar are exploded after formation of the relieving cavities. Simultaneous explosion of chamber charges of EM and charges of EM left in additional boreholes is performed last of all.
EFFECT: upgraded quality of crushing increased safety of mining.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for dislodging rock involves application of rock dislodging charges containing explosives 4; twisted metal plates in the form of ribbon screw surfaces 2 parallel coupled and diametrically opposite in collinear direction and rigidly fixed at upper and lower parts by U-shape segments, with the distance between screw surfaces equal to product of one surface width and repetition factor of chamber and upper non-expanded part diametres ratio; primer 1, and detonation cord 3. Twisted metal plates are placed inside the upper part of explosive at the lower primer 1 end, and blasthole charge pattern in the block to be blasted includes positioning charge clusters in adjoining wells alternating metal plates screwed clockwise and counter-clockwise.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of sprung blasthole charge explosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry for maximum unloading of mine soil rocks, which are inclined to dynamic destructions. Method for prevention of rock bursts in rocks of mine soils, including drilling of wells into layer of hard rock, their charging and explosion of explosive charges. In lower part of layer, wells are charged with more powerful charges and exploded in tillage mode, and in upper part pf layer wells are charged with reduced charges, and controlled blasting is carried out. Wells in upper part of hard rock layer are charged in a row. Wells are arranged in rows symmetrically versus longitudinal axis of mine. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle to mine soil in plane of mine cross section. Wells are drilled pairwise at the angle versus mine soil in planes arranged at the angle to plane of its cross section. Wells are drilled in such a manner so that they cross vertical plane, passing through longitudinal axis of mine, at the height of 0.15-0.25 m from lower limit of hard rock layer, where m is layer strength.
EFFECT: invention provides for increased efficiency of dynamic events prevention in mine soil and safety of mining works execution due to differential softening of some parts of hard rock layer, which lies near mine soil.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining and may be used to charge blast holes in process of blasting performance. Method for dispersal of charge in blast hole includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic well sealer, diametre of which exceeds well diametre. Sealer is placed into bag, transverse dimension of which is more than well diametre, is freely fastened in bag, compressed till transverse dimension that is less than diametre of well, lowered into well onto connector tube to a specified depth, which is adjusted with the help of connector tube. Sealer is pumped with air till specified pressure, connector tube is separated from pneumatic well sealer and is extracted from well. Primed cartridge and part of charge are placed onto sealer. The next pneumatic well sealer is lowered as compressed on the same connector tube to a specified depth, and the whole sequence of actions is repeated to achieve economically and technically justified number of pneumatic well sealers in a well. As pneumatic well sealer they use toroid leak-tight inflatable chamber with nipple, outer diametre of which exceeds well diametre.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to disperse charge in wells of any diametre and to reduce charging prime cost.
SUBSTANCE: method for dispersal of charge in watered well includes creation of air gaps with the help of pneumatic locks, prior to lock lowering into well, a sinker is fixed onto connection tube, connection tube with fixed sinker and attached pneumatic well lock is lowered into well down to a specified depth. Lock is pumped with air up to a specified pressure, connection tube is separated from it and is withdrawn together with sinker from well. Then the whole sequence is repeated. Sinker is made in the form of welded structure, which consists of hollow cylinder with cover framed with dome, which is made of bars, in cylinder cover there is a hole made with diametre equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, at the same time lower ends of dome bars are fixed to lower ring of oval shape, made of the same bar, upper ends of dome bars are fixed to upper ring, internal diametre of which is also equal to 1.1 of connection tube external diametre, lower part of cylinder is fixed to dome by means of links, and with its cover it is fixed to dome.
EFFECT: reduced specific consumption of water-emulsion explosives.
2 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: combined plug, including thrust part, for instance in the form of cylinder with expanding top-down cavity into which from below by cable traction it is draw in thrust cone. Cylinder is implemented in the form of sleeve from elastic material, for instance from rubber. Walls of sleeve allow variable elasticity maximal in bottom. Thrust cone, implemented of organic material, for instance from plastic mass, rest into bottom of sleeve. In cavity of sleeve and from above up to wellhead it is located particulate part, for instance from drilling sludge.
EFFECT: reliability growth of detonation products locking in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of surrounding rock.
SUBSTANCE: suspended borehole plug is implemented in the form of cylinder, diametre of which is commensurable to diametre of well. Cylinder is implemented as solid, installed into borehole at the depth if massif with intensive cleat. Bottom butt of cylinder is implemented as inclined, and top is affixed by string to crossbeam, located over wellhead.
EFFECT: invention provides to intensify rock crushing process, to reduce unit discharge of BB, to increase quality of rock crushing, to simplify design.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: combined plug includes suspended plug, allowing casing with axial cavity, in which below by cable traction it is pulled into expansion cone. Casing with axial cavity is implemented in the form of hollow truncated cone from flexible material of variable plasticity with the greatest flexibility in bottom part, for instance from rubber. Expansion cone is implemented from organic material, for instance from wood or plastic mixture, and from above to suspended plug it is located poly-factional particulate part with predominance of crushed stone of fraction 10-20 mm in first portions.
EFFECT: invention provides increasing of locking reliability of detonation production in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of enveloping rock by combined plug.
SUBSTANCE: in combined expansion-fill plug, including suspended plug, for instance in the form of slotted cylinder with no less thanc three long slots and conical extension of cavity downwards from bottom, in cavity of which from the bottom it is inserted expansion cone, connected to cable traction, according to invention, slotted cylinder and expansion cone are implemented from organic material, for instance cylinder from rubber-cord strip or plastic mixture, expansion cone - from wood or plastic mixture, and from above over expansion plug it is located fill part, for instance from chipping.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of explosive crushing of rocks ensured by locking of detonation products in charging cavity up to moment of total destruction of surrounding rock of combined expansion-fill plug, composed from expansion suspended plug and filling part above it.
FIELD: explosive materials.
SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to drilling and blasting operations, particularly to blocking of light-end explosion products in charge hole - i.e. blast hole and can be used at mining enterprises. Blast-hole plug contains cylindrical shells 1 with parting walls 4 and ridges 7. The shell is equipped with fixation device 3 and internal sealing valve 6 mounted in its tail end. Channel 2 is made in the shell body with the possibility of installation in it fixation device 3 of adjacent shell. Cone-shaped parting walls 4 in the with holes 5. The ridges 7 are made of rubber and helical curve positioned with a 45-70-degree slope to horizon with lead equal to 2D. Shell length 1 is taken as 6-8D where D is a blast-hole diametre, m.
EFFECT: design simplification, reduction in working hours of installation, mining safety improving, stemming cost saving.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device relates to drilling-and-blasting in competent formation field and can be used in different fields, using blasting in rocky formation massif. Combined plug contains bulk material 6 and cylinder 1 with channel for conductor of initiating pulse. Cylinder 1 is filled by bulk material and is implemented from plastic with openings 4, uniformly distributed by its sides. In bottom part cylinder 1 allows conical basis with vertex of cone angle from 60° up to 110°. From outer face of cylinder 1 it is installed rubber covering 2. Device diametre is accepted equal to 0.9-0.95D, where D - well bore, m, device's height is accepted not less than 2.5D. Internal diametre 4 is accepted equal to 0.1D. Distance between openings row 4 by vertical line is accepted equal to 0.3D. Channel for conductor of initiating pulse is implemented in the form of longitudinal hollow in cylinder 1.
EFFECT: invention provides design simplification, laboriousness reduction of installation and plug's cost price, and also safety increasing of mining implementation.
FIELD: explosive works.
SUBSTANCE: transmitter and attenuator of explosion denotation pulse relates to stoping method of block stone out of rocks in open-pit using blasting operations. Mixture consists of transmitter and attenuator of explosion denotation pulse in shothole represented by unexplosive material, disposed between explosive material and shothole walls. Mixture contains wt %: watersoluble thickener - 0.36-10.0; explosion absorbing additives - 1.45-3.0; component correcting hydrogen ion exponent - 0.06-0.6; the rest - water. Mixture has hydrogen ion exponent from pH 6 to pH 8 and relative viscosity from 8 to 20 seconds according to viscometer with nozzle of 6 mm. Transmitter and attenuator of explosion denotation pulse in shothole is obtained with consistence filling shothole except for small splits. Mixture transmits and evenly distributes decreased load on shothole walls, regulated by viscosity. Invention ensures qualitatively splitting along shotholes row without damaging rock block, reducing expenses on explosive material and harmful effect on ecology.
EFFECT: ensuring qualitatively splitting along shotholes row without damaging rock block, reducing expenses on explosive material and harmful effect on ecology.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: earth or rock drilling, particularly means adapted to reduce mutual impact influence of explosives during well development and operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging one or more shock-absorbing members near one or more explosive doses, which prevent propagation of shock caused by detonation of the explosive doses. Shock-absorbing members include porous material, for instance gas-filled liquid or porous solid material, having 2%-9% porosity. Shock-proof screen may be arranged between detonating cord and explosive doses. Hollow charges may be placed in capsule.
EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity.
57 cl, 30 dwg