Safety system of hoisting crane

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to safety and control systems of travelling hoisting cranes and cranes with movable equipment. Safety system includes digital unit, to data inputs of which there connected are crane parametre sensors containing at least one movement sensor, actuating unit connected to outputs of digital unit, and at least one indicator. The latter is connected to digital unit and made with possibility of generating signals depending on its current spatial position relative to control position, and digital unit is meant for correction of movement sensor readings as to signals supplied from indicator by using coordinates of control position, which are recorded in digital unit. In addition, safety system is equipped at least with one device installed in control position in working area of movement of crane and/or crane equipment and made in the form of active or passive transponder, or metal flag, or rack, or another metal device so that it interacts with indicator.

EFFECT: simplifying maintenance of crane with safety system, as well as enlarging application area of safety system due to control of positions not only of crane mechanisms, but also crane itself.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of lifting and transport machinery and can be used in systems for the protection and management of mobile cranes and cranes with floating equipment.

Cranes in accordance with the requirements of industrial safety equipped with appliances, devices and security systems to limit their working movements, limiting the carrying capacity or load moment, to prevent collisions with obstacles when working in cramped conditions (coordinate protection) etc.

Known security system load-lifting crane, a digital computing unit, to the information input of which is connected sensors operating parameters of the crane, including the displacement sensor faucet connected to the running wheel block a visual indication that the unit alarms and Executive unit and the external storage device connected to the digital computing unit two-way channel of communication. This system is equipped with a limit switch which adjustment of the sensor position crane on crane road at its location at zero [1].

The implementation of this correction with the obligatory movement of the crane on the zero mark is woven crane path to trip limit switch leads to unproductive expenditure of time and accordingly, the productivity of the crane. In addition, due to slipping of the wheels of the crane, which is connected to the displacement transducer, "care" of sensor readings during the work shift may exceed the maximum permissible value, which will cause incorrect operation of the coordinate protection of the crane and to the insecurity of his work.

Closest to the proposed system is the security of the load-lifting crane floating crane equipment containing digital computing unit, to the information input of which is connected multiplex channel data outputs of the sensors parameters of the crane, including at least one displacement sensor equipment of the crane and to the outputs - Registrar settings of a crane with a real time clock, unit a visual indication that the unit alarms and Executive block. This system is equipped with at least one detector crossing equipment of the crane, at least one control point in the working area of the crane. The coordinates of each point pre-recorded in the external storage device is connected to the digital computing unit two-way channel of communication. The detector is connected to an information input digital will calculate the high block, adapted for the correction of a sensor moving equipment crane on signals from the detector [2].

This system has a low reliability. This is because its implementation does not involve installing any additional technical devices in the control points. Alerters crossing equipment crane control points located in the working area of the crane, in this system represent only a contact or contactless discrete sensors (capacitive, inductive, optical, ultrasonic, and other magnetically sensitive)". On the basis of their design they can interact, for example, the structural elements of the crane path, the provisions of which are adopted for the control.

Use as checkpoint third-party elements, such as structural elements of the crane path, not specifically designed to interact with the detectors, resulting in reduced reliability of the generating position signals crane equipment and, accordingly, the reliability of the system as a whole. This in turn leads to lower efficiency coordinate protection of the crane.

The correction of the sensor movements in this system is carried out only when crossing equipment crane pin is Aulnay points, i.e. these points can be located only in the middle of the working travel of the crane equipment. This reduces the area of application of this system in view of its inapplicability in cases where the control points are located only in the end positions of the working path, for example, on a dead-end blocks.

In addition, the known system as shown in the formula the generic concept of "system security hoisting crane floating crane equipment" provides its functioning only with movable equipment of the crane, but not of the crane as a whole. Accordingly, the known system does not allow, for example, coordinate the implementation of the protection of a tower crane during its movement along the crane path, because in this case the move is not a separate crane mechanisms, and the crane as a whole. This also leads to reduction of the area of application of the known security systems.

Technical results, seeks to achieve the invention, are:

- improving the efficiency of the work coordinate protection of the crane;

- increase system reliability safety crane due to the installation of additional technical means in the control points to determine the position of the crane as a whole or its separate mechanisms;

- extension of the scope note is maintaining security by providing control not only crossed, but and the end positions of crane equipment with known coordinates, and controls not only the crane mechanisms, but also of the crane as a whole.

Security hoisting crane, containing digital unit, to the information input of which is connected sensors parameters of the crane, including at least one displacement transducer, the Executive unit, connected to the outputs of the digital block, and at least one detector, configured to generate signals depending on its current spatial position relative to a reference position and connected to a digital unit, which is adapted to correct the sensor readings move on signals from the detector using the coordinates of the control provisions recorded in the digital block, the specified technical result is achieved by the fact that this system additionally equipped with at least one device installed in the test position in the working area of movement of the crane and/or derrick equipment and made in the form of active or passive transponder, or metal box, or rack, or other metal device with the possibility of its interaction with the detector. In this case the indicator can be performed, in particular, in the de device reading data from the transponder, or contact device or contactless high-frequency, or capacitive, or inductive, or induction or ultrasonic, or magnetically sensitive device.

In the proposed security system is installed in the working area with known coordinates of the devices sold from their reliable detection by the detector. Implemented the correction of the sensor position not only in the middle of the working area, but also on its borders. The implementation of these features of the invention enables the achievement of these technical results.

The drawing shows a functional diagram of the security system. The security system contains a digital block 1, implemented mainly on the microcontroller 2 and includes a storage device 3, the Registrar settings of a crane with a real time clock 4, block visual indication 5, block alarm 6, the Executive unit 7, the sensor parameters of the crane 8, including, in particular, the load sensor 9, other sensors (azimuth angle, boom angle, proximity to power lines, etc.) 10, at least one displacement sensor 11 (for example, the displacement sensor of the crane on the crane path, the sensor moving cargo truck (carriage) along the guide belts boom crane and so on) and, at the very measures which, one signaling device 12 that communicates with any device 13 located in the working area of the crane with known coordinates recorded in the storage device 3.

The microcontroller 2 digital block 1 in the storage device 3 to store data and program operation of the microcontroller, contains, in particular, the processor clock and peripheral devices.

The digital block 1 contains device coordination with parameter sensors crane 8, built-in microcontroller 2 or connected to it (in the drawing conventionally not shown). This block may be cited as the controller, the data processing unit, a display unit, information and control or computing unit, etc. that does not matter.

The sensors parameters of the valve 8 and the detector 12 to the digital block 1 can be performed by a multiplex channel of communication (CAN, LIN, etc) or using separate wires.

Registrar settings of a crane with a real time clock 4, block visual indication 5, block alarm 6 and, if necessary, other functional blocks of the security system implemented in a separate device or part of the digital block 1. Registrar settings of a crane with a real clock in which the time 4 can be part of the microcontroller 3.

Executive (closed) unit 7 depending on the structural design of the Executive actuators crane made in the form of amplifiers, electro-hydraulic distributors, etc. It may contain a microcontroller and a means for connecting to the digital block 1 via a multiplex communication channel.

Sensors operating parameters of the valve 8, which may be referred to the peripheral recording devices, peripheral controllers, measuring devices, etc. placed in different zones of the crane and include analog sensors with analog-to-digital converters and digital sensors. Analog sensors measure the smoothly changing parameters of the crane and is used to measure the sensitive elements with proportional output signal. Digital sensors measure the discrete parameters of the crane.

The detectors 12 crossing or reaching the equipment of the crane or the crane is in General control provisions within the working areas of their movements, are contact or non-contact high-frequency, capacitive, inductive, optical, ultrasonic, magnetically sensitive sensors or devices.

These switches can be implemented using RFID technology (Radiofrequenzidentifikation - frequencies and the second identification) readers transponders, generating an electromagnetic field that activates the transponder and reader response signals from the transponders. In this case, the device 13 installed in the control provisions are active (with Autonomous power source) or passive transponders. Transponder (transmitter-responder) is a radio device that sends a predetermined message in response to the received signal from activating its reader-indicator 12.

As device 13 installed in the control provisions can be used as check boxes, racks and other metal devices (objects). In this case we use induction (inductive) detector 12 or the detector, made using a Hall sensor.

The choice of control provisions, which are set device 13, is based on the fact that the crane or equipment, such as cargo trolley (cart), during its work, the maximum number of times intersect or approach him.

Instead of special devices installed in the control provisions can be used in structural components of the crane path - Podilskyi supporting elements, rail joints, butt mounting rail rail fixing elements PU and in the transverse direction (tie-struts) or dead-end stops, provisions are taken for the control.

It is also possible location of the detector 12 on the crane at certain control provisions of conditions enable its interaction with moving crane equipment. An example of this is the placement of the detector on the jib crane with the possibility of its interaction with the cargo carriage (carriage) when moving along the guide belts arrows.

For the correction of the output signals of each of the position sensor 11 can be used multiple control positions on the movement path of the respective crane equipment (mechanism) or crane as a whole. In this case, additional use of identification devices located in these control provisions. In particular, transponders are used, forming various response signals. This allows you to repeatedly adjust the readings of the displacement sensors 11 and thereby to improve the accuracy of their work.

The system works as follows.

When operating crane sensors 8 provide measurements of the parameters characterizing the loading crane (via the load sensor 9) and the position of the lifting equipment. The values of operating parameters of the crane from the sensors 8 are transmitted to the digital block 1, which is, while working on the program, particular when designing security systems and pre-recorded in the storage device 3 of the microcontroller 2, compares the actual loading crane with a maximum allowable, as well as comparing the actual position of the lifting equipment from the zone of acceptable positions. Depending on the results of these comparisons digital unit 1 issues an Executive unit 7, the signal to allow or deny certain types of movements of the crane. At the same time using block visual indication 5 and unit alarm for 6 crane formed the necessary information and warning signals.

When the crane or equipment, such as cargo carriage (carriage), a watch position on crane road or on rails zones arrows, the coordinates of which are previously registered in the storage device 3, the detector 12 in the digital block 1 receives the signal about the location of the crane or equipment in the test position. The microcontroller 2 digital unit 1 corrects the sensor 11 move the respective detector. This allows to avoid errors displacement sensors caused by slippage of the traveling wheels of the crane, stretching ropes and friends and causes.

All kinds and directions of movements of the crane from the microcontroller 2 digital block 1 is transmitted in Registrar settings of 4 and recorded it in real time for further monitoring and analysis of the operation of the valve, that allows to carry out maintenance work.

In the digital block 1 can be determined by approximation of the crane and its equipment to any boundary position, displaying information about that block visual indication 5 and issuance unit 6 warning signals to alert the operator about the dangerous approximation to the boundary values of the parameters of the crane, such as approaching the end or the beginning, maximum and minimum elevation values, departure and rotation, etc. This provides additional efficiency coordinate protection and safety of the crane.

The invention also allows other options for the implementation of security hoisting crane, containing the features set forth in the formula.

Sources of information

1. Load limiter tower crane PMC-B. The user guide. LLLI. 408844. 025-RA, JSC Arzamas instrument plant, p.1-19, 48-49.

2. EN 233382 C1, B66C 15/00, B66C 23/88, B66C 13/8, 20.09.2008.

1. Security system load-lifting crane, a digital unit, to the information input of which is connected sensors parameters of the crane, including at least one displacement transducer, the Executive unit, connected to the outputs of the digital block, and at least one detector, configured to generate signals depending on its current spatial position relative to a reference position and connected to a digital unit, which is adapted to correct the sensor readings move on signals from the detector using the coordinates of the control provisions recorded in the digital block, characterized in that it is additionally equipped with at least one device installed in the test position in the working area of movement of the crane and/or crane equipment and made in the form of active or passive transponder or metal box, or rack, or other metal device with the possibility of its interaction with the detector.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the detector is made in the form of the device reading data from the transponder or pin device or contactless high-frequency, or capacitive, or inductive, or induction or ultrasonic, or magnetically sensitive devices.



 

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25 cl, 1 dwg

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1 dwg

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16 cl, 1 dwg

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EFFECT: higher safety, efficiency and reliability.

9 cl, 1 dwg

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