Heat pipe filling quality control method
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: control method of heat pipe filling quality involves heat supply to one of its sections and measurement of temperatures at two points on opposite ends of heat pipe on both sides from heat supply zone. Temperatures are measured at heat pipe points at several heat flux values in the range of zero to maximum operating value. Then curve of difference of measured temperatures of heat flux value is built, and as per this curve, the conclusion is drawn whether there is non-condensed gas in heat pipe or not.
EFFECT: improving sensitivity and accuracy of quality control of heat pipe filled with heat carrier.
The present invention relates to heat engineering, and in particular to methods of testing heat pipes on the performance.
Known methods of quality control charging of the heat pipe [1-4], which consists in applying heat to one of her plots, measuring the temperature at one or two points and comparing the measurement results with the data obtained by calculation or by reference heat pipe.
So by way of quality control charging of the heat pipe  (USSR author's certificate No. 1000726, the priority date of 11.06.1981 g) carry out thermal effect on one part of the heat pipe, measure the temperature at the other site in the transient regime and judge the presence of gas in the pipe on the rate of change of temperature, which is compared with the speed of temperature changes on the reference heat pipe.
Another known method of quality control charging of the heat pipe  (USSR author's certificate No. 1562659, the priority date of 10.06.1988 g) carry out thermal effect on one of her plots, measure the temperature at the other site and judge the presence of gas in the pipe at the time specified deflection temperature, which is compared to the same time the temperature variation on the reference heat pipe.
The disadvantage of the methods of quality control refills [1, 2] is the low sensitivity is lnost. Assessment of the availability of the heat pipe non-condensable gas largely depends on the identity of the test conditions reference and test heat pipes. Such conditions include in particular the temperature and velocity of the cooling air. The identity of all necessary conditions to ensure it is difficult and requires expensive equipment.
In addition, methods of quality control refills [1, 2] in some cases may not be applicable. For example, the temperature of the heating zone high efficiency heat pipe at the same heat flux, temperature and velocity of the cooling air depends on the amount of non-condensable gases present in it. Decreasing the amount of non-condensable gases in the heat pipe, the temperature in the heating zone may be reduced by (10 to 20)°C., Respectively, decreases and the temperature in the condensation zone. For this reason, quality control charging of the heat pipe temperature, measured at a single point, as is done with the methods [1, 2], can lead to erroneous results.
Another way of quality control charging of the heat pipe  (USSR author's certificate No. 1737247, the priority date of 17.03.1989,), is a method consisting in measuring the temperature at the same time in the two boundary points of its plot condensation and defined and the control parameter, equal to the ratio of the difference between the measured temperatures to most of them. The obtained control parameter, as in the methods [1, 2], compared with the same control parameter reference heat pipe.
In comparison with the methods [1, 2] the sensitivity of the method  above, but it also greatly decreases with the decrease in the number of non-condensable gases in a heat pipe.
The closest in technical essence and, therefore, selected as a prototype is a method of quality control heat pipe  (USSR author's certificate No. 1326869, the priority date of 28.01.1986, by applying heat to one of her plots, measuring the temperature at two points on opposite ends of the heat pipe on opposite sides of the zone of heat supply, determination of the difference between the measured temperatures (Δt) and the comparison value (Δt) with the results obtained on the reference heat pipe.
This method of quality control charging of the heat pipe is the most sensitive of all the considered methods. However, in some modes of operation of a heat pipe (heat flux (P), the temperature of the heat pipe, etc.), the sensitivity may be reduced, i.e. the value of Δt can practically do not depend (or depends very slightly) from the presence of the heat pipe non-condensable gas. This is due to the eat, in particular, from the above modes of operation of a heat pipe depends on the degree of penetration into the flow of steam non-condensable gas due to diffusion. While you may receive inaccurate results.
All of the above known methods of quality control heat pipe [1-4], also have a common drawback - the need to compare the measurement results with the results obtained by calculation or experimentally on the reference heat pipe. However, to make a sufficiently accurate calculation of the heat pipe is difficult. It is also unclear what the heat pipe can be taken for reference.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the sensitivity and reliability of quality control charging of the heat pipe cooled and thereby increase the output of quality products.
This problem is solved due to the fact that in the known method of quality control heat pipe , including application of heat to one of her plots, measuring the temperature of the pipe at two points on opposite ends on opposite sides of the heat supply zone and determining the difference between the measured temperatures (Δt), in accordance with the proposed technical solution, the temperature difference Δt is determined at several values of the heat flux in the range from zero to maximum working znacheniya measurements build the dependence of the temperature difference Δt from the magnitude of the heat flux R. The nature of this dependence makes the conclusion about the presence or absence of heat-pipes non-condensable gas.
Experimentally it was found that when the non-condensable gas in the heat pipe is missing, the value of Δt increases monotonically with increasing heat flux R. in the presence of a heat pipe, a certain amount of non-condensable gas dependence of Δt(P) has a local maximum.
As an example, the particular application of the proposed technical solution is the method of controlling the quality of water feeding the flat heat pipe of Nickel having a size (140×110×2) mm
This flat heat pipe (the same) refueled and were controlled twice. In the first case, the quality of filling was high non-condensable gas in it was practically absent; in the second case, the heat pipe remained non-condensable gas in quantities that affect its performance.
Using the heater to the evaporation zone of the heat pipe brought the heat flux with a power of 2.5 W and measured the temperature difference between the evaporating and condensing zones. This procedure was repeated when the capacity of the heat flux of 5.2 W 10.4 W ... 79,8 watts. The results are shown in the table below.
|while there are some some. gas||in the practical absence of some. gas|
Measurements were constructed according to the t(P) (see the drawing). When non-condensable gas in the heat pipe is virtually absent, was obtained dependence 2, in the presence of a heat pipe, a certain amount of non-condensable gas - dependence 1.
As shown at P=80 watts or more, the parameter Δt practically does not depend on small amounts of non-condensable gases. However, the decrease in heat flux sensitivity of this parameter increases, reaching a maximum at P=(20-30) W.
If a heat pipe is a certain amount of non-condensable gases, while small value of heat flow the temperature difference between the evaporation zone and the condensation may substantially exceed the corresponding values at higher heat fluxes and potential heat pipe is used incompletely. Heat pipe with an extremely low content of non-condensable gases can operate in the entire operating range of heat fluxes with a small value of the temperature difference between the zones of evaporation and condensation.
Application of the proposed method quality control charging of the heat pipe allows to increase the sensitivity of the determination of the presence of non-condensable gases and thereby improve the quality of the produced heat pipes.
SOURCES of INFORMATION
1. The author is vegetalismo of the USSR №1000726, CL F28D 15/00, the priority date of 11.06.1981,
2. USSR author's certificate No. 1562659, CL F28D 15/02, the priority date of 10 06.1988,
3. USSR author's certificate No. 1737247, CL F28D 15/02, the priority date of 17.03.1989,
4. USSR author's certificate No. 1326869, CL F28D 15/02, the priority date of 28.01.1986,
Method of quality control charging of the heat pipe by heat to one of her plots, measuring the temperature at two points on opposite ends of the heat pipe on opposite sides of the heat supply zone, characterized in that the measurement of the temperatures at the points a heat pipe is produced at several values of the heat flux in the range from zero up to the maximum operating value, and then build the dependence of the difference of the measured temperatures from the magnitude of the heat flow, the nature of which make the conclusion about the presence or absence of heat-pipes non-condensable gas.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed coaxial multi-heat pipe engine comprises evaporation and condensation chambers consisting of vertical shells with their inner surface coated with strips and grid made from porous material and wick, all having their open end faces connected to covers of appropriate distribution (separation) sections. Evaporation chamber separated, from below, by concave perforated entrainment separator, accommodates distributing manifold furnished with nozzles arranged at the evaporation shell centers. Evaporation and condensation chambers communicate, via O-ring, with working chamber housing coaxially mounted power turbines. The latter have the peripheral edges of their vanes rigidly attached to inner wall of said working chamber, along normal to said inner wall surface. Distributing manifold center accommodates cylindrical vessel and feed pump communicated with distributing manifold of evaporation chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: inventions are intended for heat removal and can be used in aircraft. Cooling device includes tube system which is tightly closed in relation to ambient atmosphere, has thermal coupling in heat reception section with heat source, and in heat transfer section - with heat absorber and which has adiabatic transfer section. Tube system is filled with heat-transfer medium. In heat reception section and/or in heat removal section there provided is heat exchanger which connects heat source and heat absorber to tube system. Heat absorber includes aircraft external wall section. Cold accumulator is provided between heat source and heat absorber. Method of heat removal from heat source to heat absorber consists in the fact that tube system tightly closed in relation to ambient atmosphere is filled with heat transfer medium which, during heat removal from heat source in heat reception section, is changed from liquid phase to gaseous phase and supplied to heat transfer section in which it is again condensed and moves back to heat reception section. Fan is used to control heat transfer between heat source and heat exchanger.
EFFECT: reducing costs for cooling and increasing heat transfer.
15 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at heat exchanging and can be used in energy sector. A heat recovery unit comprises a casing divided by a leakproof baffle into the cells for the cold and hot media, and a heat tube bundle passing through the cells and fixed in the baffle. The cold medium cell is divided into two chambers by a wall being perpendicular to the baffle between the cold and hot media cells, namely into the cold medium preheating chamber and final heating chamber. The former chamber is filled by heat tubes along its total height and the latter chamber is made with a tank which is free from the heat tubes and made in the chamber upper part. The chambers are interconnected by a pipeline. Heat tubes in the hot medium cell or in the cold medium cell or in both cells can be ribbed.
EFFECT: expanded applicability and high economic parametres of the performance along with high heat engineering efficiency and reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for heat transfer and can be used for ensuring operation of mechanical devices submerged into liquid medium. Thermal siphon contains housing, the working volume of lower chamber of which is filled with liquid, cone by means of which the lower chamber with steam line for transporting steam is partitioned, steam generator in lower chamber and condenser in upper chamber. Condenser is cooled surface of upper chamber of thermal siphon, some part of lower chamber is intended for air accumulation and other gaseous impurities originally contained in thermal siphon. Valve for releasing some air to the outside is installed in lower chamber.
EFFECT: invention allows improving heat transfer effectiveness in thermal siphon from heated part to cooled section by intensifying heat transfer during condensation in conditions of high air content of the system.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: this heat pipe is intended mainly for freezing of soil. Pipe includes tight housing filled up with heat carrier and having evaporation and condensation zones, and transport zone, as well as thermoelectric elements, cold surfaces of which have thermal contact to external surface of housing wall in condensation zone, and hot surfaces - to heaters. Peculiar feature of pipe is that housing is provided with external surface of wall having rectangular shape (60) in cross section in condensation zone at the internal cross section in that zone, which does not change as to housing length. Thermoelectric converters (6) are installed on all four sides of external surface of housing wall, and heaters are made in the form of finned plates (8) so that they form cavity (9) enclosing the housing, and free internal volume of the above cavity is filled with low heat-conducting material with low saturation coefficient.
EFFECT: increasing heat transfer ability of heat pipe.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant for steam generation and can be used in steam boiler design. Steam boiler includes drum, furnace, steam collector, and superheater. Furnace longitudinal axis is offset downwards relative to longitudinal axis of cylindrical drum. Furnace is made in the form of hollow cylinder closed with covers on both sides, and in upper arch of which rectangular through channels are provided at some distance from each other in longitudinal and cross directions. In the above channels there inserted are heat transfer devices installed so that longitudinal axis of each of them is located in radius line of furnace and passes through centre of circle of the latter. Heat transfer devices are made in the form of heat pipes, each of which has rectangular hollow duct whereto covers are welded from above and from bellow, and inside each heat tube there is liquid filling up 1/4 of the volume, which has been supplied through the hole made in upper cover, which is closed with a plug. Lower parts of heat pipes, being heating and evaporation zones, protrude to furnace volume. Upper parts of heat pipes, being condensation zones, are located in the form of a fan in upper part of cylindrical drum and have cooling ribs.
EFFECT: invention provides more complete and faster use of generated heat, its supply to the whole volume of water and its uniform heating, increasing boiler capacity, life time.
FIELD: engine and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: heat-pipe jet engine relates to power engineering and can be used to recover secondary and natural thermal resources, particularly to convert thermal power into mechanical power. Proposed engine comprises housing coated with wick from inside and plugged by a bush, evaporator chamber in contact with hot medium, closure with inlet hole, condensation chamber incorporating rod with valve and staying in contact with cold medium. Portion of the housing outer surface is coated with bellows in the area of condensation chamber. Lower end face wall edges are jointed to the edge of inner board of circular reservoir with its outer board edge being rigidly jointed to the bellows lower edge. Reservoir outer board center is connected to working member. Spaces between bellows and housing, as well as condensation chamber vapor space are intercommunicated via branch pipes passing the openings of the bush, wick and housing.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other branches of industries using the catalytic gas-phase processes. The reactor contains the casing 1, means of initial components input 2, means of end-product output 3, catalyst area 4, heat inlet and takeoff unit designed as array of heat pipes 6, passing through the catalyst area 4. The part of every heat pipe is separated from the rest of internal heat pipe volume with membrane designed of the gas conducting material. The heat pipe volume separated with membrane can be connected with vacuum pump.
EFFECT: invention allows prevention of hydrogen diffusion along the heat pipes and provides the effective heat transfer from heat pipes to catalyst.
12 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for heat exchange and can be used in different industry branches. A heat exchanger comprises a lower casing part with the fittings for supplying and removing the heating medium and an upper casing part with the fittings for supplying and removing the medium being heated, upper and lower parts of the heat pipes fixed in the upper and lower pipe plates respectively with a common heat pipe chamber being formed between the plates. The heat exchanger is equipped with a pressure-and-vacuum gage and a gate set prior to it. The common heat pipe chamber is communicated to the gate connected to the vacuum air suction system. The heat pipes are of U-like shape.
EFFECT: control of pressure in the heat pipes, elimination of dryout in the evaporator and protection from the media mixing.
FIELD: aircraft industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to creation and operation of elements of thermostatting systems, and namely telecommunication satellite instruments. Method involves determination of heat tube temperature differential values between evaporation and condensation sections thereof within the range of changing operating temperatures of those sections. At that, to evaporation section there supplied is one and the same required heat power for various amounts of excessive heat carrier wherewith the inner cavity of heat tube housing is filled. In that cavity there made is a wick in the form of longitudinal grooves on the housing inner surface. Temperature differential values between the above heat tube evaporation and condensation sections at maximum operating temperature of evaporation section and for the specified amounts of filled excessive heat carrier are determined at minimum allowable operating temperature of condensation section. At that, amounts of filled excessive heat carrier meet the certain condition expressing the dependence of those amounts on heat carrier densities at maximum and minimum allowable operating temperatures of evaporation and condensation sections.
EFFECT: reliable determination of temperature differentials at heat tube ground test between evaporation and condensation sections thereof, as well as maximum allowable amount of filled excessive heat carrier at which there provided are the above temperature differentials in all heat tube orbital operating conditions.
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly heat exchange apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: device to remove heat from heat-generation component includes coolant stored in liquid coolant storage part, heat absorbing part including at least one the first microchannel and installed near heat-generation component. Heat absorbing part communicates with storage part. Liquid coolant partly fills microchannel due to surface tension force and evaporates into above microchannel with gaseous coolant generation during absorbing heat from heat generation component. Device has coolant condensing part including at least one the second microchannel connected to above coolant storage part separately from the first microchannel, gaseous coolant movement part located near heat-absorbing part and condensing part and used for gaseous coolant movement from the first microchannel to the second one. Device has case in which at least heat-absorbing part is placed and heat-insulation part adjoining heat absorbing part to prevent heat absorbed by above part from migration to another device parts.
EFFECT: reduced size, increased refrigeration capacity, prevention of gravity and equipment position influence on device operation.
22 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe comprises vertical housing with evaporation and condensation zones and partially filled with heat-transfer agent and coaxial hollow insert in the evaporation zone which defines a ring space with the housing and is provided with outer fining. An additional hollow cylindrical insert of variable radius made of a non-heat-conducting material is interposed between the condensation zone and coaxial hollow insert. The outer side of the additional insert and inner side of the housing of the heat pipe define a closed space.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing separated into chambers of evaporation and condensation with a baffle provided with heat pipes which are arranged in both of the chambers. The zones of evaporation of the pipes are positioned inside the evaporation chamber, and zones of the condensation of the pipes are positioned inside the condensation chamber. The heat pipes inside the evaporation chamber are made of wound pipes of oval cross-section. The zones of condensation of heat pipes are also made of wound pipes of oval cross-section .
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pipe can be used for heat transmission and temperature control procedures. Heat pipe has evaporator provided with capillary-porous nozzle and capacitor. Evaporator and nozzle are connected by vapor line and condensate pipeline. Nozzle is made of electric-insulating material, for example, of ceramics. Grid-shaped electrode is mounted at the inner side of nozzle. The electrode is connected with rod electrode, which is mounted inside airtight isolator at edge part of evaporator.
EFFECT: improved heat power; prolonged length of heat pipe.
FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.
EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.
14 dwg, 18 cl
FIELD: applicable for heat abstraction in various media.
SUBSTANCE: the heat transferring device has a sealed pipe with condensation and evaporation zones filled up with a heat-transfer agent with pockets provided on the inner surface, the pockets used for inhibition of draining condensate are located in the evaporation zone and made annular or formed by the sections of the helical surface adjoining the pipe inner wall with its lower edge at an acute angle, which are separated from one another by radial partitions, the annular pocket is formed by the side surface of the truncated cone, adjoining the inner wall of the mentioned pipe with the larger base. Besides, at least some of the pockets located one above other are positioned at such a distance that a capillary effect occurs between the surfaces facing one the other.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat transfer due to the increase of the pipe surface wettable by the heat-transfer agent, as well as simplified structure an facilitated actuation of the device.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: chemical and oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises housing, means for supplying initial components and discharging finished product, unit for heating and cooling made of a number of heat pipes, additional catalyzer applied on the heat pipes and/or housing and made of a coating. The heat pipes are staggered in the space of the housing. The total area of the surface of the heat pipes in the catalytic zone should provide heating and cooling the catalytic zone.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electric mechanical engineering, possible use for cooling electric generators and electric engines.
SUBSTANCE: in proposed system for cooling electric machines, containing compressed air source with force pipeline, splitting vortex pipe, having as a result of energy division to hollows - hot one and cold one, thermal pipe made inside the hollow shaft of electric machine, as a special feature, along axis of hollow shaft a tubular channel is made for passage of cold flow from splitting vortex pipe, and space, formed by external surface of tubular channel and internal surface of hollow shaft is thermal pipe, condensation area of which - external surface of tubular channel, and evaporation area - internal surface of hollow shaft.
EFFECT: efficient and even cooling of electric machine, simplified construction, increased manufacturability.
FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.
EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.