System of stabilisation of sea platforms mounted on gravitational foundations

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: system for stabilisation of sea platform mounted of gravitation foundation and anchored at sea bottom consists of multitude of sets of upper blocking elements installed on keel at lower part of platform, of great number of caissons installed at sea bottom, of great number of removable insertions each installed in each of caissons and of set of lower blocking elements in each insertion. Each set of the lower blocking elements is designed to engage with one of sets of the upper blocking elements by means of block system, when the keel is set above caissons. Insertions correspond to a tight attached to the keel cementing material pumped into insertions through the keel. The system stabilises the platform relative to forces of lateral shear and also facilitates easy removal of the platform off the caissons with insertions attached to the keel by applying upper lifting force. Further the platform can be transported and mounted of the second set of caissons arranged at the second site of sea bottom.

EFFECT: group of inventions facilitating mounting of platform ensuring good resistance to lateral shear forces and eliminating difficult and expensive operations for installation of shear skirts.

19 cl, 9 dwg

 

The present invention generally relates to offshore platforms for exploration and extraction of minerals (such as oil and natural gas from the seabed. To a greater extent present invention relates to the type of platforms, called "posted on gravitational Foundation platform, and more precisely it relates to a system for the stabilization of such platforms in relation to lateral shear forces, for example, accompanying the action of strong waves during storms.

Posted on gravity base platform, as described in U.S. patent 4265568 suitable for use in relatively shallow areas, where it is expedient to perform anchoring the bottom (keel) these platforms to the caissons installed in the seabed. In such shallow water applications this platform sometimes subjected to significant lateral shear forces generated by waves during storms. To stabilize the platform with respect to such shear forces around the keel is provided by shear skirts. In some installations (e.g. in areas of unconsolidated clay seabed) shear skirts may have a height of about 10 meters or more, requiring a deep dry dock for manufacturing and launching platforms. Thus, the need for high shear skirts cost increases the cost of manufacture and installation of GBS.

Thus, a mechanism is needed to stabilize above the platform against lateral shear forces, which does not require the use of shear skirts.

The INVENTION

In General terms, the present invention is a system for stabilizing posted on gravity foundations for offshore platforms, relative to lateral shear forces, containing many sets of upper locking elements mounted on the keel attached to the bottom of the platform, with each set capable of locking to engage with a corresponding one of the multiple sets of the lower locking elements, each of which is installed in one of the many caissons installed in the seabed, and the caissons are located so that each set of the upper locking elements exactly coincides with the corresponding set of lower locking elements. In a preferred embodiment, the set top locking elements mounted at spaced intervals on the lower surface of the keel, and each of the respective sets the lower locking elements mounted in the box, which is durable but removable manner is installed in the caisson.

More precisely, in the preferred embodiment, sets the upper locking elements are circularly the recess or groove, made in the bottom surface of the keel. A notch or groove communicates with one or more cementing the channels through which is pumped a cementing material (e.g. concrete). Each of the sets of the lower locking elements mounted in the insert that is removable image is placed in the open top of one of the caissons. When the keel is lowered on the caissons, the upper locking elements engage with the lower locking elements. Cementitious material is pumped into the notch or groove, filling the recess or groove and the inner space of the inserts, thereby forming a lateral wedge in each box, which, together tightly linked sets of upper and lower locking elements. Shear wedges abutting the upper and lower locking elements, embedded in concrete, provide a significant resistance to lateral shear forces. However, the platform may be quickly removed from the caissons simply applying vertical force to lift inserts fixedly attached to the keel of the caissons.

In the preferred embodiment described in the materials of the present application, each of the sets of upper locking elements contains many of the upper locking elements formed from bent metal rods, such as rebar is, each of them goes down and ends with the end bent radially inward in the form of a hook. Similarly, each of the sets of the lower locking elements contains many of the lower locking elements formed from such bent metal rods, such as "rebar". Each of the lower locking element is held up over the top of its respective insert and preferably ends with the end bent in the form of a hook. When lowered the keel on the caissons and insert that holds sets the lower locking elements, the lower locking elements are bent downward and radially inward and are in engagement with the upper locking elements.

In another aspect, the present invention is a method for installing and anchoring posted on gravity base platform on the seabed that contains the following stages: installation of multiple panels on the seabed, each of the caissons has an open top end; the installation of the insert into the open end of each caisson, and each of the inserts includes a set of bottom locking elements in its inner part; providing a platform having a keel that has many sets of upper locking elements, and each of the sets of the upper locking element is s is exactly coincident with the corresponding one of the sets of the lower locking elements; installing the keel platform on top of the caissons so that each of the sets of upper locking elements is exactly the same and is engaged with a corresponding one of the sets of the lower locking elements; and filling inserts cementing material to secure the keel on the inserts. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, as noted above, the set top locking elements is located in a circular recess or groove made in the lower surface of the keel, and a notch or groove communicates with one or more cementing the channels through which is pumped a cementing material in the execution stage of filling. Moreover, in one of the embodiments described in materials of this application, insert caissons installed in a removable manner so that the platform can be removed from its installation on the seabed by means of applying a vertical lifting force to the platform for raising the inserts in the pockets and inserts remain attached to the keel. Thus, the platform can be moved to another (second) platform on which you installed the second set of caissons, and then down before placing inserts in the walls on the second floor.

The present invention provides installation platform, providing good resistance forces bokovo the shift without the need for costly and difficult to install shear skirts. Moreover, the present invention provides a system for anchoring the platform to allow easy movement from one platform to the sea floor to another. These and other advantages of the invention will be more quickly understood and appreciated from the detailed description that follows.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

The foregoing features and other features of the present invention will hereinafter be described with reference to the drawings of preferred embodiments. In the drawings, the same components have the same reference numbers. Illustrated version of the implementation is intended to illustrate but not to limit the invention. The drawings include the following figures:

figure 1 depicts a simplified and idealized view in vertical section posted on the gravity base platform, embodying the present invention;

figure 2 is a view in cross section showing in a disassembled state the main components of the preferred alternative implementation of the present invention;

figure 3 is a view in cross section similar to the view shown in figure 2, illustrating the installation of the keel platform on top of the caisson, which was installed insert according to the invention;

4 is a view in cross section similar to the view of figure 3, showing the keel mounted on top of the caisson to the stage zakachivanie the cementitious material into the insert;

5 is a view in cross section similar to the view of figure 4, illustrating the step of placing the cementitious material into the insert;

6 is a view in transverse section along the line 6-6 in figure 1, showing the keel platform and layout of the caisson relative to the keel, according to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention;

Fig.7 is a view in cross section similar to the view of figure 5, showing the step of removing a platform with attached inserts from the caisson;

Fig schematically depicts the sequence of steps of a method for installing and anchoring posted on gravity base platform on the seabed in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

Below is a detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention. The description should not be construed in a restrictive sense, and is shown only to illustrate the General principles of the invention, which is embodied in one or more preferred options for implementation.

The present invention generally provides a system and method for installing and anchoring posted on gravity base platform on the seabed. System for stabilizing posted on gravity base platform, created in accordance with the present from which retenu, can be successfully applied in many industries, including offshore drilling and oil production. Although the subsequent discussion can be used by the naval base, it should be clear that this discussion is not limiting, and that the present invention can be used in other suitable applications that can use posted on gravity foundations offshore platforms.

Figure 1 shows posted on gravity foundations offshore platform 10, which applies the stabilization system of the present invention to stabilize the platform 10 with respect to lateral shear forces generated by waves and currents in the water space 12, such as the ocean. The platform 10 may generally include a base 14 having a deck 16, which can be one or more cranes 18, rigs 20 and the housing compartments 22. Supporting structure or 24 hour (such as, for example, composed of a truss column, which is shown) has an upper end that supports the platform 14 above the surface of the water space 12, and the lower end of which is fixed in the gravity base or keel 26, placed on a set of caissons 28, which sankarani on the seabed 30 and which form part of the stabilization system of the present invention, as described in the who.

Gravity base or keel 26 may be made in the form of monolithic frame construction, which inside is divided into flooded compartments (not shown) internal bulkheads (not shown). Compartments include traditional mechanisms ballasting (not shown) to fill the keel ballast (such as sea water to submerge the keel on the seabed to support the base 14 above the surface of the water. Approximate gravity base or keel design described in the aforementioned U.S. patent 4265568, the disclosure of which is included in the materials of the present application by reference.

Shown in Fig.6 fin 26 can be of any arbitrary shape, although shown mostly circular shape. The bottom surface of the keel is placed on the set of caissons 28, which sankarani on the seabed under the scheme, which corresponds approximately to the periphery of the keel 26. The bottom surface of the keel 26 includes cementing the ring 32 (the purpose of which will be explained below) in the form of an annular recess or groove, which generally have the same configuration as the periphery of the keel 26. Thus, in the illustrated embodiment, in which the fin 26 is circular, the ring 32 is essentially annular. The ring 32 is located and configured so that, when the fin 26 is placed on the caissons 28 (the AK will be described below), the ring 32 crosses the open top end of each of the casings 28. As shown in figure 2-5 and 7, the keel 26 includes many cementation channels 34 (only one of which is shown), which communicates with the ring 32, for a purpose which will be described below.

Figure 2-5 shows the components of the stabilization system according to a preferred variant implementation of the present invention in connection with a single caisson 28. It is clear that the system of the present invention uses similar components in connection with each of the caissons 28 that host platform 10, as shown in figures 1 and 6.

The stabilization system of the present invention contains many caissons 28, shown in figures 1 and 6, each of which Sankaran on the seabed 30. Each of the caissons 28 is made in the form of a hollow tubular element which may be made of a suitable steel alloy and which has an open top end. The stabilization system further comprises multiple cacheddanny inserts 38, each of which is placed in the open upper end of one of the caissons 28. The insert 38 may be made from a suitable steel alloy, and they mainly can include a peripheral flange 44, which is located around the peripheral rim at the open top end of the casing 28, as shown is figure 3.

In the described system uses many sets of lower locking elements (shown only one set), each of which passes upward from the bottom of each of the inserts 38. Each set lower locking elements includes two or more of the lower locking element 46 formed of metal rods, passing upward and radially inward from the bottom of the insert 38 and ends with the free end 48, which mainly can be folded downwards and radially inwards in the shape of a hook configuration. The lower locking elements 46 can be formed traditionally, appropriately curved segments usual reinforcing profile, which are welded to the inner bottom surface of the inserts 38, and they are long enough to go up beyond the peripheral flange 44 of the insert 38.

Many sets of upper locking elements (only one of which is shown in the drawings) installed in grout ring 32 in the bottom surface of the keel 26. Each of the sets of upper locking elements includes two or more of the upper locking element 58 formed of metal rods going down and ending with end, formed in the top of the hook 60, which is preferably bent radially inward and upward to the to shown on the drawings. Alternatively, the upper hook may be bent radially outward. The upper locking elements 58 may be formed from suitable lengths of rebar, which is fixed on the fin 26 in the ring 32. The upper locking elements 58 in each set of the upper locking elements predominantly spaced around the opening of one of the cementation channels 34 in the ring 32.

Figure 3 shows the installation phase of the inserts 38 into the open upper ends of the caissons 28. The insert 38 may be positioned so that the flanges 44 was located close to the upper peripheral rim of the caissons 28. The keel 26 in this case may fall mainly in the vertical direction, as indicated by the arrow a, for engagement between the lower locking elements 46 and the upper locking elements 58. The lower locking elements 46 in each set can be possible to lock gear with the upper locking elements 58 in each respective set so that each of the lower locking element 46 is exactly the same and connected with the respective upper locking element 58 for attachment fin 26 to the insert 38, as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4 shows a set of lower locking elements and a set of upper locking elements, geared and locked with each other after the Ile 26 was placed on top of the caissons 28. The weight of the keel 26 Flex the lower locking elements 46 down inside of the inserts 38 and toward each other, as shown in figure 4, forming the core inside each insert 38. The top hooks 60 can serve to grip the bottom of the locking elements 46 to secure the keel 26 in place on the seabed 30, or at least be placed for holding the keel 26 from excessive lateral movement in response to underwater shear force. The lower locking elements 46 can be positioned at an acute angle relative to the inserts 38 to facilitate the transfer of forces lateral shear offshore platform 10 on the caissons 28. Moreover, as shown in figure 4, the bottom surface of the keel is located on top of the inserts 38 to isolate the inserts 38 from the environment. If the weight of the keel 26 is sufficient, the peripheral flange 44 of the inserts 38 may be flattened so that the keel rather is located directly on the seabed 30 than just above it, as shown on the drawings.

Figure 5 shows the subsequent step of introducing cementitious material 62 (such as cement or concrete) in the insert 38 for forming each of the inserts 38 in shear klinovuyu design. Cementitious material 62 may be introduced into the insert 38 through cementing the channels 34, for example, via injection of cementitious material 62 from the base 10 through a piping (not on asana), passing through the rack 24 in the keel 26. Cementitious material 62 can fill the inside of the inserts 38 and cementing the ring 32 of the keel 26. As a result of stage cementing, shown in figure 5, the shear wedge design is formed in each insert 38, which further enhances the ability of the joint between the keel 26 and Assembly insertion/caisson to resist lateral shear forces. In addition, when the cementitious material 62 is grasped, shear wedges formed by the inserts 38 become tightly fixed to the bottom surface of the keel 26, with the upper locking elements 58 and lower locking elements 46, embedded in the hardened cementitious material 62, and with a cementing material, effectively anchoring the insert 38 (shear wedges) to the bottom surface of the keel 26.

7 illustrates a method of removing an offshore platform 10 from the seabed 30 with inserts 38, attached as shear wedges to the keel 26. As mentioned above, a hardened cementitious material 62 facilitates the attachment of the inserts 38 as shear wedges to the keel 26 so that when the keel 26, together with the marine platform 10 of figure 1) is lifted from the seabed 30 (e.g., mainly in the vertical direction indicated by the arrow B), shear wedges remain attached to the bottom surface of the keel 26, t is time, as the caissons 28 remain on the seabed 30. Then offshore platform 10 can be moved and installed on the second floor (not shown)on which the arrangement of the caissons was preinstalled for receiving shear pins on the bottom of the keel. Thus, the platform 10, in accordance with the present invention, is able not only to withstand the powerful forces of lateral shear, it can be easily removed and reinstalled at other sites on the seabed.

Fig illustrates a preferred method 100 installation and anchoring posted on gravity base platform on the seabed in accordance with the present invention. The method 100 includes a step S102 set multiple caissons on the first site on the seabed, each of the caissons has an open top end. The next step S104 is a step in the installation of the insert into the open upper end of each caisson, and each of the inserts includes a set of bottom locking elements. Step S106 is a step to ensure posted on gravity base platform having a keel with multiple sets of upper locking elements mounted in Kiel and everyone was able to catch up with one of the sets of the lower locking elements.

Setting keel said platform over multiple caissons so that each of the sets of the upper locking element is s engages with one of the sets of the lower locking elements, provided at the step S108. This is followed by step S110, in which the inserts are filled with cementitious material. The filling stage can be facilitated by use of the cementation channels through the keel, as described above.

The method 100 may further comprise the step S112 (removing the platform from the caissons by applying essentially vertical lifting force to placed on the gravitational Foundation platform in order to raise the inserts in the pockets and inserts remain attached to the keel, insert installed inside the caissons removable manner. This may be followed by step S114 move the platform to the second platform on the seabed, wherein the second set of caissons were installed on the seabed, and step S116

install the platform on the second floor lowering the platform so that the insert fits into the walls on the second floor.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to individual embodiments of these options for implementation are only illustrative and not restrictive. Many other applications and embodiments of the present invention will be apparent in light of this disclosure and following claims.

1. System for stabilizing posted on gravity foundations offshore platforms, laying emeu on the seabed and having a keel with the bottom surface, contains many caissons installed in the seabed and each having an open top end, a set of lower locking elements mounted in each of the caissons, and many sets of upper locking elements mounted in the bottom surface of the keel and arranged so that each of the sets of the upper locking element engages with the corresponding one of the sets of the lower locking elements, when installing the keel on the upper ends of the caissons.

2. The system according to claim 1, additionally containing an insert in each of the caissons, each of the sets of the lower locking elements mounted in one of the inserts.

3. The system according to claim 1, which sets the upper locking elements are located in the circular groove made in the lower surface of the keel.

4. The system according to claim 1, in which each of the sets of upper locking elements includes at least two upper metal rod.

5. The system according to claim 4, in which each of the sets of the lower locking element includes at least two bendable bottom metal rod, able to engage with the upper metal rods.

6. The system according to claim 2, in which the insert is installed in the caissons removable manner.

7. The system according to claim 6, in which each of the inserts tightly fixed to the bottom surface of the keel.

8. The system according to claim 7, in which the insert is fixed in the lower surface of the keel through the engagement of the sets of upper and lower locking elements and cementing material.

9. System for stabilizing posted on gravity foundations offshore platform containing a base supported on a vertical post having a lower end attached to the keel installed on the seabed and having a bottom surface containing many caissons installed in the seabed at a pre-defined schema and each having open upper end, a lot of inserts, each of which is removable firmly seated in the open top end of one of the caissons, set the lower locking elements fixed in each of the inserts, and many sets of upper locking elements mounted in the bottom surface of the keel under the scheme, scheme caissons, each of the sets of upper locking elements can engage with a corresponding one of the sets of the lower locking elements when installing the keel on the upper ends of the caissons.

10. The system according to claim 9, which sets the upper locking elements are located within the cementation ring on the bottom of the keel.

11. The system according to claim 9, in which each of the sets of the upper block is inovacnich elements contains many top metal rods, and each of the sets of the lower locking elements contains many of the lower metal rods that can hold the top metal rods.

12. The system according to claim 9, in which inserts are tightly attached to the bottom surface of the keel cementing material.

13. The system of claim 10, in which the keel includes carburizing the channel reported from the cementation ring, and inserts are tightly attached to the bottom surface of the keel cementing material introduced into the interior of the inserts through the cementation channel and cementing the ring.

14. The method of installation and anchoring posted on gravity base platform on the seabed, comprising the following stages:
the installation of multiple panels on a selected site on the seabed, each of the caissons has an open top end;
install the insert into the open end of each caisson, each of the inserts includes a set of bottom locking elements;
the software is hosted on gravity base platform, containing the keel, with many sets of upper locking elements mounted on it and is able to engage with a corresponding one of the sets of the lower locking elements;
installing the keel is placed on the gravitational Foundation PL is tform over many caissons, so, each of the sets of the upper locking element engages with the corresponding one of the sets of the lower locking elements;
the fastening of the insert on the bottom surface of the keel.

15. The method according to 14, in which the insert is installed in the caissons removable manner.

16. The method according to 14, in which at fixing the insert fill insert cementing material.

17. The method according to clause 16, which sets the upper locking elements have in cementing the ring in the bottom of the keel, and when filling inserts fill the cementation ring insert cementing material.

18. The method according to 14, further comprising removing the platform from the caissons through the application of a vertical lifting force to placed on the gravitational Foundation platform for removal of the inserts in the pockets.

19. The method according to p additionally contains the following stages:
installing a second set of caissons having an open top end on the second platform on the seabed;
moving posted on gravity base platform with inserts attached to the bottom surface of the keel, on the second platform on the seabed;
lowering placed on the gravity base platform so that the inserts are placed in the open top ends of the second set of panels on the second area of the ke.



 

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