Polymeric pipe (versions)

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: polymeric pipe, wall of which allows external layer, internal layer at least one intermediate layer, herewith nearby layers are connected to each other, and, at least, one layer, excluding inner layer, is implemented in the capacity of functional layer, which a) contains thermoreactive polymer, which in comparison with thermoreactive polymer, at least of one, following by radius inside layer differs, at least, by one physical character: coefficient of elasticity is less, percentage elongation against rupture is more, softening temperature is less, and/or b) contains at least one additive, which in case of application of impact energy on external layer is irreversibly deformed.

EFFECT: shock strength increasing of pipes.

22 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to polymeric tube, the wall of which has an outer layer, inner layer and at least one intermediate layer and the neighboring layers are connected.

Such multilayer pipe may have a diameter of 10 or 30 cm and several meters.

As is known from EP 0360758 B1, pipes can be produced, for example, centrifugal or centrifugal casting. Moreover, it is possible to produce pipes with a length of 6 m and more. Basic substances, for example-curable resin (in particular, thermosetting resin such as polyester resin, fillers and glass fibers in various ratios are served through the so-called feeder (feeder) on a rotating matrix for the formation of the individual layers. Due to the curing of the polymer is formed quasimonopoly casing pipe, which no longer has separate layers. After curing thermosetting polymer pipe reaches its strength.

In EP 0360758 B1 examples of the formation of different layers. The amount and composition of the individual layers may, however, depend on the size of pipe and its applications. In particular, prior art distinguishes between "pressure pipe"through which pumped fluid under pressure and non-pressure pipe, for example, a sewage pipe.

In most cases, the use of pipes is nakladyvayutsya under the earth and under the influence of different mechanical loads. This leads to the necessity of making hard pipe a degree of flexibility to prevent, in particular, the destruction of the shock load.

For this purpose, the known pipe of the specified type, with separate layers, reinforced with textile fibers and/or with additives or fillers. Due to the rotation matrix in the manufacture of condensation occurs with the individual layers before final curing.

Through such measures the strength of the pipe as a whole increases. These tubes also have the ability resistance to shock load or deflection, which is sufficient for various applications.

In this regard, it is known the next test.

The pipe is placed on a V-shaped style, which gives the pipe resistance in the transverse direction. On the outer surface of the pipe with different height (usually from 0.1 to 2.4 m with intervals of 0.1 meter) drop loads of different mass (0.5 kg, 1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg and so on).

For each test for each height is 15 repetitions.

A visible crack on the inner surface of the pipe segment is assessed as "destruction". Moreover, there are linear cracks (mostly along the pipe) and star-shaped cracks.

When the maximum height or maximum weight, which cannot be detected on the inner surface of the pipe none of the cracks at all 15 repetitions, determined 100%resistance.

Complete mismatch is assumed when all 15 repetitions of tests there are visible cracks.

The basic design of the test device shown in figure 1.

The aim of the invention is a polymeric tube of the described type, manufactured by the centrifugal method, which will have greater impact resistance than previously known pipe. These pipes are highly demanded for certain applications, for example for ground strip.

To solve this problem we conducted numerous experiments and tests. Been a systematic study of the formation of the pipe, as well as the formation of individual layers. Examined the influence of source materials for resistance to shock, as well as changing the thickness of the individual layers or their sequence.

Next, the following terminology is used. The pipe has an outer layer (= the outer cover layer, the inner cover layer (= inner layer)and at least one structural layer in between, hereinafter referred to as intermediate layers. All layers contain at least a portion of thermosetting polymer and after hardening form quasimonopoly casing pipe, which is no more individual layers, i.e. layers, consistently applied during manufacture, now interconnected with dynany.

The basis of the invention lies in the finding that, for example, a change in the sequence of the individual intermediate layers or changing individual parameters technology have relatively little effect on the mechanical properties of the pipe. The specified properties of the pipe can be greatly improved by improving the impact strength by changing the physical properties of at least one of the layers (the outer layer, the intermediate layer), with the exception of the inner layer.

Changes in the physical properties of such a layer, hereinafter referred to as a functional layer, it is possible to achieve due to the fact that the functional layer contains a thermosetting polymer, which is different from the polymer of at least one radially inside the next layer of at least one of the following physical parameters: a lower modulus, higher elongation at break, lower softening temperature, and that the functional layer contains at least one filler, which upon application of impact energy on the outer layer of the pipe is irreversible, in particular plastically deformed.

In another embodiment of the invention it is sufficient for the functional layer contains at least one filler, which upon application of impact energy on the outer layer the pipe is irreversible, in particular plastically deformed.

Change thermosetting polymer and the composition of the layer gives equally manifested consequences. The impact strength of the pipe as a whole is greatly improved. Ductility (deformability) of the pipe under load is optimized. Directly under mechanical load, especially when a shock load, observed the following effects:

- functional layer cracks, especially cracks or delamination between the filler and the surrounding polymer

in the functional layer are deformed zones filled porous or capable of deformation filler

- surface connection between the functional layer and the adjacent layer at least partially interrupted.

Crack formation, especially the formation of microcracks occurs, as a rule, due to the fact that the corresponding functional layer contains a polymer in which the modulus of elasticity, elongation at break and/or softening temperature to some extent differ from the corresponding values of the polymer of at least one, radially inside the next layer.

Cracks are cracks up to 1 mm, in particular up to 500 microns.

While the modulus of elasticity in one embodiment of the invention should be at least 25% less than the module is adjacent to the inside layer. The above reduction can be according to the examples of execution of the invention more than 33%, more than 50%, more than 66%, more than 75% and even more than 90%.

For example, the polymer for the intermediate layer, considered as a functional layer, should have a modulus of elasticity exclusively about 100 MPa, and the polymer (a complex polyester) for interconnecting the inner direction of the intermediate layer, the modulus of elasticity of about 2000-4000 Psi. The obtained according to the invention the effect is among other things the following. The resulting shock deformation wave in the transition from the functional layer with a small modulus of elasticity in the next layer with a large modulus of elasticity partially reflected so that on is only part of the strain energy.

The choice of polymer for the functional layer may be an alternative or cumulatively on the basis of its relative elongation at break, which should be greater than that of the polymer layer, the following further inside. Moreover, the functional polymer layer should have an elongation at break greater than at least 30%. The elongation at break may, however, be more than 50% or more 100%than the elongation at break of the polymer adjacent the next "inside"layer.

Specific examples of the relative ugly which begins with the rupture of the inner intermediate layer pipe may for example, to be 2-2,5%, while the elongation at rupture adjacent the outer intermediate layer (functional layer) is not less than 5%, but it can be 10, 20 or even 50%.

As a possible criterion for the decision of a task is the choice of polymer for the functional layer (s), softening temperature less than the softening temperature of the polymer radially inside the next layer. While conventional polyester resin (a complex polyester) obtained by centrifugation tube has (according to ISO 75) the softening temperature of 100-130C., softening temperature for the polymer made according to the invention the functional layer should be smaller by at least 20%, preferably reduced by more than 30% or more than 50%. The polymer of this functional layer is less crosslinked and has the softening temperature, as less than 80C, less than 50C or less than 25C, respectively.

Emerging functional layer under mechanical load microcracks lead to a significant damping of energy and with it, a significant decrease in elastic shock energy which is transferred to the adjacent inner layer. These functional layers do not affect other basic structural properties of the pipe. Cracks or delamination devices do not possess in General a negative impact on the operating properties of the pipe, because all of the other layers are formed so that the necessary structural characteristics are preserved, as if the functional layer was not.

For first described the impact test, this means that on the inner wall of the pipe is observed significantly fewer cracks under the same test conditions as compared with the known pipes.

The outer layer and intermediate layer (s) can (can) to include along with the polymer (connecting means), at least one of the following components.

In the layer can be divided filler, for example, on the basis of silicon dioxide (SiO2), magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide (Cao), magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), calcium carbonate (caso3), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), barium sulfate (BaSO4), talc, kaolin, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), calcium sulphate (CaSO4or mixtures thereof. This filler should have is usually a particle size less than 1.0 mm, and a particle size less than 0.1 mm are more preferred.

The proportion of filler (in the corresponding layer) is depending on the execution of the invention from 25 to 250% by weight relative to the amount of polymer in the appropriate layer.

The outer and intermediate layers can also contain fiberglass (separately or together with napolnitel is m), for example, a fiber length of less than 60 mm, and a shorter fiber (less than 30 mm, or less than 15 mm) may also find application. The share of fiberglass is depending on the option run from 5 to 70% by mass, the ratio (by weight) of the corresponding layer.

As filler for the functional layer (s) fits: expanded glass, hollow glass, porous perlite porous vermiculite, pumice, rubber, elastomers, thermoplastic polymer or other similar substances, preferably with particle sizes less than 10 mm In all these supplements we are talking about three-dimensional, porous, light in weight or easily deformable products not great mechanical strength. Strength, on the one hand, should be enough to supplements were distributed in the polymer matrix intact and undeformed throughout the volume. However, on the other hand, the strength/stability is so small that, with appropriate shock load additive is destroyed or deformed. In the layer formation of new defects (voids) to the changed geometry, especially when the additive is destroyed. In the case of a deformable elastic additive under load deformation structural zones, which is additive. Both structural changes are irreversible. In the last mentioned case, causes the plastic I (volumetric strain) supplements. May also occur if the particle additives from the surrounding matrix material.

In different versions of the sizes of the filler particles can be significantly less than 10 mm, for example less than 6 mm, less than 4 mm, less than 2 mm, less than 1 mm, or less than 0.5 mm.

Principle is the following statement: a large number of small cracks, accordingly, a large number of new small cavities or structural deformations provide greater damping energy than a small number of large cracks and a small number of large cavities/zones.

The share of the mentioned additives is from 5 to 50 wt.%, or up to 90 volume percent relative to the corresponding (total) intermediate layer, and 60-80 volume. % will be sufficient. But smaller volume fraction (up to 10, 20 or 30%) lead, albeit to a lesser extent, to the described effect.

Mentioned additive, which is separated from the surrounding polymer matrix, or deformed or destroyed by impact forces applied according to the invention for the formation of a functional layer, regardless of the polymer.

Thus, the invention relates to a pipe, a functional layer which is in accordance with the prior art contains a conventional polymer with a modulus of elasticity, for example 2.000-8.000 MPa, in which, however, is distributed over less is th least one of these additives. Kind of the additive, its size (particles) and its share in the mass of the entire functional layer may correspond to the above values.

When considering the process in the direction of "outside in" inventive concept is implemented for the case when the first functional layer of the type described will follow or the second functional layer of the type described and/or next layer (intermediate layer or inner layer), which is specially suited to stop the propagation of cracks from the radially outer layer. This relates primarily to the layers, which along with the polymer also contain glass fibers. Moreover, the benefits will be observed in those cases where part of the glass fibers subsequent layers will be located in the axial direction of the pipe. As the polymer for the next inner layer can be applied regular, in relation to the above, the polymer.

As the inner layer is usually applied, a layer of pure polymer as the inner layer requires a very smooth surface contact with flowing fluid, for example water. For this purpose, the inner layer can be used as a conventional thermosetting polymer of the above type, such as polyester resin (a complex polyester) on the basis of orthophthalic acid, isophthalic acid, those who eftalou acid or tetrahydrophthalic acid, so, for example, a polymer based on bisphenol a, the polymer based on vinyl ester, epoxy or polyurethane.

Further characteristics of the invention follow from the features of dependent claims, as well as other documents of the application.

Hereinafter the invention is further described with reference to various examples.

While in the drawings, respectively, in highly schematic image and not to scale, shows:

figure 2 - cross section of the pipe wall in the first embodiment, the polymeric pipe,

figure 3 - cross section of the pipe wall in the second embodiment, the polymer tubes,

figure 4 - cross section of the pipe wall in the third embodiment, the polymeric pipe.

On each figure 2-4 shows the cross section of the wall of polymer pipe. Each of these plastic pipes is, in this case, for example, five layers, namely the outer layer 10, the inner layer 12 and located between layers 14, 16, 18.

In all examples, the outer layer 10 consists of a mixture of 30 wt.% polyester resin (modulus of elasticity: 3.000 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of about 60 MPa, an elongation at break of about 2.5%) with 70 wt.% quartz sand grain size fraction of less than 1 mm.

The inner layer 12 is in all examples, solely of polyester resin with a modulus of elasticity OK the lo 200 MPa, the ultimate tensile strength of about 20 MPa and elongation at break of about 50%.

In the exemplary embodiment in accordance with figure 2 of the intermediate layers have the following structure.

Adjacent to the outer layer 10, the intermediate layer 14 consists of about 35 wt.% polyester resin and about 65 wt.% calcium carbonate particle size fraction less than 0.5 mm.

The following intermediate layer 16 is formed from a mixture of 40 wt.% special polymer and 60 wt.% calcium carbonate particle size fraction of less than 0.5 mm Special polymer is a polyester resin with a modulus of about 500 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of about 30 MPa and elongation at break of about 20%.

Between this intermediate layer 16 and the inner layer 12 is formed following the intermediate layer 18, comprising from about 50 wt.% polyester resin And 10 wt.% finely ground dolomite (less than 1 mm) and 40 wt.% fiber diameter of about 10 microns and a length of 25 mm And glass fibre laid mainly in the tangential direction of the pipe.

The arrow in figure 2, the impact energy is extinguished intermediate layers 14, 16, 18, and here, first of all, thanks to the choice of polymers with different moduli of elasticity, each time increasing from the "outer" layers "internal". The intermediate layers 14, 16 are who eat the most functional layers in the foregoing. Thus, for example, in the area of the intermediate layer 16 is the formation of microcracks, which then stops the intermediate layer 18 so that the inner layer 12 even under high shock loads remains largely intact.

Figure 2 microcracks schematically indicated increased by characters in the field layer 16. Increased is also the symbolic representation of optical fibers in the zone layer 18 and their location.

In the exemplary embodiment according to Fig 3, the intermediate layer 14, the next outer layer 10 made as absorbing the energy functional layer and consists of the mentioned special polymer, which is distributed hollow glass balls with a diameter of less than 2 mm, and the volume fraction of the hollow glass balls around the layer is about 70%.

This intermediate layer 14, the functional layer 16, which is made similarly to the intermediate layer 16 according to figure 2. This is true also for the execution of the intermediate layer 18, before the next inner layer 12.

To an even greater extent than in the exemplary embodiment according to figure 2, can absorb the impact energy pipe with a wall structure according to figure 3. However, a significant role is played by the functional layer 14 with a hollow glass ball. When outside, for example, radial UDA is Noah load is the destruction depicted enlarged hollow glass beads, and as a result, deformation or destruction of the limited hollow balls of voids in the structure layer 14, and thus to decrease the stress caused by the impact.

This voltage reduction continues in the layer 16.

Thanks to the "pre-clearing" of impact energy in the layer 14, as compared with the exemplary embodiment according to figure 2, is formed smaller cracks (symbolically visible in the form of only four images of cracks). As a result, the pipe can withstand a substantial and lasting impact load without detection of cracking in the inner layer 12.

Cross section of the pipe according to figure 4 corresponds to the ratio of the outer layer 10 and the functional layer 14 corresponds to the example in figure 2.

In contrast, the intermediate layer 16 consists of pure a special polymer With the specified type, while the other intermediate layer 18 formed between the intermediate layer 16 and inner layer 12 made of a special polymer With (softening temperature 50C) in combination with optical fibers.

As soon as the pipe is appropriate shock load, in the area of the intermediate layer 16 again, the formation of cracks, and the promotion of cracks in the direction of the inner layer 12 stops another intermediate layer 18.

Additionally, in this example, you can observe the partial exfoliation of the intermediate layer 18 from the inner layer 12, which occurs in areas of the boundary surfaces of the layers as schematically depicted by the symbol 19.

Each of these branches of boundary surfaces is located in the region of a few mm2. Thanks to many such offices (flaking) along the boundary surface between the layers 18, 12 stops development starting from the outside of the propagation of cracks in the inner layer 12.

Instead schematically depicted in the drawings, three intermediate layers can also include only two or significantly more than three intermediate layers, the functional layer is created at least one, and preferably two of the intermediate layer.

Due to the described activities carried out in accordance with the invention, the pipe surpass known from the prior art in its ability to withstand shock loads.

As it was stated above, the modulus of elasticity, its determination was conducted in accordance with ISO 527.

These limits tensile strength was determined in accordance with ISO 178.

Data relative elongation at break were obtained in accordance with ISO 527 ISO 178.

The softening temperature was determined according to ISO 75 A.

1. Polymer pipe, the wall of which has an outer layer (10), the inner layer (12) and at least one about eroticly layer (14, 16, 18), and adjacent layers are interconnected, and at least one layer, except for the inner layer (12)made as a functional layer, which
(a) contains a thermosetting polymer, which is compared to a thermosetting polymer, at least one radially inside the next layer is different at least one physical characteristic:
the modulus of elasticity less, an elongation at break greater softening temperature less and
b) contains at least one additive, in which case the application of the impact energy to the outer layer (10) is permanently deformed.

2. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, the functional layer which contains an additive, which is deformed in the case of application of the impact energy to the outer layer of the plastic pipe.

3. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the modulus of elasticity of thermosetting polymer of the functional layer at least 25%less.

4. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the modulus thermosetting polymer functional layer is less than at least 50%.

5. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the elongation at break thermosetting polymer functional layer is greater by at least 30%.

6. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the softening temperature thermosetting polymer functional layer is less than at least 50%.

7. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, the functional layer which comprises a thermosetting polymer which has at least one of the following properties:
the modulus of elasticity of from 100 to 500 MPa,
the ultimate tensile strength from 5 to 40 MPa,
elongation at break greater than 10%,
softening temperature less than 100C.

8. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which except for the inner layer (12), at least one layer (10, 14, 16, 18) contains along with a thermosetting polymer, at least one of the following components:
the filler on the basis of silicon dioxide (SiO2), magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide (Cao), magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), calcium carbonate (caso3), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), barium sulfate (BaSO4), talc, kaolin, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), calcium sulphate (CaSO4or a mixture of them,
glass fiber.

9. Polymeric pipe of claim 8, the filler has a particle size less than 0.2 mm

10. Polymeric pipe of claim 8, in which the proportion of the filler is from 25 to 250% by weight relative to the amount of polymer corresponding layer(10, 14, 16, 18).

11. Polymeric pipe of claim 8, in which the glass fibers have a length less than 60 mm

12. Polymeric pipe of claim 8, in which the proportion of the glass fibers is from 5 to 70% by weight relative to sootvetstvuyuschaya (18).

13. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the additive is a material selected individually or in combination from the group of foam glass, hollow glass, porous perlite porous vermiculite, pumice, rubber, elastomers, thermoplastic polymers.

14. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the additive has a particle size less than 10 mm

15. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, in which the proportion of the additive is from 10 to 90 vol.% relative to the corresponding layer (14).

16. Polymer pipe according to claim 1, the inner layer which is a layer of pure polymer.

17. Polymer pipe, the wall of which has an outer layer (10), the inner layer (12) and at least one intermediate layer (14, 16, 18), and adjacent layers are interconnected, and at least one layer, except for the inner layer (12)made as a functional layer containing at least one additive, in which case the application of the impact energy to the outer layer (10), irreversibly deformed.

18. Polymer pipe 17, a functional layer which contains an additive, which is deformed in the case of application of the impact energy to the outer layer of the plastic pipe.

19. Polymer pipe 17, in which the additive is a material selected individually or in combination from the group of foam glass, hollow glass, porous perlite, porous, were the greenshank, pumice, rubber, elastomers, thermoplastic polymers.

20. Polymer pipe 17, in which the additive has a particle size less than 10 mm

21. Polymer pipe 17, in which the proportion of the additive is from 10 to 90 vol.% relative to the corresponding layer (14).

22. Polymer pipe 17, the inner layer which is a layer of pure polymer.



 

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Pipe // 2262027

FIELD: construction engineering; manufacture of plastic pipes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed pipe has metal branch pipe with locking components, thermoplastic envelope embracing them and reinforcing glass-reinforced plastic layer. Pipe is provided with crimping coupling of thermoplastic envelope in zone of locking components; metal branch pipe is fitted with additional locking component and glass-reinforced layer embraces crimping coupling and additional locking component.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 dwg

Biplastic pipe // 2263243

FIELD: mechanical engineering; pipe transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in laying plastic pipelines. Proposed biplastic pipe contains carrying layer made of glass plastic, lining layer and locking rings arranged along pipe axis. Lining layer is formed by winding thermoplastic material on pole to form T-shaped locking rings with winding of glass fabric impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde resin with subsequent solidifying of resin and melting of thermoplastic material. Caoutchouc-based raw calendered rubber is used as thermoplastic material, or polyethylene, polypropylene or polyvinylchloride film. Pipe is provided with bell for connecting the pipes with subsequent melting of lining layer in place of contact in bell part. To reinforce connection of pipes, sleeve-band is used which is arranged on outer surface of bell part. Pipe-to-pipe joint is reinforced by welding stainless material inserts.

EFFECT: improved reliability of pipeline.

6 cl, 5 dwg

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