Fire retardant for wood and metal

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction materials, and namely to fire retardants for making flame-resistant coatings for metal and wood, and can be used in shops of factories and construction sites for applying coatings to metal and wooden structures in order to increase their fire resistance. Fire retardant includes the following, wt %: magnesium hydroxide 20-70; carbamide 5-10; liquid glass is the rest. Invention has been developed in depending claim.

EFFECT: increasing heat-absorption capacity of filling, increasing efficiency of fire-resistant coatings for metals and wood, simplifying and cheapening technical process of obtaining and preparation of filler, stabilisation of filler properties during its transportation and storage.

2 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of building materials, particularly to flame retardant compositions for the formation of flame-retardant coatings on metal and wood, and can be used in workshops, factories and construction sites for deposition of coatings on metal and wooden structures in order to improve their fire resistance.

Known phosphate fire retardant coating for wood [GOST 23790-79. The coating on the wood phosphate flame retardant. The technical requirements.]. The coating contains: a binder - polymetaphosphate sodium 35-40 wt.%, the flame retardant is aluminum hydroxide 14-16 wt.%, the filler is kaolin or clay 4-6 wt.%, ash CHP 14-16 wt.%, the pigment is red iron oxide (zinc oxide) 4-6 wt.%, urea (thiourea) - 18-22 wt.%.

The disadvantages of the above composition are as follows: limited scope (coverage on wood), stringent conditions for its use (floor is used for fire protection of structures, used indoors with relative humidity not more than 75%, stringent conditions of transportation and storage), failure to comply with these conditions may result in lower quality components and, ultimately, to the deterioration of the flame retardant properties of the coating, flame retardant low efficiency of the main component of the composition of the filler

Known fire retardant coating for wood [GOST 25130-82. The coating on the wood intumescent fire retardant VPD. The technical requirements.]. This coating contains: melamineformaldehyde resin MMF-50 31.9 wt.%, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) (sodium salt technical grade 85-500) 15.9 wt.%, grind to 18.4 wt.%, dicyandiamide technical 6.3 wt.%, map brand And 27.5 wt.%.

It is characterized by the same disadvantages as the previous composition. In addition, it is scarce and expensive raw materials increases the cost of coverage without increasing the effectiveness of fire protection. Moreover, in both cases, the application of the described fire retardant coatings for wood for their preservation requires an additional coating the surface of the dried coating waterproof layer.

Known phosphate fire-resistant coating on steel [GOST 23791-79. The coating on steel phosphate flame retardant. The technical requirements.]. The coating contains: asbestos, liquid glass, nepheline flame retardant. The disadvantages of it are also in limited use (only for steel) due to low adhesion to the wood. In addition, the resistance of the surfaces of steel structures can be increased only by increasing the thickness of the layer of fire retardant coating, the latter is limited by technical difficulties receiving layer bol is large thickness due to the emerging bubbles, blisters, cracks. In addition, there are difficulties with securing fire retardant coating with high humidity and aggressive environment inside the premises as in the coating (at the stages of drying and curing)and in operation. All this does not provide a high efficiency fire protection of steel structures.

Closest to the proposed technical solution is flame retardant, adopted by the authors for the prototype, is a silicate fire retardant composition described in the description of the method of preparation [RF Patent №22223244. The preparation method of silicate fire retardant composition. The authors Zelinsky V.Y., Avakumov Mrs x, Eremina, NV, Appl. 16.09.2002,]. The composition is intended for application of fire retardant coatings on metal surfaces and wood (has enhanced adhesion at the same time in relation to metal and wood), it has high resistance when the storage apparatuses. This is achieved by using a patented method.

Flame retardant contains: liquid glass 35,0-40,0 wt.%, urea 2.5 to 4.5 wt.%, filler is an alumina - rest.

The disadvantage of this flame retardant compositions is that the coating of this composition protects wood and metal surfaces from fire only mechanical and due to the low thermal conductivity. This does not guarantee the maximum effectiveness of their fire protection.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the efficiency of fire protection coatings for metal and wood by use as a filler material with high heat-absorbing capacity, comparable to the heat of vaporization of water.

Another aim of the invention is to simplify and cheapen the process of preparation of the filler, as well as the stabilisation properties of the filler in the process of transportation and storage, and, consequently, improving the quality and efficiency of obtaining fire retardant coating.

In addition, the objective of the proposed technical solution is the expansion of the range of fillers used to produce fire-retardant coatings, and the possibility of using the cheapest of them, in particular, in the form of natural materials.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is as follows.

Features flame retardant for wood and metal, including liquid glass pre-dissolved in the urea and the filler.

Flame retardant differs in that it contains as filler magnesium hydroxide, in the following ratio, wt.%:

hydroxyzine 20-70
urea5-10
liquid glassthe rest of it.

Fire-retardant composition also differs in that it contains as magnesium hydroxide brucite.

It allows you to:

- to increase the heat absorbing capacity of the filler;

- to increase the effectiveness of fire-retardant coatings for metals and wood;

- to simplify and cheapen the process of obtaining and preparation of the filler and, as a consequence, reduce operating costs;

- to stabilize the properties of the filler in the process of transportation and storage;

- to improve the quality and efficiency of obtaining fire-retardant coatings;

- to increase the range of fillers used to obtain a fire-retardant coatings;

to make the most of cheap fillers, for example, due to the fillers in the form of natural materials, and, consequently, to reduce capital expenditures.

The following are specific examples of the use of the proposed technical solutions, including: compounds flame retardants used source materials for their production, technology training, technology of preparation of flame retardant compositions, methods of their application n the metal and wooden surfaces, data on the effectiveness of fire protection.

Use as filler flame retardants for wood and metal magnesium hydroxide (obtained chemically or as a natural component) based on the following principle.

In terms of flame at high temperature magnesium hydroxide (including brucite) decomposes into magnesium oxide and pairs:

Mq(OH)2-MqO+H2O (pairs).

When this happens the effective absorption of heat. This leads to a decrease of the temperature in the combustion zone, namely, the surfaces of the structures to be protected from fire, and the formation of a large volume of gaseous products (pair), blocking the access of oxygen to the combustion zone. The absorption of heat occurs in the temperature range of 90-250°C. This ensures a high efficiency of fire protection.

The ratio of the components (filler and binder - liquid glass with dissolved urea) in the flame retardant composition is due, on the one hand, to meet the criterion of "sufficient and necessary" to save the flame retardant properties of the coating, and on the other hand, to provide optimal conditions in the coating.

It is clear that the more the content of the filler in the composition, the greater the amount generated in the combustion zone, gaseous products (pair), blocking the access of oxygen to the combustion zone, therefore, Bo is the more the effectiveness of fire protection.

However, at low concentrations of silicate in the composition decreases the fluidity of the mixture components of the flame retardant composition, which makes it impossible for marking by spraying on the surface (metal or wood). It was established experimentally that the optimal upper limit of the content of the filler to ensure the requirements of the fluidity of the mixture when applied by spraying is 70 wt.%.

The lower limit of the content of the filler should provide optimal conditions for the coating process: it should not leak, to create smudges, should lie evenly, with no bulges and gaps. This should remain flame retardant properties of the coating. Therefore the optimal lower limit of the content of the filler (magnesium hydroxide) in the flame retardant composition is a limit of 20 wt.%. This fire-retardant properties of the composition are not particularly limited; the weight loss of the sample during the test is 4%, which corresponds to the first group of fireproof efficiency of the composition (see examples).

Thus, the optimal ratio of components in the flame retardant composition for wood and metal (wt.%):

magnesium hydroxide20-70
urea5-10
liquid glassthe rest of it.

In the proposed fire-retardant composition as a filler is magnesium hydroxide or in the form of chemical compounds or in the form of natural mineral brucite.

Preparation of brucite is grinding it to a fraction of not more than 100 μm.

Magnesium hydroxide as a chemical compound derived from magnesium oxide and its interaction with water by the reaction:

MqO+H2O=Mq(OH)2.

Obtained by this reaction product has a size less than 40 microns.

For the preparation of flame retardant composition as a binder used liquid silicate glass with a modulus of 2.0 to 3.0 and a density of 1.25 and 1.35.

A binder is prepared by mixing water glass with the addition of urea in an amount of 5-10 wt.%.

The process of obtaining a flame retardant composition is that in a pre-prepared solution of liquid glass with the addition of urea injected powdered filler in the amount of 20-70 wt.% and mix thoroughly.

To obtain a fire retardant coating obtained mixture is applied using a spray apparatus, such as a gun-spray gun designed for fire protection of metal and wooden structures. In some cases flame retardant can is about to be applied by brush or spatula.

The following examples illustrate the preparation of flame retardants for wood and metal with different ratio of components. Evaluation of the effectiveness of fire protection compositions were produced in their tests according to GOST 16363-98 "Means fire retardant for wood. Methods for the determination of protective properties.

Example 1

In the prepared liquid glass density of 1.30 g/cm3800 ml injected with 50 g of urea, mix thoroughly; add the mixture is crushed to 100 μm brucite in the amount of 300 g (21 wt.%) and also mix. Put flame retardant brush or spray on surface structures, providing a fire-retardant layer.

by 115.7
Table 1
The results of the tests
The number of samplesThe sample mass, gThe weight loss of the sample, gThe weight loss of the sample, %
Before processingBefore burningAfter
burning
1100,1120,95,24
2100,0to 121.6of 116.7a 4.94
3100,1121,7116,0the 5.75
Cressionnie4

Example 2

In the prepared liquid glass density of 1.3 g/cm3800 ml injected with 50 g of urea, mix thoroughly; add to the mixture of magnesium hydroxide in the amount of 300 g (21 wt.%). The mixture was thoroughly stirred. Fire retardant composition is applied to the surface of the structure by brush or spray.

Table 2
The results of the tests
The number of samplesThe sample mass, gThe weight loss of the sample, gThe weight loss of the sample, %/td>
Before processingBefore burningAfter
burning
1100,0to 121.0by 115.75,14
299,8120,6of 116.74,34
3100,2121,9by 115.76,25
Cressionnie4

Example 3

In the prepared liquid glass in the amount of 800 ml injected with 50 g of urea, mix thoroughly; add the mixture is crushed to 100 μm brucite in the amount of 700 g (39 wt.%) and also mix. Put a brush fire retardant on the surface of structures, providing a fire-retardant layer.

tr>
Table 3
The results of the tests
The number of samplesThe sample mass, gThe weight loss of the sample, gThe weight loss of the sample, %
Before processingBefore burningAfter
burning
1100,3121,9116,45,54
2100,5122,1116,4the 5.75
399,9121,5to 116.25,34
Cressionnie4

Example 4

In the prepared liquid glass density of 1.3 g/cm3800 ml injected with 50 g of urea, tatel the mix but; add in a mixture of magnesium hydroxide in the amount of 700 g (39 wt.%). The resulting composition is thoroughly mixed. Fire retardant composition is applied by brush to the surface, providing a fire-retardant layer.

Table 4
The results of the tests
The number of samplesThe sample mass, gThe weight loss of the sample, gThe weight loss of the sample, %
Before processingBefore burningAfter
burning
1100,0120,0115,94,13
299,8120,8of 116.74,13
3100,2121,9116,05,95
Cressionnie4

Example 5

In the prepared liquid glass density of 1.3 g/cm3800 ml injected with 50 g of urea, thoroughly mixed, add in the mixture of magnesium hydroxide in the amount of 1600 g (60 wt.%). The resulting composition is thoroughly mixed. Put a spatula flame retardant on the surface of structures, providing a fire-retardant layer.

99,5
Table 5
The results of the tests
The number of samplesThe sample mass, gThe weight loss of the sample, gThe weight loss of the sample, %
Before processingBefore burningAfter
burning
1100,8123,0119,04,03
2122,9118,74,23
399,9123,4117,44,03
Cressionnie3

Study of the properties of the flame retardants showed that the average weight loss of the sample was 4% (Examples 1-4), except the last one (Example 5), and whose average weight loss of the sample 3%. This corresponds to group 1, the flame retardant performance of the tested compounds.

Supply of flame retardant to consumers in the form of two components: 1 - in the form of a solution of liquid glass with urea and 2 - in powder form of magnesium hydroxide. This provides stabilization properties of the composition during its transport and storage.

After connecting the components and mixing them, and subsequent deposition on the surface of the structures blend in 2-3 days seizes in the monolith due to the formation of magnesium silicate from parts of magnesium hydroxide and water glass.

Preemptive used the e brucite filler flame retardants due to his extraordinary cheapness.

1. Flame retardant for wood and metal, including liquid glass pre-dissolved urea and a filler, characterized in that it contains as filler magnesium hydroxide in the following ratio, wt.%:

magnesium hydroxide20-70
urea5-10
liquid glassrest

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains as magnesium hydroxide brucite.



 

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