Thermo-stabilised superconductor based on nb3sn compound (versions) and method of making said superconductor (versions)

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering, specifically to thermo-stabilised superconductors based on the Nb3Sn compound and methods of making the said superconductors. The thermo-stabilied superconductor based on the Nb3Sn compound is made in form of a matrix from a metal or alloy, containing superconducting material fibre, metal tubes filled with a rare-earth metal compound with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, an outer hollow copper cylinder and a thin cylindrical shell made from titanium and/or niobium placed coaxially between the matrix and the outer hollow copper cylinder. The metal tubes are tightly pressed to each other in the gap between the cylinder and the shell in the first version, or in a gap made in the radial direction in the wall of the cylinder in the second version. The method of making such thermo-stabilised superconductors is described.

EFFECT: wider functional capabilities of a thermally insulated superconductor due to presence in the superconductor of a rare-earth intermetallic compound with extremely high heat capacity at helium temperatures, which increases mean heat capacity of the superconductor by 5-6 times.

12 cl, 11 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of applied superconductivity and can be used in the manufacture of superconductors to work in a heavily loaded superconducting windings (strain >100 MPa), and the superconducting windings and devices operating in variable modes, for example, a superconducting energy storage, dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators.

Known depletability superconductor containing fibers of the superconducting material in a matrix of metal or alloy with a high conductive properties and the compound of the rare earth metals with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures (for example, l3, CeCu6, Wear2,

System6, Gd2O3, Gd2O2S, U6Fe, Ube13, UZn17)or in the form of small particles dispersed (distributed) throughout the matrix, or lived with a substantially smaller cross-sectional dimension than the superconducting fibers, and these veins pass through the superconductor in parallel superconducting fibers, either in the form of an annular layer surrounding the matrix, with one superconducting fiber, either in the form of concentric layers, interspersed with metal matrix, either in the form of the actual matrix containing a superconducting fiber, [PA the UNT U.S. No. 4623862, IPC H01F 7/22].

Introduction compounds of rare earth elements with extremely high heat capacity (for example, when the boiling point of liquid helium 4,2K heat capacity of intermetallic Wear2450 times greater than that of copper, and ceramics Gd2O2S, respectively, at 650 times) in superconductors with volume fractions 3÷6% 5÷10 times increases their average volumetric heat capacity. Accordingly increases their heat-absorbing ability and the ability to work in variable modes, as well as under high mechanical stresses superconductor, when necessary, the ability to resist the impulse to the local thermal mechanical origin (for example, the movement of the coils, the binder cracking coils of material, and so on).

The disadvantages of the known heat-insulated superconductor are almost insurmountable difficulties in its manufacture. It is impossible to ensure uniform dispersion (distribution) of the fine powder of the compounds of rare earth metals by volume of the matrix superconductor because of the impossibility of uniform mixing of the powder in the melt of copper, because it is much easier for her.

Due to the fact that the compounds of the rare earth elements (intermetallic compounds, such as System6or ceramics, for example Gd2O2S) belong to the class of chemical compounds, the distinguishing feature of which is a complex structure of the crystal lattice, they lose the ability to plastic deformation. In this respect, it is difficult to provide the necessary to achieve the specified parameters of the deformation of the composite billet in the presence vysokoenergoemkikh elements. It is therefore impossible to provide a standard operation seamless transfer pullback mandatory for superconducting wires by twisting preform wires to the desired cross sectional dimensions and the step of twisting when compounds of rare earth metals, as well as the superconducting material, for example, in the copper matrix in the form of rods, due to the significant difference of mechanical properties. It is also impossible to ensure a seamless transfer advance procurement superconductor, but without twisting, when the compound of the rare earth metals are placed in a matrix, for example, copper, in the form of one or more concentric layers, or itself performs the function of a matrix.

The closest technical solution is depletability superconductor made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fibers of superconducting material and a compound of rare earth metals with extremely high heat capacity. The superconductor further comprises at least two metal tubes proizvolnogo the section, distributed over the cross section of the superconductor, filled with a compound of rare earth metals, the distance between the tubes is at least two linear dimensions of the tube. The superconductor has an outer shell of metal with high conductive properties [application for invention No. 2007114248, the decision to grant a patent dated 15 February 2008].

The disadvantages of the known superconductor are reduced current-carrying capacity due to the fact that part of the cross-section of the matrix to the fibers of superconducting material are engaged by the tubing connection of the rare earth metal, and also the restriction on the length of the superconductor, since the need for longitudinal repeated preliminary drilling of the workpiece to position the holes of the tubes restricts its length by the length of the drill.

A known method of manufacturing a superconductor, in which at first make bronze bars in the form of a cylinder containing multiple cores from niobium; then gather the workpiece, comprising a hollow copper cylinder, a thin cylindrical shell of niobium or tantalum which is situated coaxially with the copper cylinder in its cavity, a bronze cylinder with lots of holes drilled along, employed cylindrical rods bronze/niobium, which is tightly inserted into the shell; then the ends of the billet cover is with copper lids in the form of discs and brewed in a vacuum chamber using electron-beam welding; next, use hot pressing of the workpiece from the container with a significant decrease in the diameter of the workpiece; then apply the drawing of the workpiece with an intermediate annealing and a gradual decrease in the diameter of the superconductor; then produce testirovanie, the final calibration of the drawing and the final annealing [Foner S., Schwartz, B., "physical Metallurgy and technology of superconducting materials, metallurgy, 1987, str-289].

The disadvantage of this method is the limitation collected billet length, because a lot of holes in the bronze cylinder is limited by the length of the drill and the ability to ensure the parallelism of the longitudinal holes. As well as the length of the workpiece determines the length made it a superconductor, it is also limited by the length of the piece.

The closest technical solution is a method of manufacturing a superconductor, named bronze technology, which at first make bronze bars in the form of hexagons containing many rods of niobium; then gather the workpiece, comprising a hollow copper cylinder, a thin cylindrical shell of niobium or tantalum which is situated coaxially with the copper cylinder in its cavity, many hexagonal rods bronze/niobium, which stick tightly to each other inside the shell; the Otomi, the ends of the workpiece close copper lids in the form of discs and brewed in a vacuum chamber using electron-beam welding; next, use hot pressing of the workpiece from the container with a significant decrease in the diameter of the workpiece; then apply the drawing of the workpiece with an intermediate annealing and a gradual decrease in the diameter of the superconductor; then produce testirovanie, the final calibration of the drawing and the final annealing [Foner S., Schwartz, B., "physical Metallurgy and technology of superconducting materials, metallurgy, 1987, str-263].

A disadvantage of the known method of manufacturing a superconductor is that it is impossible in the framework by modifying the operations and their parameters to raise performance made superconductor for different operating modes, for example, the same as the conductor of the superconducting magnet system with a high level of mechanical stresses (~na)due to ponderomotive forces, and the same conductor in dynamic modes with a high-speed changes in the external or self-magnetic fields (≥1 T/s). In other words, it is impossible, altering the known method, to raise the critical current density is made of a superconductor, to increase its tristatecheckbox stability (resistance to thermal perturbations) and to improve magnetic stability (resistance to the jumps of the magnetic flux), as measures to increase one of their'hara the characteristics reduces the other.

The task to be solved by the invention is the extension of functionality insulated superconductor.

To solve the problem depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fiber superconducting material, metal pipes filled with a compound of rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, the outer hollow copper cylinder and disposed between the matrix and the outer hollow copper cylinder coaxial with them a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, and the metal tube are located close to each other in the gap between the cylinder and the shell.

In the private embodiment, a metal tube with cross-section of arbitrary shape and are arranged longitudinally of the axis of the cylinder.

In another private embodiment, a metal tube is made tapered to

t/≤1,

where t is the thickness of the tubes,

In - width tube

and wound in a spiral on the shell.

To solve this problem a method of manufacturing depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn includes the Assembly of the preform from the outside of a hollow copper cylinder, thin cylinder is practical to the shell of the tantalum and/or niobium, located coaxially to the cylinder and the matrix consisting of hexagonal bronze bars, rods, containing many rods from niobium, placed close to each other inside the shell, then the ends of the workpiece close the lids in the form of discs and brewed in a vacuum chamber using electron-beam welding, the workpiece is subjected to hot pressing with a significant reduction of its diameter, the drawing with an intermediate annealing and a gradual decrease in diameter of the workpiece to the desired diameter of the superconductor, conduct testirovanie, the final calibration of the drawing and the final annealing, and between the cylinder and the shell executes the gap, which have close to each other a metal tube filled with connection of the rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

In the private version of the metal tubes have longitudinal axis of the cylinder.

In another private embodiment, a metal tube pre to flatten ratio

t/B≤1,

where t is the thickness of the tubes,

In - width tube

and wound in a spiral on the shell.

To solve the task depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fiber overprovide is its material, metal pipes filled with a compound of rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, the outer hollow copper cylinder and disposed between the matrix and the cylinder coaxially with them a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, and the metal tube are located close to each other in the gap made in the radial direction in the cylinder wall.

In the private embodiment, a metal tube with cross-section of arbitrary shape and are arranged longitudinally of the axis of the cylinder.

In another private embodiment, a metal tube is made tapered to

t/≤1,

where t is the thickness of the tubes,

In - width tube

and wound in a spiral in the gap of the wall of the cylinder.

To solve this problem a method of manufacturing depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn includes the Assembly of the preform from the outside of a hollow copper cylinder, a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, which is located coaxially in the cavity of the cylinder, and a matrix consisting of hexagonal bronze bars, rods, containing many rods from niobium, placed close to each other inside the shell, then the ends of the workpiece close the lids in the form of discs and brewed in a vacuum chamber using elektronno-beam welding, the billet is subjected to hot pressing with a significant reduction of its diameter, the drawing with an intermediate annealing and a gradual decrease in diameter of the workpiece to the desired diameter of the superconductor, conduct testirovanie, the final calibration of the drawing and the final annealing, and in the wall of the cylinder in the radial direction, perform a gap, which is set close to each other a metal tube filled with a compound of rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

In the private version of the metal tubes have longitudinal axis of the cylinder.

In another private embodiment, a metal tube pre to flatten ratio

t/B≤1,

where t is the thickness of the tubes,

In - width tube

and wound in a spiral in the gap of the wall of the cylinder.

The presence of rare-earth intermetallic in superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn produced by the proposed method, after the diffusion temperature annealing (~1000°C), during which diffusion of tin from the bronze niobium rods and the formation of layers of superconducting compound Nb3Sn, increases the strength of the superconductor in compression.

The difference in compressibility of the components of the superconductor (bronze, copper, Nb3Sn, redkozemel the hydrated intermetallide) when cooled to the temperature of liquid helium (-269°C) causes the layers of Nb 3Sn nonelectronic compressive stresses, which reduce the critical properties (critical temperature, critical magnetic field, the critical current). The increase in compressive strength due to the introduction of the superconducting rare-earth intermetallic reduces the stresses in the layers of Nb3Sn and, thus, increases the critical properties, in particular, the critical current of the superconductor produced by the proposed method, in comparison with the similar, made known method.

The presence of the superconductor produced by the proposed method, the alloying additive - rare earth intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at liquid helium temperature (e.g., in System6100 times greater than that of copper), even at low volume fractions 5-6% allows 5-6 times to raise the average heat capacity of a superconductor compared to the same manufactured in a known manner. This increase in heat capacity in the same ratio raises resistance to thermal perturbations (increases tristatecheckbox stability) and, to a lesser extent (because of the rapidity of the process) resistance to the jumps of the magnetic flux (magnetic stability).

Thus, compared with the superconductor produced in a known manner, the superconductor made pre the proposed method, significantly increase functionality that allows you to equally be used for current-carrying elements and a stationary superconducting magnets with a high level of ponderomotive voltages (~200 MPa), which generates thermal perturbation of mechanical origin (moving coils, cracking and rupture of the binder and insulating materials, discontinuous deformation), as well as in the superconducting magnets with dynamic modes: high electrical losses and limitations on the speed of the input/output current.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows the cross section of the superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn on the famous bronze technology.

Figure 2 presents the cross-section blanks collected for the manufacture depletability superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn-doped rare-earth intermetallic System6located inside the tubes, placed in the gap between the hollow copper cylinder and a thin cylindrical shell of niobium or tantalum longitudinally of their axis.

Figure 3 presents the cross-section blanks collected for the manufacture depletability superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn-doped rare-earth intermetallic System6located inside the tapered tube, wound in a spiral on the surface of the niobium or tantalum in the gap between the hollow copper cylinder and a thin cylindrical shell of niobium or tantalum.

Figure 4 presents the cross-section blanks collected for the manufacture depletability superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn-doped rare-earth intermetallic System6located inside the tubes, placed in the gap made in the radial direction in the outer wall of the hollow cylinder longitudinally of their axis.

Figure 5 presents the cross-section blanks collected for the manufacture depletability superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn-doped rare-earth intermetallic System6located within a tapered tube wound in a spiral in the gap made in the radial direction in the wall of a hollow copper cylinder.

Figure 6 presents the transverse and longitudinal cross-section of the experimental superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn made in a known manner (control sample for comparative studies).

Figure 7 presents the transverse and longitudinal cross-section of the experimental superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn alloying additive System6according to the proposed invention.

On Fig presents the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic induction is Olya after diffusion annealing for samples doped (Nb 3Sn+System6and the controlling religiouznogo (Nb3Sn) superconductors in the longitudinal electric field of 0.1 µv/see

Figure 9 presents the electric scheme of the experiment with the longitudinal electromagnetic perturbations applied to the samples made of superconductors (induction heating ring eddy currents).

Figure 10 presents the dependencies stored in the capacitor energy electromagnetic disturbance, which religiously control (Nb3Sn) and doped (Nb3Sn+System6) samples are transferred in the normal state (critical energy dissipation in the samples always directly proportional) from the transport current in the sample, placed in an external transverse magnetic field with induction b=3 Tesla.

Figure 11 presents the dependence of the current transition unalloyed control (Nb3Sn) and doped (Nb3Sn+System6samples from the speed of the current input to the self-magnetic field; transitions caused by irregular magnetic field in the cross-section samples (very fast (~10-4÷10-6with redistribution of current in the cross section from extremely heterogeneous to homogeneous emitting thermal energy).

Using the known method of manufacturing a superconductor based on Nb3Sn (bronze technology) and the proposed method with the operation vnutrennih is doped superconductor rare earth intermetallic System 6received two experimental superconductor length of 120 m

Collected in a known manner, the workpiece (1) includes pre-prepared hexagonal bronze/niobium 1, a hollow copper cylinder 2, coaxially with which the shell of niobium 3 and spacers from tantalum 4, not allowing for diffusion annealing to form a continuous cylindrical layer of Nb3Sn in the shell and, thus, to prevent her role as the screen in alternating magnetic fields.

Collected the proposed method, the workpiece (figure 2) between the hollow copper cylinder 2 and the shell of the niobium 3, inside of which are hexagons bronze/1 and niobium tantalum spacers 4 made the gap, which houses many densely pressed to each other metal (copper) tube 5 filled with compound (alloying additive System6- rare earth intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

Also collected in the proposed method, the workpiece between the hollow copper cylinder 2 and a cover made of niobium or tantalum 3, inside of which are hexagons bronze/1 and niobium tantalum spacers 4 made the gap that hosts tapered metal tube 6, is wound in a spiral on the shell, filled with compound (alloying additive System6- redcode is entrusted by the intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

The second option inside wall of a hollow copper cylinder 2 has a gap that hosts numerous copper tubes 5, the completed connection (alloying additive System6- rare earth intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

Inside the walls of the hollow copper cylinder 2 has a gap in which is placed the flattened tube (figure 3), filled with compound (alloying additive System6- rare earth intermetallic with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

After Assembly of the blanks ⌀ 51 mm-known and proposed methods and further operations and their modes are the same for both methods, were made two superconductor ⌀ 0,82 mm: superconductor witness on the basis of Nb3Sn (figure 4) and the superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn+System6(figure 5), which after hot pressing and several lugs copper tube 5 with rare-earth intermetallic System6inside were pressed in the annular layer. Superconductors were kept 4420 Nb lived in a bronze matrix, the volume fraction of System6in the second superconductor was (5±0,5)%. Fig.6 shows how the strengthening of compression in doped superconductor Nb3Sn+System6produced by the proposed method leads to the increase of the critical currents in (7-9)%that PR is almost brought to its limit on critical parameters known method is a noticeable increase in current carrying capacity.

Comparative test samples made of superconductors in terms of resistance to electromagnetic disturbances - the pulse of longitudinal alternating decaying magnetic field, leading to direct heat in samples of superconductors (thermal disturbances) due to the shielding ring eddy currents in the copper hollow cylinder 2 (figure 4 and figure 5).

Further samples of superconductors 6 (7) were placed in an insulating mandrel 7 to simulate adiabatic conditions. The mandrel 7 was reeled the field coil 8 of the copper wire with a diameter of 0.125 mm, containing 600 turns. Longitudinal electromagnetic perturbations were simulated discharge of the capacitor 9 through the switch 10 to the excitation coil 8. When this occurred electromagnetic oscillation frequency of 320 Hz, which led to the induction heating of the sample length of 120 mm circular eddy currents with a characteristic time of damping of 1.1 MS.

On Fig the dependences of the energy of the perturbations, which converts the samples in the normal state (critical energy) on the magnitude of the transport current for the sample containing alloying vysokoenergoemkoe additive System6and the control sample without additives.

The critical energy of the perturbation of the sample doped superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn+System6made offer Emim way higher than in the control on the basis of Nb3Sn made in a known manner, 5-8 times (depending on the proximity of the transport current to critical), which roughly corresponds to the increase in the average volumetric heat capacity of the doped superconductor due vysokoenergoemkoe additive. This fact also explains the significant increase thermomagnetic stability (Fig.9) the sample with alloying vysokoenergoemkoe additive that affects significantly higher currents transition to the normal state (60÷90%) at high speed input current (103÷104)A/C.

The invention compared with the known depletability superconductor and a method of manufacturing allows you to:

to reduce the required number of manufactured superconductor (its length) to create magnetic systems by increasing its current-carrying capacity;

- to raise safe level of mechanical stresses produced superconductor in magnetic systems with large ponderomotive forces due to the substantial increase kristalicheskie stability (resistance to thermal perturbations);

- to reduce the operating costs for magnetic systems exposed to training, when it is reduced for the same reason;

- to raise the speed limit changes in the external magnet the CSO field and the speed of the input/output current in a magnetic system by increasing the magnetic stability (resistance to surges of magnetic flux) of the proposed depletability superconductor, produced by the proposed method.

1. Depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fiber superconducting material, metal pipes filled with a compound of rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, the outer hollow copper cylinder and disposed between the matrix and the outer hollow copper cylinder coaxial with them a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, characterized in that the metal tubes are located close to each other in the gap between the cylinder and the shell.

2. Depletability superconductor according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal tube with cross-section of arbitrary shape and are arranged longitudinally of the axis of the cylinder.

3. Depletability superconductor according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal tube is made tapered to
t/B≤1,
where t is the thickness of the tube;
In - the width of the tube and is wound in a spiral on the shell.

4. A method of manufacturing depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn, including the Assembly of the preform from the outside of a hollow copper cylinder, a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, which is located coaxially to the cylinder Amatrice, consisting of hexagonal bronze bars, rods, containing many rods from niobium, placed close to each other inside the shell, then the ends of the workpiece close the lids in the form of discs and brewed in a vacuum chamber using electron-beam welding, the workpiece is subjected to hot pressing with a significant reduction of its diameter; drawing with an intermediate annealing and a gradual decrease in diameter of the workpiece to the desired diameter of the superconductor, conduct testirovanie, the final calibration of the drawing and the final annealing, characterized in that between the cylinder and the shell executes the gap, which have close to each other a metal tube filled with a compound of rare earth metal with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the metal tubes have longitudinal axis of the cylinder.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the metal tube pre to flatten ratio
t/B≤1,
where t is the thickness of the tube;
In - the width of the tube and wound in a spiral on the shell.

7. Depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fiber superconducting material, metal tubes, Zap lannah compound of the rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, the outer hollow copper cylinder and disposed between the matrix and the cylinder coaxially with them a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, characterized in that the metal tubes are located close to each other in the gap made in the radial direction in the cylinder wall.

8. Depletability superconductor according to claim 7, characterized in that the metal tube with cross-section of arbitrary shape and are arranged longitudinally of the axis of the cylinder.

9. Depletability superconductor according to claim 7, characterized in that the metal tube is made tapered to
t/B≤1,
where t is the thickness of the tube;
In - the width of the tube and is wound in a spiral in the gap of the wall of the cylinder.

10. A method of manufacturing depletability superconductor-based compounds Nb3Sn, including the Assembly of the preform from the outside of a hollow copper cylinder, a thin cylindrical shell of tantalum and/or niobium, which is located coaxially in the cavity of the cylinder, and a matrix consisting of hexagonal bronze bars, rods, containing many rods of niobium; placed close to each other inside the shell, then the ends of the workpiece close the lids in the form of discs and brewed in a vacuum chamber using electron-beam welding, the workpiece is subjected to hot pressing with the considerable reduction of its diameter, drawing with an intermediate annealing and a gradual decrease in diameter of the workpiece to the desired diameter of the superconductor, conduct testirovanie, the final calibration of the drawing and the final annealing, characterized in that the wall of the cylinder in the radial direction, perform a gap, which is set close to each other a metal tube filled with a compound of rare earth metal with an extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures.

11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the metal tubes have longitudinal axis of the cylinder.

12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the metal tube pre to flatten ratio
t/B≤1,
where t is the thickness of the tube;
In - the width of the tube and wound in a spiral in the gap of the wall of the cylinder.



 

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2 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: physics; conductors.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making composite superconductors with improved current-carrying capacity and can be used, particularly, for making superconducting magnet windings. According to the invention, the multi-layer tape nanostructure composite based on a superconducting niobium-titanium alloy contains alternating layers of niobium and niobium alloy-(25-45) wt % titanium, with layer thickness of not more than 50 nm. The thickness of each niobium layer is 50-70% of the alloy layer thickness.

EFFECT: obtaining a composite with critical current density of 58000 A/cm2 in a magnetic field with flux density of 6 T.

2 cl, 3 tbl

Power cable line // 2366016

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in a line for transmitting and distributing direct current a power cable line is provided, which makes easier supply of electricity to various devices used for operation of that line. The power cable line comprises power cables (1lg, 1r, 1p, 1m, 1n), which transmit and distribute direct current, a unit (2) for superimposing an alternating current component on these cables, and an electricity tap off unit (3), meant for tapping off power of the superimposed alternating current component from this cable. Unit (2) superimposes the alternating current component on the power cable, and electrical energy of the alternating current is transmitted together with electrical energy of direct current on the power cable. The tap off unit (3), located at a certain section of the cable, taps off this alternating current component and transmits it to different devices.

EFFECT: invention allows for designing a cable, which makes easier tapping off electrical energy during transmission of direct current.

4 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering, particularly to super-conducting cable capable to absorb thermal compression of super-conducting wire. Super-conducting cable comprises a super-conducting wire coiled to form a super-conducting layer (layer-conductor) (13), reverse conductor (17), a layer of strain relaxation (12), an insulating layer or an outer strain relation layer (16) arranged on the super-conducting layer outer side and cable carcass, (11) arranged on the strain relaxation layer inner side.

EFFECT: superconducting layer compression absorption by cooling superconducting wire with coolant.

9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of electric engineering, in particular, to superconductive cable, which contains frame (2), layer (3) of superconductive conductor formed around external periphery of frame (2), insulating layer (4) formed around external periphery of conductor layer (3), screening layer (6) formed around external periphery of insulating layer (4), and normally-conductive metal layer (5) formed between insulating layer (4) and screening layer (6). Normally-conductive metal layer (5) is located inside the screening layer (6), has inductivity higher than of screening layer (6).

EFFECT: provides suppression of temperature rise in case of accidents, such as short circuits, and reduction of AC losses in normal mode of operation, since high currents flow through screening layer.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: thermo stabilised superconductors are implemented in the shape of matrix from metal or alloy, containing fibers of superconducting material and combination of rare-earth metals with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures. At that superconductor contains at least two metallic tubes of unconditioned cross-section filled by combination of rare-earth metals and distance between tubes is not less then two tube linear dimensions. Superconductor has external envelope made from metal with high conducting properties. Tubes with combination of rare-earth metals can be distributed either by section of conductor as in matrix or by envelope.

EFFECT: extension of superconductor capabilities by means of increasing of its heat-absorbing abilities.

4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry; electric wire.

SUBSTANCE: material in the form of oxide superconducting wire, which comprises oxide superconducting part and metal coating thereon, distinguishing itself by the fact that the above metal coating material during stress-strain relationship test features relative rupture strain of 30% or more.

EFFECT: material in the form of superconducting wire features high critical current density and is less susceptible to vertical cracking or breaking during manufacture.

14 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: applied superconductivity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composite superconductor that can be used to manufacture superconductors for superconducting windings suffering heavy mechanical loads (at operating pressure across conductor higher than 100 MPa) as well as for superconducting windings and devices operating under variable conditions, such as superconducting inductive energy storage devices, dipole and quadrupole magnets for charged particle accelerators, has superconducting material fibers, matrix of high-conductivity metal, such as copper and rare-earth intermetallide possessing high thermal capacity at low temperatures. Composite superconductor is provided with metal sheath accommodating rare-earth intermetallide; mentioned wires and conductor are welded together. Metal sheath can be made in the form of hollow cylindrical conductor or flat strip with hollow interlayer, their hollow spaces being designed to dispose rare-earth intermetallide. Composite superconductor is made in the form of a few multiple-fiber composite superconducting wires twisted around hollow cylindrical conductor accommodating rare-earth intermetallide. Composite superconductor can be made in the form of flattened single-lay strand of several multiple-fiber composite superconducting wires and several hollow cylindrical conductors of same diameter accommodating intermetallide which alternately vary within strand. Rectangular-section conductor is made of high-conductivity metal and has longitudinal groove.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

7 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: applied superconductivity.

SUBSTANCE: proposed composite superconductor that can be used to manufacture superconductors for superconducting windings suffering heavy mechanical loads (at operating pressure across conductor higher than 100 MPa) as well as for superconducting windings and devices operating under variable conditions, such as superconducting inductive energy storage devices, dipole and quadrupole magnets for charged particle accelerators, has superconducting material fibers, matrix of high-conductivity metal, such as copper and rare-earth intermetallide possessing high thermal capacity at low temperatures. Composite superconductor is provided with metal sheath accommodating rare-earth intermetallide; mentioned wires and conductor are welded together. Metal sheath can be made in the form of hollow cylindrical conductor or flat strip with hollow interlayer, their hollow spaces being designed to dispose rare-earth intermetallide. Composite superconductor is made in the form of a few multiple-fiber composite superconducting wires twisted around hollow cylindrical conductor accommodating rare-earth intermetallide. Composite superconductor can be made in the form of flattened single-lay strand of several multiple-fiber composite superconducting wires and several hollow cylindrical conductors of same diameter accommodating intermetallide which alternately vary within strand. Rectangular-section conductor is made of high-conductivity metal and has longitudinal groove.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.

7 cl, 8 dwg

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