Measuring device and conductivity metre for determination of amount of flowing conducting liquid, measuring element and method

FIELD: measuring technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a measuring device for determination of an amount d(V(z)) of conducting liquid of the conductivity LF by a capacity with vertically (z-direction) varied filling points. There is provided conductivity metre which among others has at least two electrodes extended in a z-direction. The capacitance parametres and/or the metres are ensured so that it/they can be described by means of at least one parametric function, fpi (V(z)) depending on V(z). At least one said parametric functions shall have exponential dependence on V(z). There is also described measuring element, and also method for determination of total amount of flowing liquid d (V).

EFFECT: simplified design of the device and method of measuring conductivity of the conducting liquid.

42 cl, 14 dwg

 

The invention relates to a measuring device for determining the quantity dV(z) of electrically conductive liquids with conductivity LF flowing through the tank when changing in the vertical direction (z-direction) the fill levels with a tank having a bottom part and a receiving and discharge openings, and with a device for measuring conductivity, comprising the following components: a voltage source, the device processing results and at least one measuring element, which is located in the vessel and connected to the processing device results and which has at least two passes in the z-direction of the electrode perpendicular to to the z-direction at a distance from each other, and Zmaxdenotes the distance from the bottom of the first end (31) of the electrode (z=0) to the top of the second end (32) of the electrode.

The invention also relates to a device for measuring conductivity according to the restrictive part of paragraph 5 of the formula of the invention, the measuring element for measuring a value depending on the filling level of an electrically conducting fluid with at least one passing along the electrode, and to a method of determining the total number of flow dV according to the restrictive part of paragraph 40 of the claims.

Measurement of the fill level check who is everywhere, where it is necessary to determine the quantities of liquid consequently, changes in the volumes of fluid. Measurement level is usually carried out using electrodes, which are partially immersed in a liquid. Using the appropriate measuring system measures the resistance or the electrical conductivity of the liquid, which, among other things, proportional to the level corresponding to the amount of liquid.

This uses physical dependence LF=δ0·ZK·V, where LF is the electrical conductivity, δ0- conductivity of the fluid, V is the volume of the liquid and ZK is the so-called cell constant, which is calculated from the ratio of the distance between the electrodes to the wetted surface of the electrodes.

Since conductivity δ0increase the curve of the obtained measurements (measured value depending on the volume of fill), before measuring the fill level initially to hold the calibration of this measurement corresponding conductivity. This preliminary process requires additional costs, which should be avoided.

From DE 197 26 044 known device indicating the level of liquid, in particular for containers of plants, which includes an elongated rod with at least two isolated from drugalert and the electronic circuit, which is connected to the electrodes via the running in terminal wires, and connected with a source of DC voltage. The instrument shows the liquid level. This device is for level readings should have multiple electrodes, which are located at different levels. Each electrode is connected by its own conductor with the electronic circuitry. This requires a correspondingly high cost for installation.

In DE 40 42 257 describes a method and a device for determining the fill level and the level to find the electrically conductive liquids. Thus, for example, is applied to the circuit resistance, which is vertically immersed in the liquid. From measurements of the resistance of the total system can be defined, what resistance there is on the mirror of the liquid, that means at the same time, the depth at which the liquid mirror, as of metal surface installed along the level on a small and constant distance. And in this case, the system requires cost and transmits only discrete values of the fill level.

From DE 30 18 718 known device for measuring the fill level using electrodes, which likewise has a separate electrodes for measuring the fill level, which is continuously variable with offset arranged on the carrier in the longitudinal direction of the carrier.

From JP 08050047 And WPI is the local system of electrodes with multiple electrodes, with which to measure the resistance of the liquid in the determination of the filling level.

From JP 2004077439 And known measuring electrode for measuring liquid level, which has a conical shape or the shape of a hemisphere. The lower portion of the electrode has a smaller diameter, and the upper end of the electrode has a larger diameter.

The level measurement is also carried out, in particular, water filters, and the measurement used to determine the extent of testing of the filter material in the filter cartridge. An indicator of the degree of testing is known, for example, from EP 1 484 097 A1. This indicator extent of testing based on measurements of the resistance liquid two electrodes, which are located in water containers one above the other or are in the underwater channel. This device has the disadvantage that when the change in water quality is necessary to carry out calibration measurements.

From WO 01/74719 also known indicator of the degree of testing that uses multiple electrodes immersed in the liquid. Device for filtering water block is processing the results of the determination of the scope, missed, for a certain period of time connected with indicator unit, which is the so-called indicator of the degree of failover filltablefromfile. Such devices for filtering water filled with raw water through the filling funnel, water through the filter cartridge flows down and is collected in the bottom of the cavity in the form of filtered water. When changing the supply and extraction of raw water during the service life of the filter cartridge many times there is a change in level, so that the change of level, you can make a conclusion about the amount of liquid passing through the filter cartridge. On the basis of quantities of liquid with the indicator of the degree of testing of the filter material concludes it is time to replace the filter means.

The task of the invention to provide such a measuring device which is simple in construction and eliminates the need for calibration measurements in parts of the conductivity of the liquid. The invention is also a proposal of simple construction and easy to handle measuring element, a device for measuring conductivity and method of measurement.

This problem is solved by using the measuring device in which the device conductivity measurements in time intervals ti-ti-1for i=1...n provides measured values Mti(V)=M(V(z))~LF·fM(V(z)), and the parameters, at least, capacity (5) and/or device measured the I conductivity selected so she/they may be described (described) with at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)) for i=1...m, depending on V(z), so:

fM(V(z))~f(ƒpi(V(z) for i=1...m))~bMV(z)

and bmthe number ≠0 and a ≠1, the device for processing of the results, at least for education indicators measured values and for taking the logarithm of the parameters.

The Z-direction is chosen perpendicular to the mirror of liquid in a tank for the liquid. The indicator may be positive or negative sign.

The task is also solved by a device for measuring conductivity, which differs in that the device for measuring conductivity in the time intervals ti-ti-1for i=1...n provides measured values Mti(V)=M(V(z))~LF·fM(V(z)), and the parameters of the device for measuring conductivity is chosen in such a way that it can be described using at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)) for I=1...m, depending on V(z), so:

fM(V(z))~f(ƒpi(V(z) for I=1...m))~bMv(z),

and bmthe number ≠0 and a ≠1, and a device for processing of the results, at least for education indicators measured values and for taking the logarithm of the parameters.

The image is a buy based on how when determination of the number of electrically conductive fluid flowing through the vessel is not known the value of the conductivity of the liquid, when it is not determined and the absolute value of the level of the liquid mirror, when, thanks to the design of the measuring device, there is an exponential relationship between the measured quantity Mti(V(z)) and the volume of liquid V(z) in the tank.

It turned out that for this there are various design solutions, which can be represented in General form by using parametric functions.

Under parametric function ƒpi(I describes the current index, i.e. ƒp1, ƒp2etc. is a structural parameter that has a functional dependence on V(z) and hence z. For example, such a parameter PIaccordingly, depending on z are: vessel form, the shape of the electrodes, the distance between the electrodes and the properties of the material of the electrodes. The distance between the electrodes can be represented as the spatial distance between the two electrodes or the relevant distance for electric power lines. In the latter case, both electrodes can be placed directly next to each other, if between the electrodes is an obstacle, which changes the lengths of the paths of electric power lines.

In accordance with a particular embodiment between the two electrodes is at least one element, which changes the path length of the electric lines of force generated between the two electrodes. As such element can be an integral part of a bearing element, which are both electrode or an additional element, which is located on the host element. However, preferably, if the element has such a shape that the length of the path of the lines of force varies exponentially with increasing z values.

Mainly element has a shape in which the length of the path of power lines decreases with increasing z values.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention the element is a plate, the leading edge of which has a curved shape.

Both electrodes can be located on the host element next to each other, and the plate is located between the two electrodes.

In accordance with another embodiment of the invention the electrodes are located on opposite sides of the bearing member and the side next to each electrode is such a plate, which changes the path length of the lines of force between the electrodes.

The preferred way plate feature perpendicular to the bearing element. orientirovanie this plate, forming a barrier, as determined by the execution of the bearing member and the arrangement of the electrodes on the host element. Here is preferred when the opposite arrangement of the electrodes on the host element positioning plate parallel to the supporting element.

If, as is the case in the prior art, all parameters PIhave a linear relationship, for example, the capacity represented by the cylinder, the distance between the electrodes is chosen constant, the surface of the electrodes is constant and the material of the electrodes along the length of the selected one, then to determine the amount of flow necessary to know both the magnitude of the conductivity of the liquid, and the absolute value of the level.

It turned out that at least one parametric function ƒpimust have exponential dependence to become independent of knowledge of the conductivity of the liquid, and from the knowledge of the absolute value of the fill level.

In General, the dependence of, for example, for the four parametric functions can be represented by a matrix, and the term "any" can be defined any functional dependence, and, of course, excluded, in particular the logarithmic function, which under certain circumstances would mutually destroy the exponential dependence another parametrices the th function.

The measured values(V(z))ƒp1ƒp2ƒp3ƒp4
Exponentexponentialanyanyany
Exponentanyexponentialanyany
Exponentanyanyexponentialany
ExponentanyanyAnyexponential

Also more than one parametric function ƒpican have exponential or part of the exponential dependence. It should be note that for M(V(z)) depending on V(z) and hence z is set to an exponential relationship.

The advantage of the exponential dependence the spine is what with the growth of population on a certain value, the measured value of Mti(V(z))~bMV(z)changes by the same factor, with the consequence that when determining the change in the value of conductivity of the fluid and both the level of the liquid mirror, between which there is a change volume, play no role.

Therefore, in accordance with a particular embodiment of the invention provides that at least one parametric function is: ƒpi(V(Z))~bpiV(z).

The value of the base bPIshould be chosen so that a small change in volume of the liquid will be reflected in significant changes in the measured value. The choice of the value of the base bPIalso depends on how the unit of z is measured. All data refer to z, measured in cm, even if it will not be mentioned specifically. Accordingly, this area is expressed in cm, and the volume in cm3.

It is preferable to implement bPIin the range of 0<bpi≤5, mainly from 1<bpi≤1.5, if bpi≠1.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention the parameter PIis the surface And at least one electrode. A(V(z)) is the conductive surface of the electrode is soaked in the liquids is d, which changes with increasing or decreasing volume in accordance with its design. For the surface And really

A(V(z))=ƒpi(V(z))~bAiV(z).

In this case, the rest of parametric functions, such as a parametric function that describes the shape of the vessel may have a linear relationship. In this regard, for example, a container for liquid may be in the form of a cylinder, a cube or a rectangular parallelepiped.

In accordance with another embodiment of the invention the parameter PIis the vessel form F, which determines the filling volume, for which: F(V(z))=ƒpi(V(z))~bFV(z).

The function F(V(z)) is reduced, the preferred way to function the cross-section Q(z), and

For example, in tanks for liquids with very small cross-sectional area minor volume changes result in a significant change in the levels of filling, so that bFcan be small, such as less 2,5.

In vessels with a large cross-sectional area ratio of the opposite. To compare the change in volume to obtain the appropriate accuracy, you should choose bFmore than 2.5.

If the function F(V(z)) is represented by an exponential head is still then, for example, the surface of the electrodes may have a linear dependence on z, i.e. the electrodes, for example, throughout its passage in the z-direction can have a constant width.

In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, the parameter PIthe distance D between the electrodes, and for a distance D is: D(V(z))=ƒpi(V(z))~bD-V(z).

In this case, the parametric function with regard to the vessel form F(V(z)), which determines the amount of fill and/or the surface of the electrode A(V(z)) and/or other parametric functions may be, for example, a linear dependence.

The exponential dependence may also have material of the electrodes, namely, that the properties of the material, for example, the conductivity of the electrode material is changed from z exponentially.

The preferred way measuring element has a carrier plate, and both electrodes are located on opposite sides of the carrier plate. The electrodes in the manufacture of the measuring element is already set in place, which simplifies the installation of the measuring element in the tank for the liquid. Aligning both of the electrodes to obtain a pre-defined value of the measuring cell disappears.

The preferred way measuring element so located in the tank for the fluid is STI, what a sweeping second end of the electrode is at the top. Due to this, if you increase the amount of filling is implemented by increasing curve measurements.

In accordance with a particular embodiment of the invention, the measuring element can be integrated in a wall of capacity for liquids. In this case, it is preferable to have both electrodes on the distance to the vessel wall to the fluid, or install these electrodes against each other.

In accordance with a particular embodiment of the invention a container for liquid is the admissions funnel filter device for water. When such receiving hoppers liquid, usually poured on top. The drain hole is at the bottom of the hopper, where there is also a filter element, for example, the filter cartridge. The determination of the number of leaking fluid under the special use of the measuring device can be used to determine when it is necessary to replace the filter cartridge, and applied in this respect as a measuring device, taking into account the volumetric load on the filter cartridge.

The processing device may be attached to the display device. This indicator device when the measuring device as the device for measuring the volumetric load on the filter cartridge can be an indicator device, which will indicate to the user the need to replace the filter cartridge.

The preferred image of the source voltage, the block processing of the results and at least one measuring unit are combined into one structural unit. In accordance with another embodiment of the invention in a constructive unit can also be integrated display device. When the external voltage source preferably in one building block joint processing unit and at least one measuring element. Such forms of the invention provide easy handling and quick replacement of the device, as the device must be installed as a unit in the tank, which will be measuring the amount of flow.

The measuring element proposed in accordance with the invention, to determine the measured quantity of electrically conductive fluid, depending on the fill level, includes at least one elongated in the length of the electrode, the surface electrode And the increasing distance z from the first electrode end to the second end of the electrode increases exponentially. In this case, is: A(V(z))~bAiV(z)andwhen B(z) the width of the electrode depending on z. Orsodacnidae, as for B(z) is the exponential dependence A(V(z))~A(z)≈B(z)~bA2z. For bA2preferably set to 0<bA2≤5 and bA2≠1, and the preferred region for bA2is the area between 1 and 1.5 (1<bA2≤1.5A). It really is for the case when z is measured to see If other units for the z basis bA2must be chosen accordingly.

Preferably, when the electrodes are constantly expanding. In accordance with another embodiment, the width of the electrodes may be changed stepwise, and zavertyshami the end of this stage is described by an exponential relationship. This design leads to the corresponding jumps curve measurement, which can be obtained at the block processing of the results, is attached to the measuring element, in the determination of absolute levels of fill.

Width B1at the first end of the electrode is preferably from 0.1 to 20 mm In Width2on the second end of the electrode lies mainly in the range from 5 to 30 mm

At the first end of the electrode is perpendicular to the axis of the electrode having the form of a beam section of the electrode. This shaped beam expansion is used to obtain a particular initial measured value.

One of the two ends of the electrode is provided with a contact element. When this contact element, the preferred way is mounted on the upper end of the electrode that protrudes from the liquid.

The electrodes may consist of metal, metal alloy, an electrically conductive synthetic material or other electrically conductive material.

To facilitate the handling of electrodes, at least one electrode is located on the host element.

The measuring element can be integrated into the vessel wall to the fluid. In this case, the vessel wall to the fluid-bearing element.

When the bearing element is a separate part, it is the preferred form of the plate at opposite sides of which may be located respectively on the electrode. The electric field between both electrodes around the element.

Preferably, both electrodes are made identical.

The carrier preferably has a cross section in the form of a double T, which gives the advantage of stability and, hence, prevents damage to the electrodes during the mechanical loads on the measuring element.

The carrier plate has a next to the first end of the two electrode supports, which serve to maintain the distance to the bottom of the tank for the liquid. Thanks atombased primary electric field, which is distributed under the measuring element. At low liquid levels in the tank primary field is still completely inside the liquid column.

Preferably, if the electrodes and the carrier plate consists of a synthetic material. When this electrode is selected electrically conductive synthetic material and the plate is a synthetic material that does not conduct electric current. Measuring element, therefore, can be made in the form of a two-component molded parts manufactured by way of injection molding.

The way to determine the total amount of electrically conductive liquids with conductivity LF flowing through the tank when changing in the vertical direction (z-direction) the fill levels, with capacity and device for measuring the conductivity has the following stages of the method:

- the definition of the parameters, at least, capacitance and/or a device for measuring conductivity so that it/they could (could) be described (described) with at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)), which depends on V(z), for I=1...m,

- coordination of at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)) thus, what is provided by the device for measuring the conductivity of the measured values were the actual in the form: M(V(z))~LF·f M(V(z))~f(ƒpi(V(z))~bMV(z),

- measurements to determine the Foundation of the bM,

- determination of the measured values Mti(V(z)) in time intervals ti-ti-1for i=1...n

education indicators Mti+1/Mtiand taking the logarithm of indicators to determine dVIand

- summation n-values dVIto determine the total number of flow dV.

Measurement to determine the Foundation of the bMfor the corresponding system, as a rule, is carried out once with a previously determined quantity of liquid, namely, before it starts the definition of measured values. The value of the base bMthus, is defined once, and then it is calculated using the measured values. The value of bMused logarithmically indicators when determining dVI.

The preferred way during operation of the device, into which the measuring device, the measured value Mtidetermined at time intervals from 1 to 100 C. What time intervals are appropriate, are determined by, among other things, frequency of use and the speed of the flow in the respective device. If the device we are talking about filtering device for water, it depends to a large m is re, how much filtered water you want. As the preferred intervals provided by the intervals from 1 to 20, in particular from 2 to 10 C.

Exemplary embodiments of the invention are explained in more detail below using the drawings, which show:

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of the measuring device in accordance with the first embodiment.

Figure 2. Top view of the measuring element in accordance with the first embodiment.

Figure 3. Horizontal section through the measuring element shown in figure 2, along the line III-III.

Figure 4. Vertical section through the measuring element shown in figure 2, along the line IV-IV.

Figures 5A, b. Top view of a measuring element according to another second embodiment.

Figure 6. Capacity for liquids with integrated electrode.

Figure 7. Schematic illustration of the measuring device in accordance with the second embodiment.

Figure 8. The vertical section of the filter device for a water measuring device.

Figure 9. Schematic representation of the measuring principle.

Figure 10. Chart, on which the measured value is determined based on volume for the three liquids with different conductivity.

Figures 11a, b. Two VI is on the side of the measuring element in accordance with another embodiment.

Figures 12A-C. Two side view and top view of the measuring element in accordance with another embodiment.

Figure 13. Side view of the measuring element in accordance with another embodiment and

Figure 14. Device for measuring conductivity in the form of an integral structural unit.

Figure 1 schematically shows a measuring device 10 in accordance with the first embodiment. The measuring device includes a device 10A conductivity measurements with the measuring element 20, which is located inside the tank 5 for the liquid. Capacity 5 for liquids has a wall 6A on the perimeter and bottom portion 6b, and the upper zone of the wall 6A perimeter is receiving hole 7a for the liquid, and in the lower zone is located drain hole 7b. As the incoming and outgoing amount of fluid varies in time, so that the mirror 40 of the liquid in the tank 5 is also constantly changing (see double arrow). To measure the amount of liquid flowing through the tank 5, is provided by the measuring device 10.

The measuring element 20 of the measuring device 10 has a support plate 21, on the front and rear sides of which are respectively the electrodes 30A, 30b. When installing the bearing plate 21 with the electrodes 30A, 30b should pay attention is that that at full capacity nor the electrodes in whole or in electrical connection should not be immersed in liquid. The maximum mirror of fluid indicated by the numeral 42. On figure 1 you can see only the electrode 30A mounted on the front side. Not pictured electrode 30b located on the rear side of the measuring element made identical. In this case we are talking with the electrodes 30A, 30b, the width of which increases from the bottom up, with the width of the electrodes from the bottom or first end of the electrode obeys an exponential function depending on the distance z. The functional relationship between A(V(z)) and z is initially set using A(V(z))~bA1V(z)that is reflected in the exponential expansion of the electrodes, namely, A(V(z))~bA2zor width B(z)~bA2z. Axis z is shown in the right part of figure 1, the zero point of the axis z lies on the lower end 31 of the electrodes 30A, 30b. The distance of the lower end of the electrodes 30A, 30b to the bottom part 6 denoted by and. The volume of liquid in this zone when the assessment is taken into account by using a fixed rate.

Both electrodes 30A, 30b are connected using the connecting wires 11 to the device 12 for processing the results, which is attached to the indicator unit 13. All components of the device measured the I conductivity expediently combined in one structural unit, these components are located in one building, as depicted on figure 14. Thus, the capacity can be equipped in a simple way. The device 10A for measuring conductivity is established in the vessel, which facilitates installation.

With the aid of the measuring device 10 measures the conductivity of the liquid 41, and measurement and evaluation can be carried out continuously or discretely. Electric lines of force between the two electrodes 30A and 30b are indicated by position 36.

The figure in the enlarged view presents a top view of the measuring element 20. The measuring element 20 consists of a carrier plate 21 and two measuring electrodes 30A, b. The carrier plate 21 itself consists of a Central plate 24 and located at the edges of the two T-shaped shelves 25A, b, as can be seen in figure 3. Thanks to this support plate in cross section has the shape of a double T. the lower end of the Central plate 24 has a recess 23, and T-shaped shelves continue down and form the supports 22A, b.

On both sides of the Central plate 24 are identical electrodes 30A, b, which symmetrically extend to the upper end. Each electrode 30A, b has a narrow first end 31 and a wide second end 32 of the electrode, and the first end 31 of the electrode is located at the bottom and the second end 32 of the electrode seat is no region of maximum liquid mirror 42. The figure 2 shows the installation position in the tank 5 to the liquid in the figure 1.

Width of the electrode 30A increases continuously from the first end 31 of the electrode to the second end 32 of the electrode with increasing distance z. Zmaxdenotes the distance from the bottom of the first end 31 of the electrode to the upper end 32 of the electrode. For width In really condition: B(z) is proportional to bA2z.

The first end 31 of the electrode the electrode 30A has an extension 35 in the form of a beam perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. It has the form of a beam extension 35 is used to determine the value of the initial measured value. This applies also to the electrode 30b.

The second end 32 of the electrode is attached a contact element 33 that has a contact tablet 34, for example made of silicone with graphite. Contact element 33 corresponds to the size of the contact tablet 34 and exits on the sides of the electrode to the outside. Contact tablet 34 serves as a connecting element for connecting wires 11, which is held to the device 12, the processing of the results, as shown in figure 1.

The figure 3 shows a section along the line III-III of the measuring element 20, are presented in figure 2. You can see that on both sides of the Central plate 24 are electrodes 30A, b.

The figure 4 show the vertical section along the line IV-IV of the measuring element, presented in figure 2. The carrier plate 21 consists of non-conductive synthetic material, while the electrodes 30A, b are made of conductive synthetic material. This is possible due to the fact that the measuring element 20 is made in the form of a two-component molded parts manufactured by way of injection molding.

Figure 5A presents another variant implementation of the measuring element 20, which differs from the variant of implementation according to figure 2 in that the electrodes 30A, 30b (30b on the back side, so it is not visible) is asymmetric and have a direct and exponential, i.e. curved, the boundary lines.

In figure 5b we can see another modification, which has a stepped electrode 30A. Wrapped the end of the 37 individual level 38 corresponds to the right of the bounding line electrode 30A in figure 5A and is equally kind of exponential curve.

The figure 6 presents another variant implementation of the measuring device 10, which differs from the variant implementation figure 1 in that the electrodes 30A, 30b are located opposite each other in the wall 6A of the tank 5 to the liquid and that of the receiving hole for liquid 7a is not in the surrounding wall, and in the lid. The perimeter wall 6A in this embodiment, assumes the function the carrier plate 21 according to the above described variants of implementation. The maximum mirror 42 of the liquid is chosen so that the contact element 33 of the electrode connections are not immersed in the liquid.

The figure 7 presents another variant implementation of the measuring device 10. While under option implementation figure 1 capacity 5 for liquid, has a rectangular shape, so that the function F(V(z)) subject to a direct, capacity 5 for liquids according to figure 7 tapers upwards. Lateral wall 6A is bent exponentially, so that the function F(z), which describes the cross-section of the vessel 5 to the liquid is an exponential function. That is, there is F(V(z))~F(z)~bF-z. In this case, the measuring element 20 with the electrodes 30A, 30b can be made so that the electrodes in the z-direction have a constant width.

In the figure 8 in a vertical cross-section of the filter device 1 for water, which has a jar 2 with a handle 3 and the cover 4, as well as being in a jar 2 receiving funnel 5A. From the drain hopper 7b 5A is a filter cartridge 50. Raw water 8 after removal of the cover 4 or through the pouring hole 7a in the lid 4 is poured into the receiving funnel 5A and passing it through the filter cartridge 50, comes in a jar 2, into which the filtered water 9.

In the admissions funnel 5A is device is about 10A for measuring conductivity, which has a measuring element 20, which is connected with the electric wires 11 with the device 12, the processing results. The device 12 processing of the results contains a unit of energy. On the device 12, the processing results set the indicator device 13, which is located in the cover 4 and which is visible from the outside. The device 10A for conductivity measurements can be performed also in the form of a structural unit as shown in figure 14. This building block can be mounted in the cover or in containers.

When you receive raw water 8, there is an increase in mirror 40 of the liquid. During the filtration of the mirror 40 of the liquid drops.

Various fill levels can be concluded about the volume of liquid which has passed through the filter cartridge 50. This volume is a measure to determine whether replacement of the filter cartridge 50.

Changes mirror 40 of the liquid is recorded by the measuring element 20. With the help of the device 12, the processing results on the measured values is calculated, the corresponding amount considering the size of the receiving funnel 5A. If exceeded the value of the volume specified for this filter cartridge 50, it is brought with the help of the indicator device 13 to the user. In this embodiment, measuring the device 10 is used as a device for measuring the volumetric load on the filter cartridge 50.

The figure 9 presents the fundamental image of the location of the electrodes 30A, b, dV denotes the volume change of the fluid when you change the mirror 40 of the liquid. With this measuring device 10 were measured for the three liquids with different conductivity. The result is shown in the chart in figure 10.

The measured values Mtiare defined in predetermined time intervals Δt=ti-ti-1. Have:

M(V(z))=K(LF)·ƒM(V(z))=K(LF)·bMV(z)and thus, for two consecutive measured values get

M1(V)=K(LF)·bMV1; M2(LF)=K(LF)·BMV2

For the relationship of the two measured values is valid:

where

M1is the value measured at V1i.e. at time t1,

M2is the value measured at V2i.e. at time t2,

V1the absolute volume before the volume change,

V2= absolute volume after volume changes,

dV=V1-V2(the difference volumes)

K - coefficient of proportionality, which, among other things, depends on LF. Other influencing factor K values are cell constant, constant volume, the coefficient of proportionality of the measuring amplifier

bM- the number of base Expo is Antialias functions is determined based on the geometry of the measuring cell for conductivity and dimensions of the container (change in volume/change of the measured value).

By taking the logarithm is obtained dependence

From the formula we can see that the K-factor is reduced. The basis of the bMmust be determined for the respective measurement system using a single calibration and enter as a constant number of bases in dimension.

For the example shown in figure 10, for a measured value obtained values for M2=10 and M1=20 (base bM=2,5937)that provides for the following calculations (data volume in liters, z in cm)

A) low conductivity: K=1,8182; M1=20; V1=2,516; M2=10; V2=1,789; dV=0,727

B) mean conductivity: K=3,6363; M1=20; V1=1,789; M2=10; V2=1,061; dV=0,727

C) high conductivity: K=7,7272; M1=20; V1=1,061; M2=10; V2=0,334; dV=0,727

Thus, regardless of K and conductivity LF liquid is measured always the same volume change.

For measuring the differential volume is very well suited exponential measuring principle. The advantage is that such indicators as, for example, the absolute conductivity of the liquid, does not affect the determination of measured values and what you want tol is to two dimensions for a differential volume.

In figures 11a and 11b are two types one side of the measuring element 20 in accordance with another embodiment. Both electrodes 30A, 30b, which given the shape of strips having a constant width, are located next to each other on the base plate 21. Between the two electrodes 30A, 30b is a barrier in the form of a plate 26, which consists of non-conductive material and which increase in z reduces the path length of the electric force lines 36. Using boom achieves the same effect as when correspondingly changing the distance between the opposite electrodes. Plate 26 has a decreasing bottom-up width Ba(z) with the consequence that the path length of the power lines 36 between the two electrodes 30A, 30b decreases from bottom to top.

Although both electrodes spatially located next to the carrier plate 21, for a path length of the electric lines of force through the plate creates an exponentially decreasing from the bottom up, the distance D between the two electrodes 30A, 30b.

The functional relationship between the distance In theandand V(z) is set

which ultimately leads to exponentially curved front Cray plate 26.

In figures 12A-C presents a modification of option exercise, and figure 12b shows a cross-section on the-turn a-a in figure 12A. Both electrodes 30A, 30b are located on opposite sides of the carrier plate 21. To reduce the length of way for power lines 36 with increasing z, on both sides of the electrodes 30A, 30b are plates 26a, b, C and d. The functional relationship between significant for power lines the distance between the two electrodes 30A, 30b similar functional relationship, which is described in connection with figures 11a and 11b.

Figure 13 shows another variant embodiment of the invention, in which both electrodes 30A, b are located on opposite sides of the carrier plate 21. Both plates 26a, b, which reduces the path length of the electric power waves with increasing z, located at the end of the bearing member 21 and can be an integral part of the carrier plate 21.

The figure 14 shows a variant implementation of the measuring element according to figure 11a integrated device 12 of the processing results and the indicator device 13, which also includes a current source. The structural unit is installed in the tank and there is attached.

The list of items

1 Device for filtering water

2 Jug

3 Handle

4 Cover

5 Capacity for liquids

5 loading hopper

6 Wall around the perimeter

6a Bottom part

7a Receiving hole

7b outlet

8 Raw water

9 Filtered water

10 Metering is tion device

10A, the Device for measuring the conductivity of

11 electrical connection cable

12, the processing Device results

13 Indicator device

20 Measuring element

21 Bearing plate

22A,b Pillar

23 Excavation

24 Central plate

25A,b T-regiment

26 Plate

26a,b,c,d Plate

27 cutting edge

30A,b of the Measuring electrode

31 the First electrode end

32 the Second electrode end

33 Contact

34 Contact tablet

35-shaped beams extending

36 Electric power lines

37 Wrapped the end

38 Stage

40 Mirror liquid

41 Liquid

42 Maximum liquid mirror

1. The measuring device (10) to determine the number of dV(z) flowing through the receptacle (5) of electrically conductive liquids with conductivity LF when changing in the vertical direction (z-direction) the fill levels with a capacity of (5)with bottom part (6b) and the receiving and discharge openings (7a, b), and device (10A) for the measurement of conductivity, comprising the following components: a voltage source, the device (12) treatment of results and at least one measuring element (20), which is located in the vessel (5) and is attached to the device (12) processing results and which has at least two passes in the z-direction ele is trade (30A, (b)spaced from each other perpendicularly to the z-direction, and Zmaxdenotes the distance from the bottom of the first end (31) of the electrode (z=0) to the top of the second end of the electrode (32), characterized in that the device (10A) for conductivity measurements in the time interval ti-ti-1for i=1...n provides measured values Mti(V)=M(V(z))~LF·fM(V(z)), that the parameters, at least, capacity (5) and/or device (10A) for the measurement of conductivity is chosen in such a way that it/they may be described (described) with at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)) for i=1...m, depending on V(z), so:
fM(V(z))~f(ƒpi(V(z) for i=1...m))~bMv(z)and bmthe number ≠0 and a ≠1,
and that the device (12) processing results, at least for education indicators measured values and for taking the logarithm of the parameters.

2. The measuring device according to claim 1, characterized in that the parameter Pi is of the form F capacitance, which determines the filling volume and shape of the tank is valid: F(V(z))=ƒpi(V(z)~bFV(z).

3. The measuring device according to claim 1, characterized in that the measuring element (20) is integrated in the wall (6A) of the container (5) for the liquid.

4. The measuring device according to claim 1, characterized in that capacity is ü (5) for the liquid is receiving funnel (5A) of the filter device (1) for water.

5. Device for measuring conductivity to determine the number of dV(z) flowing an electrically conductive fluid at the fill levels varying in the vertical direction (z-direction) with the voltage source, the device (12) for processing the results and at least one measuring element (20)connected to the device (12) for processing the results, having at least two electrodes (30A, b), passing in the z-direction, which are located at a distance from each other perpendicular to the z-direction, and Zmaxcorresponds to the distance from the bottom of the first end (31) of the electrode (z=0) to the top of the second end (32) of the electrode, characterized in that the device (10A) for conductivity measurements in time intervals ti-ti-1for i=1...n provides measured values Mti(V)=M(V(z))~LF·fM(V(z)), that the parameters of the device (10A) for the measurement of conductivity is chosen in such a way that it can be described using at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)) for i=1...m, depending on V(z), so:
fM(V(z))~f(ƒpi(V(z) for i=1...m))~bMV(z)
and bmthe number ≠0 and a ≠1,
and that the device (12) processing results, at least for education indicators measured values and for taking the logarithm of the index is.

6. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that at least one parametric function is:
ƒpi(V(z))~bpiV(z)mostly when 0<bPI≤5 and bpi≠1 and z, see

7. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that at least one parameter PIselected in such a way that ƒPI(V(z))~bpiV(z)mostly when 1<bPI≤1.5 and z, see

8. The device according to any one of claims 1,5, characterized in that the parameter PIrepresents a surface And at least one electrode (30A, b) and that the surface But really: A(V(z))=ƒpi(V(z))~bA1V(z).

9. The device according to any one of claims 1,5, characterized in that the parameter PIrepresents the distance D between the electrodes (30A, b) and that for a distance D really:
D(V(z))=ƒpi(V(z))~bD-V(z).

10. The device according to any one of claims 1, 5, characterized in that the measuring element (20) has a bearing element (21) and that both electrodes (30A, b) are located on opposite sides of the support member (21).

11. The device according to any one of claims 1, 5, characterized in that the measuring element(20) is thus located in the vessel (5) for the liquid that a wide second end (32) of the electrode is at the top.

12. The device according to any one of claims 1,5, characterized in that the device (12) processing results p is soedinenie to the display device (13).

13. The device according to any one of claims 1,5, characterized in that at least the voltage source, the device (12) treatment of results and at least one measuring element (20) are integrated into one structural unit.

14. The device according to item 13, wherein in the structural unit-integrated display device (13).

15. The device according to any one of claims 1, 5, characterized in that between the two electrodes (30A, 30b) is at least one element made with the possibility to change the path length of the electric lines of force (36)formed between the two electrodes (30A, 30b).

16. The device according to item 15, wherein the element has such a shape that the path length of the electric lines of force (36) exponentially decreases with increasing z values.

17. The device according to claim 16, characterized in that the element is a plate (26, 26a-d), whose free front edge (27) has a curved shape.

18. The device according to item 15, characterized in that both electrodes (30A, 30b) are located on the support element (21) next to each other, and plate (26, 26a-d) is located between the two electrodes (30A, b).

19. The device according to item 15, characterized in that both electrodes (30A, b) are located on opposite sides on the host element (21), while next to each electrode (30A, b) is accordingly the plate (26, 26a-d).

20. is a device for p or 19, characterized in that the plate (26, 26a-d) is perpendicular to the supporting element (21).

21. The use of the device (10) according to any one of claims 1 to 5 as a device for measuring the volumetric load on the filter cartridge (50).

22. The application of item 21, wherein the measuring device (10) has a display device (13)which has a capability to show the time that the replacement filter cartridge (50).

23. Measuring element for determining the measurement value of the electrically conductive fluid dependent on the filling level, with at least one passing along the electrode (30A, b), characterized in that the surface And the electrode (30A, b) increases exponentially with increasing distance z from the first end (31) of the electrode to the second end (32) of the electrode.

24. The measuring element according to item 23, wherein the surface And the electrode (30A, b) is valid: A(V(z))~bA2zwhen 0<bA2≤5 and bA2≠1 and z, see

25. The measuring element according to item 23 or 24, characterized in that the surface And the electrode (30A, b) is valid: A(V(z))~bA2zwhen 1<bA2z≤1.5 and z, see

26. The measuring element according to item 23, wherein the width of the electrode (30A, b) is modified by the steps of (38).

27. The measuring element according to item 23, wherein the widths of the B1 of the first end (31) of the electrode is from 0.1 to 20 mm

28. Measuring element according to claim 23, characterized in that the width B2 of the second end (32) of the electrode is 5 to 30 mm

29. The measuring element according to item 23, wherein the first end (31) of the electrode is provided having the form of a beam expansion (35)perpendicular to the axis of the electrode.

30. The measuring element according to item 23, wherein the one end (31, 32) of the electrode attached to the contact element (33).

31. The measuring element according to item 23, characterized in that the electrodes (30A, b) consist of a metal, metal alloy, an electrically conductive synthetic material or other conductive material.

32. The measuring element according to item 23, wherein the at least one electrode (30A, b) is located on the support element (21).

33. The measuring element according to p, characterized in that the bearing element is a wall (6A) of the container (5) for the liquid.

34. The measuring element according to p, characterized in that the bearing element is a bearing plate (21), on both opposite sides of which respectively is the electrode (30A, b).

35. Measuring element according to any one of p-34, characterized in that both electrodes (30A, b) are identical.

36. The measuring element 34, characterized in that the bearing plate (21) has a cross-section in the shape of a double T.

37. Measuring ele is UNT for p, characterized in that the bearing plate (21) near the first end (31) of the electrode has two supports (22A, b).

38. The measuring element according to item 23, characterized in that the electrodes (30A, b) are composed of an electrically conductive synthetic material and the carrier plate (21) consists of a non-conductive synthetic material.

39. The measuring element according to item 23, characterized in that it presents a two-component molded part obtained by the process of injection molding.

40. The method of determining the total number of dV electrically conductive liquids with conductivity LF flowing through the tank when changing in the vertical direction (z-direction) the fill levels using capacity and device for measuring the conductivity has the following stages:
the definition of the parameters, at least, capacitance and/or device for measuring the conductivity of that she/they may be described (described) with at least one parametric function ƒpi(V(z)) for i=1...m, depending on V(z),
matching, at least one parametric function ƒPI(V(z)) thus, what is provided by the device for measuring the conductivity of a measured value is valid
M(V(z))~LF·fM(V(z))~f(ƒpi(V(z))~bmV(z)
measurements to determine the Foundation of the bm
definition of measuring values of Mti(V(z)) in time intervals ti-ti-1for i=1...n.
education indicators Mti+1/Mtiand taking the logarithm of indicators to determine dVI.
the summation of n-values dVIto determine the total amount of liquid dV.

41. The method according to p, characterized in that the measured values Mtidetermine in the time interval from 1 to 100 C.

42. The method according to p or 41, characterized in that the measured values Mtidetermine time intervals from 1 to 20, mostly from 2 to 10 C.



 

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