Method of space navigation and device to this end
FIELD: physics, navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and can be used in space navigation systems to determine aircraft position coordinates. To this end, artificial Earth satellites (AES) are used as celestial reference points. Note here that zenith angle of AES being fixed is measured to be referenced to central zenith angle, aircraft position coordinates are determined from measured and referenced angle and AES coordinates.
EFFECT: higher accuracy.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of navigation definitions and can be used for determining location coordinates of a moving object, such as aircraft (LA).
There is a method of navigation definitions based on stabilization of astrotelescopes relative to the local vertical, direction-finding navigation stars, measurements and course angle of the star and the calculation of the course of a moving object - LA .
The disadvantages of this method are:
insufficient number defined navigation parameters, and consequently, the inability to determine coordinates and reckoning;
low precision navigation definitions.
Closest to the invention are the method and apparatus of navigation definitions , based on the stabilization of astrotelescopes using a gyro-stabilized platform through a system of targeting and tracking system relative to the local vertical, alternating direction-finding navigation stars (astroarena), measurement Zenith angles of each of the stars, the calculation on the measured angle (h) and the coordinates of the star (d, a) coordinates of the location of a moving object - LA (F, L) of expressions of the form
hi=arcsin[sin(di)sin(F)+cos(di)cos(F)cos(L-ai)], where i=1, 2 .
The device adopted for the prototype contains a gyro-stabilized platform, the witness is the system, block and guidance systems, and mechanical output of the gyro-stabilized platform through a guidance system and a tracking system connected to the mechanical input astrotelescopes, the first input of the computing unit of the angles associated with the electrical output of the tracking system and the second external information source, the output of the computing unit of the angles associated with the output of the computing unit coordinates whose output is the output of the claimed device.
The disadvantages of these methods and devices are low accuracy of determination of coordinates of a location and for a long time measurements to achieve the required accuracy.
The basis of the claimed invention is the problem of increasing the accuracy of determining the location coordinates of LA and the reduction in the time direction finding of astroarena to achieve the required accuracy of definition of coordinates of LA, which is an object of the invention.
The technical result of the invention is achieved in that in the method of space navigation, including the stabilization of astrotelescopes, using a gyro-stabilized platform through a system of targeting and tracking system relative to the local vertical, alternate bearing several astroarena, measurement Zenith angle of each of them, the calculation on the measured Zenith angle and coordinates astrokitty is in the position of a moving object (LA), installed astrosecond, as astroarena use artificial Earth satellites (AES) and measure the Zenith angle of each of the processed artificial satellites of the Earth, measured from built on a movable object local vertical, bringing the measured Zenith angle to the Central Zenith angle by calculating the Central Zenith angle with the vertex in the center of the Earth, calculating the measured and the calculated Zenith angles and the coordinates of the satellites location coordinates of a moving object (LA)that is astrosecond.
Suggested usage as astroarena stars instead of artificial Earth satellites.
Implements the inventive method in a device containing a gyrostabilized platform, servo system, block and guidance systems, and mechanical output of the gyro-stabilized platform through a guidance system and a tracking system connected to the mechanical input astrotelescopes, the first input of the computing unit of the angles associated with the electrical output of the tracking system and the second external information source, the output of the computing unit of the angles associated with the output of the computing unit coordinates whose output is the output of the claimed device, the electrical input astrotelescopes system through the mu guidance associated with the output block controller the first input of which is connected with an external information source, and the second with electrical outlet gyrostabilized platform.
New features with significant differences in method are the following:
1. Use as astroarena artificial Earth satellites.
2. Bringing the measured Zenith angle to the Central Zenith angle.
3. Determining from the measured and calculated angles and coordinates of the satellite coordinates of the location LA,
and the following elements of device:
1. Unit guidance, and electrical input astrotelescopes connected with the output unit guidance, the first input of which is connected with an external information source, and the second with electrical outlet gyrostabilized platform.
The application of existing and all new features can improve the accuracy of navigation and reduce the time direction finding of astroarena due to the fact that as astroarena instead of the navigational stars used movable object artificial satellite.
The specified statement is based on the well-known fact that the angular velocity of the low - and MEO satellites much more angular movements of the stars, and the information content of the measurements is higher, the greater the angular velocity of the line of sight, therefore, the information content of the satellite as astroarena considerable the above, than navigational stars.
It is also known that the accuracy of navigation definitions and processing time information determined by the information content of the measurements, providing these definitions, i.e. the observability of the measurements, and it is the higher, the higher the information content .
Figure 1 shows a diagram of the measurements of astroarena explaining the proposed method.
Figure 2 - block diagram of the device for implementing the method of space navigation.
The essence of the proposed method space navigation explains the device for its implementation.
The space navigation device includes a gyro platform 1, the mechanical output of which is through the guidance system 2 and tracking system 3 is connected with a mechanical input astrotelescopes 4, electric entrance through which the guidance system 2 is connected with the output unit guidance 5, the first input of which is connected with an external information source, and the second with electrical outlet gyrostabilized platform, the first input unit 6 calculate the angles associated with the electrical output of the servo system 3 and the second external information source, the output of block 6 calculate the angles associated with the input unit 7 calculate the coordinates whose output is the output of the device.
Gyro-stabilized platform 1, the guidance system 2, the tracking system 3, astrotelekom 4, unit guidance 5 - known [3, 4]. Unit 6 calculation of angles implements the expressions (4)to(8). Unit 7 calculate the coordinates implements expression(1)-(3).
Using a gyro-stabilized platform 1 through the guidance system 2 and tracking system 3 is stabilizing astrotelescopes 4 relative to the local vertical. In block 5 of the guidance for more information about the coordinates of the satellite XCTheWith, ZCand the orientation angles from LA gyrostabilized platform 1 are calculated angles a, d satellites, which are received in the guidance system 2. The guidance system 2 through the servo system 3 expands astrocalendar 4 along the line of sight to the satellite, which captures the satellite and using the system 3 accompanies it. When this occurs, the measurement of the Zenith angle of the satellite bwithrelative to the local vertical, and this information is passed to the block 6 calculation of angles. In block 6 the calculation of the corners of the conversion of the measured Zenith angle bwithto the Central Zenith angle bwiththe peak in the center of the Earth. Similarly is finding one or two satellites, depending on the need to identify two or three location coordinates and measurement Zenith angles. Information about Zenith angles bwithand Central Zenith angles bientered in block 7 of the calculations within the inat, in which determining the location coordinates (X, Y, Z) LA according to the expressions of the form:
where R=X+Y+Z, Rc=Xc+Yc+Zc; Ro=(Xc-X)+(Yc-Y)+(ZcZ), X, Y, Z - coordinates of the movable object - LA, Xc, Ywith, Zccoordinates of the satellite, i=1, 2, 3.
Thus, performing alternate bearing three satellites, we get the system of six equations, solving that can determine the three coordinates of a moving object in the earth's rectangular coordinate system.
The conversion of rectangular coordinates X, Y, Z in geographical F, L, R possible by solving the following system of equations:
where R1 is the radius - vector of a moving object.
Conclusion expression (1), (2) is carried out using the direction finding scheme, depicted in figure 1.
According to figure 1 can be written
Equating the right hand sides, we get
After transformation (5) the expression to determine the Zenith angle bwithtakes the form
The expression to determine the Zenith angle b, according to Fig 1, has the form
The use of the claimed invention improves the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the place is the provisions of a rolling object LA by increasing the information content of measurements of the rolling object artificial satellite. Reliability improve the accuracy of the inventive method is confirmed by the above known facts on the process direction finding satellites in comparison with the stars and theory of information content of the measurements. In addition, the authors conducted a comparative study of the method of mathematical modeling method described in the prototype, and the proposed method, under the same initial measurement errors and conditions. The result is that for an artificial satellite with a period of T=120 min, the proposed method can improve the accuracy of determining the coordinates of LA 1.9-2 times, and also in 2-2,5 times to reduce the time measurements to achieve the required accuracy.
Sources of information
1. Pomykaev I.I., Seleznev VP, Dmitrichenko D.A. Navigation devices and systems. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1983, s-202.
2. Pomykaev I.I., Seleznev VP, Dmitrichenko D.A. Navigation devices and systems. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1983, s-215 (prototype).
3. Malyshev V.V., Krasilnikov M.N., Charles VI Optimization of surveillance and control aircraft. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, 311 S.
4. Aircraft instruments and navigation systems / edited Oaaea.- M: vvia. N. E. Zhukovsky, 1981, 648 S.
1. The way space navigation, including the stabilization of astrotel the Copa, using a gyro-stabilized platform through a system of targeting and tracking system relative to the local vertical, alternate bearing several astroarena, measurement Zenith angle of each of them, the calculation on the measured Zenith angle and coordinates of astroarena location coordinates of a moving object that is astrosecond, characterized in that as astroarena use artificial Earth satellites (AES), the measurement Zenith angle of each of the processed satellite-based built on a movable object local vertical, bringing the measured Zenith angle to the Central Zenith angle by calculating the Central Zenith angle with the vertex in the center of the Earth, calculating the measured and the calculated Zenith angles and the coordinates of the satellites location coordinates of a moving object (LA)that is astrosecond.
2. Device for space navigation contains a gyro-stabilized platform, the mechanical output of which is through the guidance system and a tracking system connected to the mechanical input astrotelescopes, the first input of the computing unit of the angles associated with the electrical output of the tracking system and the second external information source, the output of the computing unit of the angles associated with the input block is and calculate the coordinates, the output which is the output of the device, characterized in that the electrical input astrotelescopes through the guidance system is connected with the output unit guidance, the first input of which is connected with an external information source, and the second with electrical outlet gyrostabilized platform.
FIELD: physics; navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to navigation instrument making. The set problem is solved by that, conditions are created in which substantial connection appears and is used on a section of a ballistic trajectory between error models of inertial measurement modules when solving the problem of orientation and navigation. This connection appears and can be used in providing the following conditions: presence of fast rotation around a longitudinal axis and coning motion of precession of the control object about the centre of mass or only rotation of the object around a longitudinal axis on a ballistic trajectory; placing a unit of accelerometres of inertial measurement modules and a reception antenna for the satellite navigation system at a certain distance (basically on a transverse axis) from the centre of mass of the control object; solving the problem of orientation and navigation in the inertial measurement modules at the point of placing the unit of accelerometres at high frequency - approximately an order higher than frequency of rotation of the control object (due to necessity of generation of dynamic components in navigation parametres without distortions); formation of measured values of primary navigation parametres in the reception apparatus of the satellite navigation system where the reception antenna is placed using tracking measuring devices with bandwidth greater than the frequency of rotation of the control object. Also values of primary navigation parametres are calculated in the computer of the inertial measurement modules and these values are also used in the feedback in the reception apparatus of the satellite navigation system for narrowing the frequency band in tracking systems of carrier frequency and code delay.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and noise immunity of integrated systems of orientation and navigation (ISON), which have inertial measurement modules (IMM) on "rough" micromechanical gyroscopes and a miniature reception apparatus of satellite navigation systems (RA SNS), in generating orientation parametres of control objects (CO) on a section of its ballistic trajectory for a long period of time, ie provision for stationary character and limited level of errors of integrated systems of orientation and navigation in solving the problem of orientation of a control object on a ballistic trajectory, as well as high level of noise immunity.
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to satellite navigation and may be used to build orbit-based functional addition to global navigation satellite system (GLONASS). Substance of method consists in the fact that on board of low-orbit spacecraft navigation equipment of user is installed, which is used to receive navigation messages, as well as additional equipment used to receive signals of on-air television of ground stationary television radio stations, bearing frequencies of two or more television channels are separated, on the basis of which Doppler shift of bearing frequencies is detected, orbit parametres are detected, calculating ephemerids of spacecraft, and navigation messages are formed in accordance with specified structure of navigation message, then radio navigation signals are broadcasted in direction of navigation information consumer location.
EFFECT: higher reliability of navigation detections of navigation information consumers performed with the help of GLONASS, due to increase of orbit-based navigation message sources number.
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: device for choosing objects to be observed from an orbiting spacecraft (SC). Device for choosing objects to be observed from an orbiting spacecraft comprises a globe with a map on it, two rings embracing the globe; the first ring is fixed above the globe pole points and can be rotated around the globe rotation axis and the second one is set in the globe equator plane and fixed at the first ring in the points of its crossing the globe equator plane. Following units are additionally mounted: an element in the form of a spiral turn simulating an orbit turn of the SC moving around the planet with the planet map being represented on the globe and an element with its outline projection on the globe surface forming a circle which is limiting a segment with a half-angle on the globe surface. The element with its outline projection on the globe surface forming a circle is made as a semitransparent spherical segment with a slot from the spherical segment edge to its centre.
EFFECT: providing for representing on the globe the areas observable from the SC in various positions of the SC on the considered SC orbit turn.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: chart board designed for selecting observation objects aboard the orbital spacecraft comprises a semi-transparent plate depicting a curvilinear spacecraft trajectory, a flexible tape arranged behind the said plate with two copies of the Earth surface maps wherein the end points of equator of the first map are aligned with the start points of equator of the second map, and a device designed to move the tape with maps along the plate made up of two shafts spaced apart and linked up in parallel, the enclosed tape being arranged so as to move along equators of both maps. Note that, in compliance with this invention, the proposed chart board comprises additionally a flexible semi-transparent tape with two celestial maps, including ecliptic line, wherein the end points of equator of the first map are aligned with the start points of equator of the second map, and a device designed to move the tape with celestial maps along the plate made up of at least two spaced apart and linked up in parallel shafts whereon a new tape is located so as to move along the equators, second semi-transparent tape depicting curvilinear lines everyone being made in the scale of the celestial maps axes and being formed by the points spaced apart by an equal angular distance equal to half an opening of a planet disk visible from the spacecraft, and a device designed to move second plate relative to the first one along the axes perpendicular to the maps equators. Note that the scales of celestial maps and the width of the tapes with celestial maps are identical to the scales of the Earth surface maps and the tapes with the Earth surface maps and that both maps scales equatorial axes are represented at the ration of 1:K where K is the factor of compliance of the scales of equatorial scales defined from the formula K=1-tω/(2π+Δ Ω), where T is the spacecraft period, ω is the Earth angular speed of revolution in inertial space, Δ Ω is the helical orbit precession in the inertial coordinate system. Note here that the width of the second plate complies with that of the first plate, the former being determined from the formula L = arccos([cosQ-sin ε sin i]/[cos ε cos i])Ls/2π, where Ls is the length of equatorial scale of one celestial map, Q is the angle of half-opening of planet disk visible aboard the spacecraft, ε, i are the angles of inclination of the planes of ecliptic and spacecraft orbit to the equator plane, respectively.
EFFECT: expanded performances of chart board.
FIELD: transportation, astronautics.
SUBSTANCE: map-board for selection of object for observation from orbital spacecraft (SC) includes flexible tape with two copies of planet surface map applied on it with aligning the Equator end point of the first map copy with the Equator start point of the second map copy, device providing map tape movement from two spaced and secured in parallel shafts. At that, the tape is looped and located on shafts with possibility of its circular motion along equator line of the maps. Additionally following is introduced: translucent tape with the image of continuous line of route for at least three sequential aircraft orbit passes, device providing movement of the tape with image of orbit along the tape with maps from two spaced and secured in parallel shafts and device for synchronisation of movement of the tape with maps and the tape with orbit image. At that, the tape with orbit image is looped and located on shafts of device providing movement of the tape with orbit image with possibility of its circular movement along equator line of the maps. Length of the tape with orbit image is made equal to overall length of represented orbit passes as measured along the equator direction, length of the tape with maps is made equal to total length of equators of plotted on the tape maps, and width of the tape with orbit image and width of the tape with maps are made in the ratio equal to ratio of orbit inclination angle to 90°, at that diameter of shafts of devices providing movement of the tape with orbit image is made equal to diameter of shafts of device providing movement of the tape with maps and constitutes value not exceeding one-fourth of difference between length of the tape with orbit image and length of the tape with maps.
EFFECT: map-board functionality enhancement due to providing of representation on the map-board previous and consequent orbit passes of aircraft.
SUBSTANCE: accelerometer assembly and angular velocity sensor unit are mounted on platform in biaxial Cardan suspension. Platform is stabilised around Cardan suspension axes using signals generated by angular velocity sensor, and torque meters mounted on Cardan suspension axes. Apparent accelerations of platform are measured using signals generated by accelerometers. Absolute angular velocity of platform is measured using signals formed by angular velocity sensor. Angular position of object body is measured concerning platform using signals generated angle-data transmitter mounted on suspension axes of platform. Received signals are computer processed and navigation parameters of object is calculated in reference coordinate system.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation of object navigation parameters using hybrid inertial navigation system.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics; cosmonautics.
SUBSTANCE: choice plotter of objects under observation from orbital spacecraft (SC) includes translucent plate with image of SC orbit pass curve, flexible belt located under the plate and containing two applied copies of planet surface map with aligned equator end point of the first copy of map and equator start point of the second copy of map, and map belt shift device along the plate from two spaced and parallel interconnected shafts on which closed belt radially moving along the map equator lines is mounted. In addition there are introduced flexible translucent belt with object image of two copies of stellar map, including ecliptic line with aligned equator end point of the first copy of map with equator start point of the second copy of map, and stellar map object image belt shift device along the plate from at least two spaced and parallel interconnected shafts on which newly introduced belt moving along map equator line. Along the axes perpendicular to map equators, stellar map scale and belt width with stellar maps coincides respectively with terrestrial map scale and belt width with terrestrial map. Along equatorial axes, stellar and terrestrial surface map scales are executed in ratio 1:K. Stellar map object image belt shift device is executed in the form of two spaced and parallel interconnected shafts. The radius of shafts of stellar map object image belt shift device is more or equal to radius of shafts of terrestrial surface map belt shift device. Distance between shaft axes of stellar map object image belt shift device exceeds total distance between shaft axes of terrestrial surface map belt shift device and radiuses of all four shafts of both belt shift devices Width of plate with orbit line image and width of belts are provided in relation equal or more than relation of orbit dip angle to 90°.
EFFECT: provided simultaneous display of spacecraft passage over land objects and coelosphere objects.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics; cosmonautics.
SUBSTANCE: choice device of astronomical objects under observation from orbital spacecraft (SC) includes stellar globe, ring embracing the globe with aligned ring and globe centres and fixed over globe poles and rotating round globe rotation axis, the second ring embracing the globe with aligned second ring and globe centres and fixed on the first ring in crosspoints of the first ring and globe equator plane and rotating to position of the angle between second ring and globe equator plane equal to the angle of SC orbit dip angle. Additionally there are two elements with contour projection to globe surface forming circles and globe centre direction forming straight line passing through globe centre and perpendicular to the second ring plane, the angle equal 90° minus one-half angle of planet disk visible from SC round which SC moving in semi-circular orbit turns. Elements are fixed over globe surface from its opposite sides with one or more arches connecting introduced elements with the second ring. In addition each newly introduced element is designed in the form of translucent spherical segment one-half angle of which angle is equal 90° minus one-half angle of planet disk visible from SC, with slot provided from spherical segment edge to its centre arch length of which is equal or more then one-half angle of spherical segment minus SC orbit dip angle. Spherical segments centres lay on straight line passing through globe centre and perpendicular to the second ring plane with aligned centre of sphere forming spherical segments and globe centre. Slots in spherical segments are opposite to different globe poles. In addition each newly introduced element is constructed as ring placed on ruptured element contour. Ring segments opposite different globe are removed within ring rupture points.
EFFECT: provided display on stellar globe of regions observable from spacecraft during the whole orbit pass.
3 cl, 5 dwg.
FIELD: physics; space.
SUBSTANCE: device relates to space technology. The device consists of a globe with a map on it, two rings bracing the globe, the centres of which coincide with the centre of the globe, an element in the form of spiral coil, corresponding to the average turns of orbits of the space vehicle moving in an almost circular orbit, starting from the ascending node of the turns of the orbit, given in the right Cartesian coordinate system OXYZ, the centre of which coincides with the centre of the globe and the OZ axis is directed on the axis of rotation of the globe, with coordinates calculated from the formulae: x = r(cos (Δλu / (2π) ) cos u - sin (Δλu / (2π)} sin u cos i), y = r(sin (Δλu / (2π)) cos u + cos (Δλu / (2π)) sin u cos i), z = r sin u sin i, where i is the inclination of the orbit; r is the radius of the second ring; Δλu is the angular inter-turn distance of the orbit on the equatorial scale of the map; u is a parameter assuming values from 0 to 2π. The first ring is fixed over the terminal points of the globe with provision for rotation of the ring around the axis of rotation of the globe. The second ring is installed in the plane of the equator of the globe and is fixed on the first ring at the point of intersection of the first ring with the plane of the equator of the globe. The element in the form of a spiral coil is fixed to the second ring at the point of intersection of the second and first rings, by its middle point, corresponding to the value of the parameter u, which equals π. The technical outcome is the determination and selection of observation objects.
EFFECT: possibility of determination and selection of observation objects from an orbiting space vehicle.
FIELD: physics; space.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to devices for space navigation and is directed at providing for the possibility of selecting under conditions of a space vehicle, observation objects with simultaneous consideration of the stipulated conditions, related to objects on the earth's surface and in the celestial sphere. This result is provided for due to that, the plane table for selection of the observation object from an orbiting space vehicle consists of a plate with a map of the earth's surface, a semitransparent plate with an image of the curved line of the orbit pass of the space vehicle from its ascending node, installed over the map of the earth's surface with provision for displacement along the equator of the earth, a semi transparent plate with an image of the objects on the stellar map, installed over the map of the earth's surface with provision for movement along the earth's equator line, and a device providing for mutual displacement of plates along the equator line. On the axes, perpendicular to the equator, the scale of the stellar map and the corresponding size of the plates with the given map coincide with the scale of the map of the earth's surface and the corresponding size of the plate with the map of the earth's surface, and on the equatorial axes, the scale of the stellar map and the map of the earth's surface have a ratio of 1:K, where K is the coefficient of concordance for the scales of the equatorial scales, defined from the formula K=1-Tω/(2π+Δ Ω), where T is the orbiting period of the space vehicle around the earth, ω is the angular velocity of rotation of the earth in the inertial space, Δ Ω is the turning precession orbit in the inertial coordinate system. The maps are made with the longitudinal dial of the earth's surface in the range from 0 to 4π+Δ Ω-Tω and the straight ascendancy scale of the stellar map in the range from 0 to 4π+Δ Ω, and the size of the plates with orbit and with maps of the earth's surface and the celestial sphere along the equatorial axes are in the ratio (2π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω):(4π+Δ Ω-Tω-2πTω/(2π+Δ Ω)).
EFFECT: possibility of selection of observation objects under conditions of a space vehicle.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has optical spectrum filter, slit mask, multi-element photo-sensitive detector, threshold elements, photo-detector register, counter, output register, clock pulse generator. Multi-element photo-sensitive detector consists of elementary photo-detectors placed behind one another along quadratic curve. Normal lines to sensitive areas of each elementary photo-detector and quadratic curve lie in same plane.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness and efficiency.
FIELD: programmed positioning and orientation of mobile objects; angular orientation or positioning of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of angles of position of optical axes of astro-visual units tracking the stars relative to body-axis coordinate system. For determination of orientation of mobile object, use is made of coordinates of its center of mass in geocentric coordinate system which are determined by means of high-precision global navigation satellite system.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of orientation of mobile objects.
FIELD: rocketry, spacecraft engineering, possible use for detecting direction of bearing rocket in flight.
SUBSTANCE: satellite navigation equipment and three gyro-integrators simultaneously determine values of projections of speed vector in starting and connected coordinates system respectively and transfer determined values to onboard digital computing machine, which, using received information, determines values of angles of orientation of moving object in space in accordance to algorithm for determining orientation of moving object.
EFFECT: decreased dimensions of device for realization of proposed method down to 40x40x40 millimeters (without consideration for size of onboard digital computing machine) while maintaining precision for determining angles of direction of moving object to 4 angular minutes.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: instrument industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises autonomous determination of the position of the instrument with respect to the horizontal plane coordinate system from the signals from the accelerometers and vector conforming of the coordinate systems for determining the position of the instrument coordinate system in azimuth.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the vector of velocity of the object in a Cartesian coordinate system, determining integral characteristics of the variation of the velocity vector as a function of the direction of motion of the object in the space, and stabilizing the trajectory of motion of the movable object on the basis of the estimations depending on the direction chosen from the stars sky.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: instrument industry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two spheres mounted with a spaced relation one to the other. The outer sphere is made of a superconducting material, and the inner sphere is made of a magnetic material. The outer sphere is secured to the spacecraft, and the inner sphere is shifted with respect to the center of gravity and has the radiation source. The output of the radiation receiving unit is connected with the information input of the recording unit whose control input is connected with the output of the board control unit.
EFFECT: simplified structure.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used in moving objects' spatial orientation systems. Before beginning of movement of object, the coordinate system is chosen being comfortable for observer. Three stars are selected, along directions of which stars the speeds have to be measured and their angular coordinates are measured. After movement starts, current values of linear velocity are measured on the base of directions of navigating stars. Changes in linear velocity are calculated from directions of navigating stars, which are changes are caused by rotation of object, and basic components of angular speed vector are determined from directions of navigating stars.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable for determination of the Sun angular coordinates in the spacecraft coordinate system.
SUBSTANCE: the Sun attitude pickup has an optical system made in the form of a wide-angle lens including an inlet and outlet plano-convex lenses with a diaphragm placed between them, an optical element is positioned in its holes, matrix photodetector, and a unit for processing of information and computation of coordinates. The refractive indices of the optical components are selected proceeding from the relation: n1≥n2<n3, where n1 - the refractive index of the inlet plano-convex lens; n2 - the refractive index of the optical element; n3 - the refractive index of the outlet plano-convex lens.
EFFECT: obtained information in a wide angular field with a high precision.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: onboard system for controlling spacecrafts for autonomous estimation of orbit and orientation of spacecraft body.
SUBSTANCE: method for autonomous navigation and orientation of spacecrafts includes computer calculation of position in three-dimensional space of ort of radius-vector of support (calculated, a priori assumed) orbit, rigid attachment of optical-electronic device on the body of spacecraft and measurement of coordinates and brightness of stars, which are in the field of view during navigational sessions, in it.
EFFECT: increased number of performed tasks, expanded capabilities of method application environment for any orbits, reduced number of measuring devices and mass and size characteristics of onboard system for controlling a spacecraft.
FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.
SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.
EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.