Agent for separating adhesive tape from carrying surface
SUBSTANCE: agent for separating adhesive tape from carrying surface is characterised by that, the agent used is petroleum ether which provides temporary loss of adhesion properties of the adhesive tape when deposited, while preserving initial structure of the adhesive layer after separating the tape from the surface.
EFFECT: efficient and fast separation of adhesive tape from surface, with preservation of initial structure of adhesive layer, thus providing efficient detection of traces on the adhesive tape during crime detection.
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to forensics (forensic engineering), namely to the field of thracology (fingerprinting), and can be used as a means for the Department of sticky tape from various surfaces, as well as for separation or separation of the glued together pieces of masking tape with the preservation of its technological properties (integrity and consistency of the adhesive layer) for subsequent detection and identification of traces of the hands on the surface of the adhesive side of the tape.
The level of technology
Currently adhesive (sticky) tape ("Scotch") is widely used not only in commercial, residential, industrial spheres of human activity, but when committing crimes. For example, adhesive tape criminals wrapped invalid handle knives, guns, the butts of their rifles, with the help tie the hands and feet, close my eyes and mouth of the victim. All this is undertaken in order to facilitate the Commission of a crime.
Adhesive tape has specific properties that complicate the identification of existing on its surface invisible podozerovym traces hands. It is, first, the impossibility of processing the adhesive side of the tape fingerprint powders (the most common way OBN is pursued invisible traces of hands), secondly, in strong bonding between the layers of tape, which complicates the procedure of exfoliation of the layers from each other to detect on their surface traces of the hands.
Usually the adhesive (sticky) tape wound on the object in several layers.
In forensic practice currently used mainly film adhesive materials - glutinous (sticky) tape used in everyday life, which usually contain two layers - the base layer and stickiness. As the last in the existing films are mainly used compositions based on low-molecular and high-molecular compounds (gum rosin, cellulose ethers, chloroprene, isoprene, isobutilene, the best choice rubbers, phenol-formaldehyde, acrylic and other resins).
The basis of such films is composed of polyvinyl chloride, cellophane, polyethylene, polietilentereftalata paper and other
Currently, the adhesive tape can be removed with the bearing surfaces or separated in any of four ways:
- the use of volatile solvents;
Using heat to separate the adhesive tape entails damage to her sticky layer with an almost absolute loss traces hands left by the offender at its adhesive layer. Because this is about the Department has no real use in forensic practice.
Physical (mechanical) way of separating the adhesive tape through the substrate from the surface also leads to extensive damage to the adhesive (sticky) layer with fingerprints, because the force of adhesion (adhesion) of the adhesive layer with the surface exceeds the force pulling it from the surface.
You know the tool "Off Label 50" for separating the adhesive tape from various surfaces by dissolving and neutralizing the adhesive component. This uses volatile mineral solvent, which after some time, leaves no residue on the surface.
Label Off 50 - Tool for removal of self-adhesive labels and tape residue. Technological materials KONTAKT CHEMJE. Manufacturer CRC Jndustries Europe NV, Belgium).
The main purpose of the use of specified funds - preserving the purity of the surface, from which a branch of the adhesive layer while the adhesive as a result of partial dissolution is not saved, and therefore, the Label Off 50 may not be used in forensic practice to separate the adhesive tape from the surface or separation of the adhesive layers, since you can't save, to detect and identify traces of the hands on the adhesive layer.
You know the tool that corresponds to the task of maintaining the adhesive layer. It is a mixture of volatile solvents, which according to the ACLs of company "Sirchie", includes solvent, such as butylbenzylphthalate (5-10%), chloroform, 5%, toluene 30-60%, poly(butylmethacrylate - co-methyl methacrylate) (d) 30-60%.
(The means for separating the film "UN-du Adhesive Removal System" preserving traces of the hands of the firm "Sirchie Finger Print labs (USA), catalog number UN-DU 100).
It is known that toluene is among the toxic products of the third class of danger, and to the number of flammable and explosive products, vapours are narcotic, harmful effect on the nervous system, are irritating to skin and mucous membranes of the eye. It is necessary to use personal protection: filter respirator with box brand and BKF, goggles, rubber gloves, protective clothing, protective ointments and pastes.
Chloroform, blended with "UN-DU", as dangerous as improper or prolonged storage it can form phosgene, causing poisoning. In addition, chloroform may cause harmful effects on the liver and kidneys, and cause heart disorder.
In addition, the above-mentioned means, according to the company "Sirchie"cannot be used for separating the adhesive tape from leather and suede products.
The most effective tool in forensic practice to separate the adhesive tape from the surface is n the applicatio liquid nitrogen either through the plate, chilled with liquid nitrogen, or using an aerosol jet.
However, this method has many disadvantages and limited in scope.
Thus, with the use of liquid nitrogen should be taken special precautions both during storage and during use: wearing a face mask, special gloves, etc. When this nitrogen can be applied only on a limited area due to the inability cooling of large volumes of physical bodies and cannot be used for separation (separation) of one layer of masking tape from the other, and in relation to living persons, wrapped adhesive tape ("Home Office building a safe, just and tolerant society Scientific Development Branch Investigation Enforcement and Protection Sector", March 2006 Publication No. 23/06 "Additional Fingerprint Development Techniques for Adhesive Tapes Abstract").
The technical result of the invention is the expansion of the means used for separating the adhesive tape from the surface, and relatively less dangerous and provide efficient and rapid separation of the adhesive side of the tape from any surfaces with the preservation of its technological properties.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that as a means of separating the adhesive tape from the carrier surface applied petroleum ether With5-C6isotrate.
Petroleum ether is a liquid mixture nassen the x hydrocarbons (mainly 5-C6), obtained by re-distillation of gasoline by separating the light fraction (Glinka D., General chemistry. Edition 16-e, revised L., "Chemistry", 1974, str). Petroleum ether used as solvent for resins, fats, oils (Folder K.K., Ragozin N.A. "Dictionary of fuels, oils, lubricants, additives and special liquids. 4 ed., M., 1975, s).
However, as a means for separating the adhesive tape from the surface and separation of the adhesive (sticky) side of each other this liquid mixture is not used.
Moreover, in the mentioned case of petroleum ether used as a solvent. The effect of this liquid substance is based on the effect of temporary loss of adhesion properties of the adhesive tape in the short-term saturation of its sticky (adhesive) layer with petroleum ether. Due to this separation sticky (adhesive) layer of the tape while maintaining its original structure and its traces hands. As a result of rapid evaporation of the petroleum ether is observed subsequent full recovery of all properties of a sticky tape 30-40 seconds after applying the specified funds. Thus the traces of the hands and other external influences also completely preserved.
The use of petroleum ether to separate the adhesive tape from the supporting surface the TEI is as follows.
Between the adhesive tape and the surface is applied with a capillary petroleum ether and gradually wetting the adhesive (sticky) layer, separating the tape from the surface.
After separation of the tape in expanded form dry for 2-3 minutes, after which it is ready for further forensics. It can be carried out not only in terms of the forensic lab, but also in the examination of the scene.
To ensure safety when working with petroleum ether sufficient to use the respirator type "Petal" and medical or polyethylene gloves.
Currently, the tests proposed tools (code name "Sticker") in forensic centers, including the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus and the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (copies attached).
Tests have shown that our proposed tool allows you to quickly and efficiently share glued together adhesive (sticky) tape and separate them from the carrier surface with preservation of existing adhesive (sticky) layer of traces of hands for further expert study.
Means for separating the adhesive tape from the bearing surface, characterized in that as a means of using petroleum ether, thereby providing him applying the lie is nnow loss of adhesion properties of the adhesive tape while maintaining the original structure of the adhesive layer in the separation tape from the surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of optical formation of papillary patterns and can be applied in forensic science for identification of personality. Device contains successively placed and optically connected source of light, optically transparent base, made in form of figure of revolution, projection optical system and reflected light receiver, connected with processing unit. Base is made in form of concave figure of revolution, whose geometrical parametres are determined by ratio (R-r)/R=0.65-0.97, where R is radius of figure of revolution generator, r is radius of minimal in area transversal section of figure of revolution.
EFFECT: invention, due to selection of form of figure of revolution surface, ensures the most complete image of finger surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for papillary pattern registration and can be used in systems of access limiting for identification of personality by finger prints. Device contains set of two prisms, each of which is located between light source and projection system and is optically connected with them, successively placed and optically connected to each other for each of the prisms light source, projection system and system of photoreceiving elements, electrically connected to processing unit. Prism sides, perceiving finger prints, are located relative to each other in such way, that their longitudinal symmetry axes cross at angle lying within the range 60-120 degrees, also there is a system for control of coincidence of pressed to prisms fingers of personality's left and right hands.
EFFECT: application of claimed invention allows to obtain possibility of simultaneous registration of prints of any coinciding fingers of personality's left and right hands with possibility to control finger coincidence.
7 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to early diagnostics of susceptibility to type 2 sugar diabetes (SD type II). Completely open palms are scanned together with fingers first of left and then of right hand. Basing on obtained images evaluation of dermatoglyphic signs, characterising papillary patterns of distal finger phalanxes and palm patterns topography. Pattern type is taken into consideration; crest count; value of atd angle; direction of main palm lines A, B, C and D in palm fields; character of patterns on thenar, hypothenar, on fingers and in interdigital fields; quantity, width and type of palm line location; location of palm and axial triradii. Basing on evaluation results conclusion about degree of risk high risk to develop SD type II is made.
EFFECT: invention can be used for medical prophylaxis and formation of "risk group", ie for screening testing of patients who are not ill, but risk to develop SD type II is possible with definite probability.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, forensic medicine and criminology and can be used for densitometric determination of roentgenological density of jaw bone tissue in identification of personality in emergency situations. For this purpose orthopantogram is displayed on computer screen. Then by means of graphic editor of program "Trophy 2000" determined is density of presenting interest section of bone tissue of unidentified personality. After that it is compared with analogous section of presented roentgenogram.
EFFECT: method allows to improve and accelerate identification of personality due to determination of bone calcium content, which is individual.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of biometric personal authentication. Device comprises the following components that are serially installed and optically connected to each other - source of radiation, optically transparent base soaked with optically transparent liquid and intended for location on perceiving surface of body part base with papillary lines, and receiver of radiation, which is electrically connected to unit of image processing. Angle of radiation drop from source of radiation onto perceiving surface is selected within the limits of angle of complete internal reflection at interphase border "perceiving surface - liquid" to the angle of complete internal reflection at interphase border "perceiving surface - skin". On perceiving surface of the base there is a deepening filled with optically transparent liquid. Moreover, linear size of deepening corresponds to linear size of body part.
EFFECT: use of this device makes it possible to obtain high-quality high-contrast images of palm or finger prints for both dry and wet skin
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to dactyloscopy and can be used for fingerprint identification of personality. A detector comprises optically connected light source, perception surface in the form of a plate, projection optical system and the system of photodetector array connected with a processing unit. The light source, the projection optical system and the photodetector array underlies the area of finger contact with the perception surface, while the plate is made of elastic flexible material.
EFFECT: present design allows downsizing the detector, simplifying the circuit performance and cutting production costs.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of optical image generation with application of computer equipment and may be used in systems of biometric personal identification. Device comprises serially installed and optically joined to each other light source, prism and a photodetector, which is connected to unit of processing. Prism is made in the form of strongly elongated body, length of which is equal to width of analysed part of body, and near prism there is a linear motion detector installed for analysed part of body relative to perceiving facet of prism, being electrically connected to unit of processing.
EFFECT: device application makes it possible to produce guaranteed high quality of image with a considerable simplification, cost and weight reduction of device structure for registration of a papillary pattern.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to personal identification. Method consists in placement of analysed body part with registered papillary pattern onto a transparent base, its illumination with a flow of radiation from source via base and registration of radiation by a receiver. Radiation of source is generated simultaneously in two ranges of wave lengths, one of which is infrared, and registration of radiation by the receiver is done for infrared range in dispersed beams, and for the other one - in reflected ones. Device for registration comprises a transparent base, source of radiation in visible spectrum of waves installed opposite to inlet surface of base and receiver of radiation, installed opposite to outlet surface of base, being electrically connected to processing unit. Opposite to area of finger contact with a perceiving surface, there is an additional source of radiation that radiates in infrared range and is optically connected with source of radiation.
EFFECT: use of invention makes it possible to arrange recognition of a dummy and an actual finger (palm).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology of video surveillance arrangement, namely to systems and methods of automatic separation and tracking of human being face for biometric identification of a person. In method they detect presence of a human being in zone of surveillance with the help of two and more distanced video cameras with their previously known location; head position is identified in zone of surveillance, using a priori data on geometric dimensions; face area is separated together with position of elements, such as eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, on detected face; simultaneous tracking over three types of objects (point, area, graph) is carried out on face; based on a priori and detected data 3D face model is reconstructed; in case of sufficient completeness and integrity of informative criteria of produced 3D face model, angles are calculated, which define orientation of head in space; in case detected angle is sufficiently representative and differs from angles at previous frames, face is recognised based on most representative frames of image. System realizes specified method.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and speed of human face detection and tracking, and also expansion of application field.
11 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: personal utensils.
SUBSTANCE: in dactylographic identification of human personality probing is conducted by means of low-coherent optical radiation. Wave length is selected in the near IR range of 750-1200 nm. Probing is conducted by splitting of the radiation into two bundles - measuring and reference ones. Measuring bundle is fixed at the surface of the finger pads; reflected back radiation is mixed with reflected radiation from the reference bundle on the image-storage device. Regimen of layer-by-layer scanning of the measuring bundle by two transverse coordinates (x, y) for each of the set adjustments of the optical length in the reference bundle is selected. Optical length is discretely changed in the reference bundle by minimal value Δz, detected by the length of longitudinal coherency of the radiator ΔLc. Intensity of the reflected from the finger-pads optical radiation is measured at the depth of skin out of the set volume of coherency, calculated as the product ΔLc times focal spot dimension of the optical bundle D. Three - dimensional papillary structure of the surface of the tested skin of the human fingers, along with the intensity level of the reflected back optical radiation from the basal layer of epidermis and L depth of its position against stratum comeum of the finger-pads.
EFFECT: method improves quality of dactylographic identification of human personality on the base of non-contact detection of three-dimensional structure of the papillary pattern of fingers or the palm of the human.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: forensic medicine.
SUBSTANCE: for the purpose to detect the sequence of applied lesions at availability of several wounds, scratches and ecchymoses on a cadaver one should study the activity of alkaline peptides isolated out of affected tissue by the impact of blood neutrophils of healthy donors upon phagocytosis. Moreover, the highest stimulating effect belongs to the peptides isolated out of the lesion applied earlier. The method enables to detect the sequence of applied lesions more accurately and differentiate the repeated lesion applied 5 min later, or more.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of detection.
2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves studying whole blood or blood serum of cadaver by means of erythrocyte diagnosticum. Myoglobin concentration is determined. The concentration being equal to 32000 ng/l and higher in blood serum, conclusion is drawn that injuries were received in life time.
EFFECT: high accuracy of express-diagnosis.
FIELD: biometric authentication of person.
SUBSTANCE: method includes recording biometric data of a person and string these as standard data, repeated recording of biometric data of a person and comparison of these to standard data for determination of likeness between such data types and decision about positive result of person identification is taken, if degree of said likeness is higher than certain preset threshold value. After recording of biometric data of person on basis of his individual properties, affecting sensor registration of biometric data, individual parameter of person is determined and received parameter is stored for later consideration at one of following stages of method. For a fingerprint preset threshold value is decreased if identified person has exclusively dry or moist skin. On the other side, sensitivity of sensor may be decreased or increased in dependence on stored data.
EFFECT: higher reliability of authentication.
FIELD: identification devices.
SUBSTANCE: device has photographic image of a person and microprocessor, which has processor, memory, connected to processor and containing authentication data, and interface means, connected to said processor to organize communication with external device. Said photographic image has specially concealed information, contents of which when combined with said authentication data provides for authentication of said photographic image, and said microprocessor is made with possible realization of at least a portion of said authentication.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out morphological examination of viscera, determining alcohol content in blood and urine with chemical test, additionally carrying out morphometric suprarenal gland examination with endocrinocytes nuclei area in zona fasciculata of the left suprarenal gland being measured in mcm2, and semi-quantitative 4-level score analysis for determining the left suprarenal gland zona fasciculata degree of filing with blood. Probabilities of assigning a death case to injuries-incompatible-with-life group P1, to general organism cooling group P2, to ethyl alcohol poisoning group P3 are calculated from a formula. Relations of P1>P2 and P1>P3 taking place, death caused by mechanical injury is to be diagnosed. P3>P2 and P3>P2 taking place, death caused by acute ethyl alcohol poisoning is to be diagnosed. P2>P1 and P2>P3 being the case, death caused by general organism cooling is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of prediction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out morphometric microscopic examination of suprarenal glands with endocrinocytes nuclei area in zona fasciculata of the left suprarenal gland being determined, semiquantitative 4-level score analysis for determining diffuse lymphoid glomerule zone infiltration degree, semi-quantitative 4-level score analysis for determining zona glomerulosa blood saturation degree in the left suprarenal gland. Probabilities of assigning a case to death group caused by acute ethyl alcohol poisoning are calculated from a formula. P1>P2 being the case, death caused by acute ethyl alcohol poisoning is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of prediction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out morphological examination of viscera and additional morphometric microscopic examination of suprarenal glands with semi-quantitative 4-level score analysis for determining adrenalocyte cytoplasma volume in medullary substance of the left suprarenal gland, semi-quantitative 4-level score analysis for determining the left suprarenal gland zona fasciculata degree of filling with blood. Probability of assigning a case to death group caused by general organism cooling is calculated from a formula P1=[exp(5.02xA-3.98xB-2.91xC)]/[1+exp(5.02xA-3.98xB-2.91xC)]*100%; P2=100%-P1, where A is the adrenalocyte cytoplasma volume in medullary substance of the left suprarenal gland, B is the zona fasciculata blood saturation degree in the left suprarenal gland and C is the left suprarenal gland blood vessel degree of filling with blood. P1>P2 being the case, death caused by general organism cooling is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of prediction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out morphological examination of viscera and additional morphometric microscopic examination of suprarenal glands with areas of endocrinocyte nuclei of zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis of cortical substance and medullary substance adrenalocyte cytoplasma measured at least for 30 cells. Variability coefficient calculations under magnification degree of X300 are done in cases of suprarenal endocinocyte nuclei of zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis by dividing standard deviation by arithmetic mean of nuclei area in each zone and multiplying by 100%. Adrenalocyte cytoplasma volume in medullary substance of the suprarenal glands is measured with 4-level score system being used for recording. Endocrinocyte cytoplasma saturation with lipids in zona glomerulosa is calculated using 4-level score system using staining with black sudan. Probability of assigning a case to death group characterized by terminal state of pulmonary type is calculated from a formula. P1>P2 being the case, terminal state of pulmonary type is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of prediction.
FIELD: forensic medicine.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying immunoenzyme analysis using worksheet bearing immobilized narcotic substance antigen and introducing medium under study into worksheet cells. The medium is diluted in advance X times with phosphate buffer having pH=6.5. Antibodies bound to enzyme label are added to morphine and incubated at 18-20°C. The immunoenzyme analysis results are recorded in spectrophotometric way. No opiates case is detected from optical density (OD) of diluted medium under study (ODus) being equal to optical density of negative control solution (ODneg.cs). Permissible error value is not to be greater than 30% of ODneg.cs value. Opiate availability is established to be in diagnostically significant concentration of 300 ng/ml from ODus being in the range of ODpositive cs≥ODus>0. ODus=0 being the case, finite dilution is carried out until ODus becomes unequal to zero. Then, narcotic substances of opiate group are to be quantitatively determined by using a formula.
EFFECT: simplified and accelerated method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining lactate content in peripheral venous blood sample taken from cadaver. The value being less than 16 mmole/l, hypoglycemic coma is diagnosed.
EFFECT: high reliability of diagnosis independently on death outcome time.