Reinforcement of polymer items by means of oriented strip

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: method for making multilayer polymer item, which represents hollow polymer element and includes at least one reinforcing layer comprising oriented polymer and at least one main layer of polymer, which is in direct contact with at least part of reinforcing layer, where polymer of the main layer is compatible with oriented polymer of reinforcing layer, and has the same melt temperature. Method includes the following stages: (a) application of the main polymer layer in the form of melt polymer jet onto at least part of reinforcing layer surface, and (b) hardening of melt polymer onto surface of reinforcing layer by means of fast cooling, besides reinforcing layer is applied by winding of strengthened polymer tape, which consists of oriented polymer, around hollow polymer element, and the main layer of polymer is applied over reinforcing layer.

EFFECT: elimination of considerable damage of fibrous structure inside oriented polymer due to bringing hard layer of oriented polymer into direct contact with flow of melt polymer, if the latter is exposed to fast cooling.

6 cl, 3 ex

 

This invention relates to a method of manufacturing reinforced plastic products such as pipes, fittings (or fittings) and containers for liquids or gases.

Although polymeric products having good mechanical characteristics, there is a large range of shapes and sizes, for some applications it is necessary to perform reinforcement to increase the rigidity of polymer products and to increase their resistance to the internal pressure. In particular, capacity-large capacity or large diameter pipes require additional mechanical support. Reinforcement can be done either by use of auxiliary heterogeneous elements, such as fibers made of glass, carbon or aramid, or by means of metal elements, like metal strips, which may be imposed, for example, on the fuel tank after its manufacture, for example, by injection molding.

In some ways reinforcing polymeric products are oriented thermoplastic polymers that have been investigated in detail and studied. Modern prior art it is known that the stretch film of the semi-crystalline polymer at a temperature slightly below the melting point leads to orientation of the polymer chains in the longitudinal direction volodey axis. The methods for the production of oriented polymers based on reorientation of the existing crystal structure in the high-oriented fibrous structure in the process of tensile strain. Such oriented along one axis polymers have mechanical properties that are superior to the characteristics of the unoriented polymer. For example, a strip of high-strength polymer made from oriented along one axis of the polymers, can be superimposed on the pipe to increase their resistance to hydrostatic pressure. Compared with traditional tubes, not reinforced these strips of high-strength polymer, such pipes may be increased working pressure or reduced pipe thickness required to withstand the pressure acting on the pipe.

Due to its low cost and the possibility to recycle, especially in the case when the components of composite materials consist of the same type of polymers, the use of oriented polymers for strengthening of polymer products provides significant advantages compared to traditional methods that use metal strips, fibers, etc.

To achieve the optimum effect of hardening is desirable to cause the oriented polymer clay is in close contact with the product polymer. Have been proposed methods based on the use of adhesives to bond the reinforcing elements with each other or with the bearing structure. However, these methods can only be implemented with several polymers, but not with those polymers which are of particular interest and which include high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Also, if this is not achieved close contact between the reinforcing elements and the bearing structure, since between them is a layer formed by the adhesive. The use of adhesive complicates the recycling process, since the chemical nature of the adhesive is usually different from the chemical nature of the polymers to which adhesive is applied.

Ways to achieve close contact between the reinforcing element consisting of oriented polymer, and an element consisting of unoriented polymer (or even more oriented polymer), based on thermoplastic properties of most polymers and, in particular, on their ability to fuse with each other.

However, such methods usually encounter the problem, consisting in the fact that the orientation of the molecular chains within the oriented polymer is reversible at high temperatures, particularly above the melting point. In the region of the fused state, the mobility of the molecular chains is high enough, to allow them to take a random orientation, thereby destroying the internal fibrous structure, which determines the high mechanical characteristics. Therefore, in the General case, it is desirable to avoid high temperatures when working with oriented polymers. Therefore, it is generally accepted the fact that the oriented and unoriented polymers cannot be joined by a transfusion without disturbing the internal structure of the oriented polymer.

Noted above, the reversibility of the process orientation is especially important when you want to bring into contact unoriented polymer in the molten state with the oriented polymer of the same chemical nature, which is in a solid state. Since the melting temperature of unoriented polymer and oriented polymer are the same or very close to each other, we should expect that the heat transfer in the zone of contact is high enough to melt the oriented polymer, thereby destroying its internal fibrous structure. Therefore, still in the known technical solutions are not proposed to be brought in contact with a reinforcing element consisting of oriented polymer, with the stream of molten polymer, as experts expect that the heat is coming from the molten polymer, will break the fiber orientation of the molecular chains within the oriented polymer.

In order to avoid such heat transfer, have been developed, in which a layer consisting of the oriented polymer, is protected by an intermediate layer of unoriented polymer, employees with a heat shield (see, for example, WO 01/087874 and WO 02/088589). In the application WO 02/088589 described a method of manufacturing reinforced plastic pipe comprising the step of winding a special way, at least two layers of reinforcing tape consisting of oriented polymers, around the hollow polymeric mandrel. In a preferred embodiment, the orientation of polymer molecules within the reinforcing tape is supported by a wrapped a thin heat tape around the reinforcing layer. Heat tape is composed of unoriented polymer that is compatible with the oriented polymer on the underlying layer. Then on top of the layer formed of the thin heat-resistant tape is applied by extruding the outer finishing layer. Outer finishing layer consists of unoriented polymer that is compatible with underneath it a thin heat-insulating tape. Beneficial to the thickness of a layer formed by a thin heat-insulating tapes, was regulated so that he could serve as an effective teplocomunenergo and thereby minimize the loss of orientation of the oriented polymer inside reinforcing tape during extrusion finishing layer.

However, it does not form a close contact between the reinforcing tape and the finishing layer, because between them is a layer formed by a thermal tape. In addition, an additional step is required overlay heat tape to make a reinforced polymer product, which increases the cost.

Therefore, there is a need to develop an economical method of manufacturing reinforced plastic products, which would have advantages compared with the known technical solutions, particularly where a relatively large portion of the surface of the unoriented polymer directly and closely in contact with the oriented polymer without significant disruption to the internal fibrous structure of the oriented polymer. Reinforced polymer products should be comparable, and preferably better characteristics than those of the polymeric products obtained by known methods, in particular they must demonstrate a good reinforcing effect, i.e. the proportion of oriented molecular chains inside reinforcing elements should be as high as possible and should not be markedly reduced in the manufacturing process.

Unexpectedly it was found that the fibrous structure in oriented polymer is not disturbed significantly in the case when the solid layer of oriented polymer is in direct and close contact with the stream of molten polymer, if the latter is subjected to rapid cooling. Accordingly, the present invention proposes a method of manufacturing a multilayer polymeric product, is a hollow polymer element includes at least one reinforcing layer consisting of oriented polymer and at least one basic polymer layer in direct contact with at least part of the reinforcing layer in which the polymer of the base layer is compatible with the oriented polymer reinforcing layer and has approximately the same with him melting temperature, characterized by the following steps: (a) applying a base layer of polymer in the form of a stream of molten polymer on at least part of the surface of the reinforcing layer, and (C) curing the molten polymer on the surface of the reinforcing layer by rapid cooling so as to melt only a small portion of the reinforcing layer, thus reinforcing layer imposed by winding reinforced polymer tape consisting of oriented polymer carrying around a hollow polymer element, and the core layer polymer is place on top of the reinforcing layer.

In the particular case on the surface of the reinforcing layer, which will be in contact with the molten polymer is extruded convex Rel is F.

In other cases hollow polymer element is a pipe or fitting.

In another particular case, the carrier tube is made of a polymer that is compatible with the oriented polymer of the reinforcing layer, and a ribbon of reinforced polymer bonded with her under the influence of electromagnetic radiation.

In another particular case of rapid cooling is realized by means of a cooled metal cylinder and/or by jets of cold water.

The authors of this invention have unexpectedly discovered that it is possible to ekstradiroval or to inject the molten polymer along strips consisting of oriented polymers, without the use of a heat shield and it does not modify significantly their properties, if the molten polymer is subjected to rapid cooling immediately after it is applied on the layer consisting of the oriented polymer. In this case, melted only a very small part of the thickness of the oriented polymer (component a few micrometers (typically 50 to 100 microns) from ordinary thickness factor of around 500 μm to 1.5 mm, or even up to 2 mm), resulting in excellent connected oriented band with utverzhdennym polymer and to maintain the orientation of the large majority of the molecular chains.

In the method according to this invention, it is proposed PR is stand and efficient process for the production of reinforced polymer products. This method can be implemented in a large number of processes without the use of insulating layers or special expensive adhesives. Therefore achieved full recyclability. In addition, this method allows for easy processing of reinforced polymer products. Because of the relative ease of manufacturing reinforced polymer strips, which may serve as reinforcing elements, the cost of this process is minimal. Finally, the method proposed in this invention, allows the use of the same polymer for the core layer polymer and a reinforcing layer, which allows to obtain products made of the same material, which is much easier to process than products from various materials.

The term "polymer", according to this invention, is meant any composition including a synthetic resin, preferably a thermoplastic resin, which can be a homopolymer, copolymer. Such resin may be a polyolefin, a polyvinyl halide (Eden), for example, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), polyketone, polyamide (PA). Good results were obtained with the use of polyolefins, in particular polyethylene (PE) and in particular HDPE (high density polyethylene). In addition to specify the ow of synthetic resin, the composition may contain any conventional additives, such as stabilizers, fillers, plasticizers.

As explained above, the polymer reinforcing layer and the polymer of the base layer must be compatible and have approximately the same melting temperature (i.e. the melting temperature can differ by less than 25°C., preferably less than 10°C., and better still less than 5°C). It is most preferable to facilitate the processing of polymer products that they are equal or, at least, had the same chemical nature, that is, had the basis of the same monomers.

A key issue in the method according to this invention is the rapid cooling of the molten polymer in contact with the oriented polymer. Preferably, the polymer of the base layer, directly in contact with the reinforcing layer was cooled at a speed exceeding or equal to 10°C per second (°/s), preferably with a speed exceeding or equal to 100°C./sec. In fact, the critical is the fact that the core layer of oriented polymer must not reach a temperature too close to the temperature of orientation, particularly in the case of HDPE (high density polyethylene) as the oriented polymer, it generally means that h is about the temperature of the core should not to exceed the value close to 100°C. to optimize the speed/intensity of cooling is easily accomplished by a person of ordinary skill in the field using conventional chillers (e.g., water).

Also the way in which the flow of molten polymer of the base layer is applied on the reinforcing layer is not critical and depends mainly on the kind of polymer products. For example, for pipes good results are obtained by using the extrusion process; in this case, the device for rapid cooling, providing good results, may be, for example, bearing steel cylinder, which passes through a tube that is cooled by the relevant cooler (preferably liquid, is able to cool it below 20°C); or a jet of water aimed directly on the pipe. For fittings, you can use the injection, and for tanks you can use pneumotropica. In each of these technological methods advantage is the fact that the use of a suitable support (carrier pipe or mold, it is possible to avoid deformation bands.

According to a preferred variant of execution on the reinforcing layer, which must be in contact with molten polymer is created by embossing convex topography (i.e., it coarsed with the specified profile is) before as he is driven to contact in order to accelerate the adhesion of the molten polymer. Good results are achieved when the embossing depth equal to or exceeding 50 μm, and even better at a depth of 100 μm. You can use any method of embossing; in the most preferred embodiment, the embossing is carried out by prokachivanija oriented tape between the two rollers.

The method proposed in this invention can be used to manufacture several types of reinforced polymer products, preferably hollow polymeric elements, such as tanks, fittings or pipe.

In the process of manufacturing reinforced tanks or fittings reinforcing elements, including oriented strip, can be placed directly in the mold before applying the jet of molten polymer (mainly in the case of manufacturing fittings) or location draft form with the molten polymer (mainly in the case of manufacturing capacities in the mold. After rapid cooling of the mold with cold water and curing the molten polymer to form the core layer polymer is polymer product, which in this case represents the inner layer of the product.

According to a preferred variant implementation hollow polymer element is a fuel tank, and a very preferred variant this fuel tank made of HDPE. In this case, the reinforcing elements (also made of HDPE on the bottom of the mold will produce fuel tank with reinforced bottom, preventing deformation, which is especially important when the tank is large and can withstand a lot of weight of fuel. The possibility of placing reinforcing elements in the form pneumoperitoneum eliminates the step of applying the metal band on the fuel tank after its manufacture.

In the process of manufacturing reinforced plastic pipe, in the first step, it is possible to make the carrier pipe, for example, by extrusion. You can then apply reinforcing layer by winding reinforced polymer tape consisting of oriented polymer around the carrier pipe. Finally, the core layer polymer (in this case, the outer finishing layer) is applied over the reinforcing layer and quickly cooled in a bath of cold water and/or by using the above-described cooling cylinder or jet of cold water.

In this case, most preferably, the polymer tape is meshed with the carrier pipe under the influence of electromagnetic radiation, for example, by using a laser welding machine. A more detailed description of this method can be found in the patent application FR 2836652, the content of which is included as reference materials in this application. Such coupling with the carrier pipe can prevent the deformation, as explained above.

Under this option, the run-reinforced polymer strip is preferably wound at least twice (or two separate oriented tapes themselves are wound on the mandrel, can nakativaetsa around her one after the other), thus determining the angle between the coils. This angle is by definition different from 0° and 180°, i.e. winding in both layers are not parallel. Preferably, each layer had a winding angle (relative to the direction of extrusion of the carrier pipe), equal to the absolute value of the angle of winding of another layer, but with opposite sign. Such tubes are described in the application WO 02/088589, the contents of which are incorporated in this application as a reference material.

In the above-described embodiments, execution, using hardened (oriented) polymer tape, the tape can be laminated tape, obtained, for example, by simultaneous extrusion and simultaneous stretching (orientation) layers. In particular, this tape may include two layers a and b, and the layer And is thicker and is in the preferred embodiment, from 95 to 99% of the total thickness of the tape and the layer represents something like a surface layer, intended to be the military for contact with molten polymer, the nature of which is chosen to accelerate the coupling with the specified molten polymer. At the same time, as a layer And is preferably made of the same polymer as the molten polymer (mainly in order to facilitate processing, the layer preferably is made of a polymer of the same nature and/or compatible with the molten polymer, but with a lower molecular weight and/or melting temperature. For example, if molten polymer layer And made of HDPE, the layer may be made of LDPE, LLDPE or HDPE.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples without limiting it.

Example 1

Strip of oriented HDPE (high density polyethylene, brand Eltex Tub 121 of BPS) with a thickness of 1.2 mm was obtained by extrusion and orientation along one axis with a factor of 10 at a temperature of about 115°C (the melting point of HDPE is 142°C). This was achieved in the following way:

first was extrusion HDPE using KUHNE extruder equipped with a screw diameter of 60 mm, rotating at 50 rpm (output of 50 kg/hour), and a slit extrusion head JOHNSON width of 300 mm and a depth of 8 mm;

- giving the specified size of the resulting sheet by passing it through a calender with three rollers at a temperature of 50°C;

- maintaining the sheet of the specified size is RA temperature 115°C by passing it through 6 of the regulating rollers;

orienteering in one direction of the heated sheet in two stages (680%, and then another 30%, which gives the ratio 10; (=(100+680)/100*(100+30)/100);

- cooling and a slight weakening of the sheet (10% for thermal shrinkage and elastic return to its original state).

A square piece of material with a size of 10×10 cm is placed in a square mold of the same size, and that the mold is blowing a layer of molten HDPE at a temperature of 205°C 5 mm thick and rapidly cooled. To achieve rapid cooling of the mold was cooled with cold water.

Properties in bending (coefficient and mechanical stress) was twice the properties of unreinforced plates of the same thickness and made of the same material.

Example 2

Repeated experience, as in Example 1, but the mold was placed two reinforcing strips on each side of the pressurizing plate. Properties Flexural four times exceeded the properties of unreinforced plates of the same thickness and made of the same material.

Example 3.

Part of the oriented tapes from HDPE, obtained according to Example 1, was revivals around the pipe of HDPE having a size of 114 mm and a thickness of 4 mm, by using two different winding machines to get the layer wrapped around the pipe with an angle of 55°. Wrapped in this way the pipe was passed h is cut round the matrix, she was covered by extruding a layer of the same HDPE thickness of 3 mm, (the temperature of extrusion was 224°C., and the extrusion speed is 1 m/min). Specified covered tube was cooled water jet with a temperature of 12°C, falling on the tube approximately 0.5 m after the point of contact with molten polymer. Cut out some samples from chilled similarly pipes, and they were examined under crossed prisms Nicolas (Nicoll) to check how broke the molecular orientation (and the associated birefringence) in the bands. The study showed that in fact only in the surface layer of thickness less than 100 μm was lost orientation, and all the rest remained oriented and, thus, the mechanical properties are almost not deteriorated.

1. A method of manufacturing a multilayer polymeric product, is a hollow polymer element includes at least one reinforcing layer consisting of oriented polymer and at least one basic polymer layer in direct contact with at least part of the reinforcing layer in which the polymer of the base layer is compatible with the oriented polymer reinforcing layer and has approximately the same melting temperature, and the method including the AET following steps:
(a) applying a base layer of polymer in the form of a stream of molten polymer on at least a portion of the surface of the reinforcing layer, and
(C) curing the molten polymer on the surface of the reinforcing layer by rapid cooling so as to melt only a small portion of the reinforcing layer, thus reinforcing layer imposed by winding reinforced polymer tape consisting of oriented polymer carrying around a hollow polymer element, and the core layer polymer is applied over the reinforcing layer.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein on the surface of the reinforcing layer which is in contact with the molten polymer is extruded convex relief.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the hollow polymer element is a tube.

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the hollow polymer element is a fitting.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the carrier tube is made of a polymer that is compatible with the oriented polymer of the reinforcing layer, and a ribbon of reinforced polymer bonded with her under the influence of electromagnetic radiation.

6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the rapid cooling is realized by means of a cooled metal cylinder and/or by jets of cold water.



 

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FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for manufacture of at least partially plastic parts in means of travel in mold with at least one mold cavity. Method includes the following stages: mold is closed at least partially, at that at least one mold cavity is brought to the first position by means of at least one movable wall of at least one mold cavity. Then plastic is introduced in at least one mold cavity, after complete closure of mold and/or displacement, of at least one movable wall, at least one mold cavity is brought to the second position. At that at least one mold cavity in the second position has another volume compared to the first position, and then cavity is completely filled with plastic by means of at least one mold cavity installation from the first into the second position. At that mold is used, which has at least one mold cavity with at least one movable wall. At that control device is used for controlled displacement of wall between at least the first and second positions with the possibility to adjust wall displacement so that during use adiabatic release of heat takes place in plastic in mold cavity due to change of pressure in plastic and/or displacement. Part in means of travel may be manufactured by any method according to invention. Die mold for use in method according to invention has at least one cavity with movable wall, which is controlled for compression of plastic in mold cavity, when the mold is closed, as a result, adiabatic heat release takes place in plastic. Technical result is achieved during use of method and mold according to inventions.

EFFECT: reduction of pressure casting cycle duration, lowering of material consumption and reduction of undesirable stresses.

19 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: desired effect is obtained due to utilisation of the proposed press mould designed for fabrication of elastomer armature for the stator of a gerotor-type propeller-driven hydraulic machine and comprising a core with screw-shaped multiple-thread pins; on one of the core sides there is an inlet channel and a moulding channel arranged. Two centring bushings are mounted at the core ends. A stop bushing is fitted onto the core from the inlet and the moulding channel side. Additionally the press mould comprises the tubular shell of the stator being fabricated mounted concentric with the core with the help of the centring bushings. Together with the bushings and the core the shell forms the moulding cavity. One of the centring bushings has at least a single through-hole arranged in it for discharge of air from the moulding cavity. Each centring bushing is represented by a cartridge with a butt-end cross-wall. In the cross-wall there are centring holes arranged to enable the cartridge being mounted onto the core butt-ends and/or onto the stop bushing concentric with the core. The butt-ends of the stator shell outer surface are fitted in the cartridges concentric with the core. A butt-end of the stator tubular shell is located within the core cross plane passing through the moulding channels outlets locations. The other butt-end is support-attached to the cartridge cross-wall positioned opposite the inlet and the moulding channels.

EFFECT: enhancement of output performance, service life duration and operational reliability of gerotor-type propeller-driven hydraulic machines.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: manufacturing bristle structures.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises making bristle structure on a carrier with a mould having passages for forming bristles. The melt is supplied to passages under pressure. The carrier is applied on the mould so that the free cross-sections of the passages are completely overlapped.

EFFECT: improved method.

37 cl, 43 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; method of armoring of the solid propellant charges.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of armoring of the solid propellant charges used for the rocket engines and other devices and may be used at their finishing operations and at manufacture of the charges of the solid propellant. The method provides for deposition of the adhesiveness underlayer on the propellant grain and placing the grain in the press mold. The armoring composition is heated up to the yield state and injected into the space between the press mold die and the propellant grain. According to the first version the propellant grain with the deposited adhesive underlayer before placing in the press mold is thermostated at the temperature from the "dew point" up to 20°С. The thermostating is exercised during the time sufficient for the uniform distribution of the preset temperature over the whole volume of the propellant grain. Then the grain is set in the press mold and exercise the armoring process. The "dew point" temperature before placing the propellant grain for the thermostating is determined with consideration of the temperature and humidity of the surrounding atmospheric air in the industrial premise used for armoring of the charges. The second version provides, that the adhesive underlayer is deposited on the propellant grain after its thermostating at the indicated temperature before its placing into the press mold. The invention allows to raise the quality and safety of the propellant charge armoring process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and safety of the propellant charge armoring process.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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