Device to determine wind shear

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and can be used aboard aircraft to add to flight safety via determination of wind shear, strength and time. To this end, proposed device comprises wind shear measurement unit 1 with its one of inputs-outputs 2 connected, via comparator 3, with input 4 of integrated panel 5 outputting recommendations on go-around. Second output 6 is connected with input 7 of integration unit 8. The latter is connected, via input 12 of unit 13, with aforesaid integrated panel 14 outputting data on change in decision-making altitude. Device comprises also acceleration transducers. Transducer 15 represents X-axis acceleration transducer and transducers 16 and 17 make Y-axis acceleration transducers with their outputs connected with the input of unit 1 designed to compute acceleration caused by wind shear.

EFFECT: expanded performances.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of aviation technology and is designed for installation on aircraft with the aim of improving the safety of aircraft using detect such dangerous phenomena as wind shear, and determine its magnitude and time of exposure.

Currently known devices used to detect wind shear, can be divided into three classes depending on the methods that formed the basis [1-3].

The first method is based on the different density layers of the atmosphere, which define the path of reflected radio signals.

The equipment installed on the ground, has a fairly high cost and low reliability of the information (not more than 50%).

The second method is based on the measurement values of the surface wind over a large area and these data using analytical calculations determine the possibility of occurrence of wind shear in the area of the landing aircraft. The disadvantage of this method is its low accuracy.

The third method is based on comparing the current inertial (speed) and air movement parameters of the aircraft. The principle of operation of such devices has a number of methodological errors. So, when landing with the included traction machine (which is the best approach for technology landing for many types of vozdushnogo) to detect wind shear or impossible (because the change in air speed, caused by wind shear, will be offset by the increase or decrease of engine operation mode), or a determination will be made with considerable distortion. In addition, intermittent gusts of wind also distort the accuracy of wind shear, or even to disguise it.

The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, is a device for determining wind shear acting on the aircraft, including the accelerometer, the block of the presence of wind shear, and information displays [2].

The prototype has similar weaknesses to determine wind shear, based on the comparison of the accelerations in the vertical plane with the estimated parameters obtained from sensors receive static and dynamic pressure. As a result, the wind shear or will not be identified, or, if sufficiently large value, the determination will occur with a large time delay and, more importantly, with a fairly large error. As a result, the crew will not have enough time and information how to change the air situation and the degree of its danger. The wind shear in this case will cause an overload in the vertical plane, and for the foregoing reasons, the aircraft will deviate from the prescribed trajectory approach. This will lead either to premature on what adke, or to collision with ground obstacles.

It should be added that the same effect (external manifestation) have both a vertical gusts of wind and landing in heavy precipitation. Unfortunately, these devices are in principle not able to account for these perturbations of the atmosphere. Therefore, for a full accounting of all these external influences on the aircraft and to increase security at landing it is necessary that the device was determined that congestion in the vertical plane, caused by wind shear, and gave the crew the information about the degree of risk and recommendations on further actions to address the time constraints and incomplete information.

The basis of the invention is the task of improving the safety of aircraft operations by increasing the degree of reliability of the measurement of the magnitude of the wind shear in real time exposure on a flying machine, and accounting for changes in the decision height at the same time, and displaying on the electronic scoreboard instructions about the care of the second circle or on autopilot for automatic landing.

This object is achieved in that the device for determining wind shear acting on the aircraft, including the accelerometer, the block of the presence of wind shear, and information displays according to the invention it is provided with a unit of measurement of wind shear, combined with the block of the presence of wind shear, made in the form of interconnected computing unit accelerations caused by wind shear, one of the inputs-outputs of which through the block by comparing the current values of the accelerations of critical values associated with the input of the integrated scoreboard recommendations about the care of the second circle, and the other output connected to the input of block time integration of the resulting accelerations, while one of the input-output block time integration of the resulting accelerations through the block comparison of the critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time is connected through input from the information integrated scoreboard recommendations about care for the second circle, and the unit time integration of the resulting accelerations through the input unit taking into account the effect of wind shear on the height of the decision-making connected with the integrated scoreboard 14 release of information about changing the decision height, the device includes at least four sensor accelerations, respectively, two sensors on the X-axis and two Y-axis, the outputs of which are connected to the input of the unit for computing the accelerations caused by wind shear.

Structurally, the device would be equipped with unit weights, the outputs of which are connected, respectively, to the inputs of the computing unit from the roots, caused by wind shear, block comparison of the critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time and unit of account for the influence of wind shear on the height of the decision.

The device may be equipped with at least one sensor accelerations along the Z axis and the unit of calculation of the amendments to the acceleration along the Y-axis, which is caused by the bend of the aircraft, and the unit output calculation of the amendments connected to the input of the computing unit of acceleration, and the input unit of the calculation of the amendments connected to the accelerometer Z-axis with index of roll of the aircraft.

The technical result of the invention is manifested by the automatic measurement of the magnitude of the wind shear in real time, and forced its impact on flying machine, and automatic landing.

For a better understanding of the device illustrated by the drawings, where

Figure 1 - General view of the block diagram of the device providing the names of the blocks.

Figure 2 - General view of the block diagram of the device in position.

Device for determining the amount of wind shear in real time, its impact on the aircraft includes a unit I measurement of wind shear, combined with the block of the presence of wind shear, made in the form of interconnected unit 1 calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear, one of the inputs-outputs 2 is vtorogo through the block 3 by comparing the current values of the accelerations of critical values associated with the input 4 of the integrated scoreboard 5 recommendations about the care the second round.

Another output 6 is connected to the input 7 block 8 time integration of the resulting accelerations, while one of the inputs-outputs 9 block 8 time integration of the resulting accelerations through the block 10 comparison of critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time is connected through the inlet 11 with the information integrated scoreboard 5 recommendations about the care the second round.

Unit 8 time integration of the resulting accelerations through the inlet 12 unit 13 taking into account the effect of wind shear on the height of the decision-making connected with the integrated scoreboard 14 release of information about changing the decision height.

The device includes sensors accelerations, respectively, one sensor 15 on the X-axis and two sensors 16, 17 along the Y-axis, the outputs of which are connected to the input unit 1 calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear.

The device may be provided with a block 18 of weights, the outputs of which are connected, respectively, to the inputs 19, 20, 21 unit 1 calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear, block 10 comparison of critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time and block 13 taking into account the effect of wind shear on the height of the decision.

Unit 18 the weights take into account the size of the landing weight.

The device may be equipped with, at least, animation 22 accelerations along the Z axis and the block 23 of the calculation of the amendments to the acceleration along the Y-axis, which is caused by the bend of the aircraft, and the output unit 23 of the calculation of the amendments connected to the input unit 1 calculation of accelerations, and the input unit 23 of the calculation of the amendments connected to the sensor 22 accelerations along the Z axis and with the pointer 24 of the roll of the aircraft.

To increase the reliability of the calculation of the acceleration device is further provided with an acceleration sensor 25 on the X-axis and the block 26 of the pointer angle of attack, the outputs of which are connected to the input unit 1 calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear.

The operation of the device to determine the magnitude of the wind shear in real time, its impact on the aircraft is as follows.

When hit by the aircraft (AC) in terms of wind shear appear acceleration caused by this dangerous meteorological phenomenon. These accelerations measured by four sensors accelerations, respectively, the two sensors 15 and 25 on the X-axis and the two sensors 16 and 17 along the Y-axis, the outputs of which are connected to the input unit 1 calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear.

Theoretically was calculated correlation between the magnitude of the wind shear and acceleration of this phenomenon. But g is also subject to other influences, provoking the appearance associated accelerations.

Up to the present time to separate acceleration, to isolate from the total acceleration tol is related to wind shear was not possible.

Theoretical calculations showed that the algorithms dependencies accelerations along the axes X and Y, different causes, different, therefore there is the possibility of their analytical separation and calculations.

Thus, in unit 1, "calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear", is a sum of all accelerations that act on the aircraft, - to mention only those associated with wind shear. To implement high-precision calculation of the accelerations caused by wind shear, unit 1 corrective data introduce additional unit 26 of the pointer angle of attack. In data block 1 from block 26 of the pointer angle of attack, make an introduction for accurate calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear.

In block 3, the comparison is a comparison of the current values of the critical accelerations that occur when hazardous wind shear, in which the necessary care for the second round. Upon reaching the current values of the critical values through integrated scoreboard 5 crew give the order for the immediate care of the second circle.

From unit 1 calculation of accelerations caused by wind shear, through the exit 2 enter the values of the accelerations in the unit 3 compare the current values of the accelerations with critical values from unit 3 via the input 4 signal integrated scoreboard 5 issuing prescriptions resignation at the second round.

Through another in the course of 6 information from block 1 calculation of accelerations is fed to the input 7 block 8 time integration of the resulting accelerations, integral values through the input-output 9 block 8 time integration of the resulting accelerations are received in block 10 comparison of critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time, from which through the entrance 11 information display information of the integrated scoreboard 5 issuing prescriptions resignation at the second round.

At the same time integral value of the acceleration of the block 8 time integration of the resulting accelerations are received at the input 12, block 13 taking into account the effect of wind shear on the height of the decision and where the information display on the integrated display 14 issuing prescriptions about changing the decision height.

Through the outputs 19, 20, 21 unit 18 weights corrective information about changing critical values, respectively, is passed to the block 3 by comparing the current values of the accelerations caused by wind shear, block 10 comparison of critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time, and the block 13 taking into account the effect of wind shear on the height of the decision.

Unit weights necessary to meet the changing values of the energy capabilities of the aircraft, which are directly related to landing weight. Given that the same amount of shift of the wind the stronger the effect on the aircraft, h is m greater speed is the aircraft during landing, you must install a different critical values for each aircraft category (a, b, C or D according to the classification ICAO). For example, calculations and simulations showed that, if the category With the shift of wind 2 m/s at 30 m height can be dangerous, for the categories In this amount of wind shear is not dangerous. So depending on what type of aircraft will be established by the inventive device, the critical values of wind shear used in the calculation algorithms will be different.

When making a turn the aircraft centrifugal acceleration introduces error in the operation of the entire device. To account for this error sensor 22 measures the acceleration values along the z axis. To eliminate this disturbing acceleration unit 23 enter the calculation of the amendments to the acceleration in the y direction To ensure the operation unit 23 in it enter the information with the standard pointer roll angle of the aircraft.

The invention compared with the prior art allows you to measure congestion on the vertical axis of the setting on the landing of the aircraft and calculate the acceleration is not associated with the actions of the crew as the control of the aircraft in the vertical plane, and changing modes of engine operation. Acceleration calculated by a predetermined algorithm, will be the to have the value of external influences on the aircraft, regardless of the nature of their manifestation. Calculations and modeling of devices allowed to establish a critical value defined acceleration when you need immediate care in the second round, as well as certain discrete values of accelerations affecting the height of the decision.

In addition, the introduction of the device integrator of these accelerations in time allows to take into account the reduction of the energy capacity of the air liner due to the increase of the mode of engine operation, due to the decrease of the free capacity of the aircraft energy opportunities it decreases, and hence the "drawdown" of the aircraft while going to the second round will be more. A similar pattern is observed when increasing the angle of attack to compensate for the "slump" when you struggle with negative wind shear. Overload while going to the second round in this case may be less than recommended by the Manual flight operation. Consequently, the height of the decision in this case must also be increased. Account of these changes affecting safe care to the second circle in terms of wind shear, will allow to implement the recommendations of ICAO designed to accommodate changes in the decision height depending on the magnitude of the wind shear (or refer to this similar other disturbances ATM the sphere).

Industrial development device is expected in the CIS.

Sources of information

1. Alain Dense, Jean-Michel Far. Research in the field of detection of wind shear radar continues. Bulletin ICAO 1986, No. 4, p.15-18.

The detection of wind shear at low altitudes in the form of a network of accelerometers located on the periphery of airfields, LLWSAS.

2. EN 2032148, G01C 21/10 publ. 27.03.1995 the detection of wind shear.

3. US 5359888, publ. 11.01.1994. The device for determination of wind shear.

1. The device for determination of wind shear acting on the aircraft, including the accelerometer, the block of the presence of wind shear, and information boards, characterized in that it is provided with a unit of measurement of the magnitude of the wind shear, combined with the block of the presence of wind shear, made in the form of interconnected computing unit accelerations caused by wind shear, one of the inputs-outputs of which through the block by comparing the current values of the accelerations of critical values associated with the input of the integrated scoreboard recommendations about the care of the second circle, and the other output connected to the input of block time integration of the resulting accelerations, one from the input-output block time integration of the resulting accelerations through the block comparison of the critical values of the integral over time t the current values of the integral of acceleration over time is connected through input from the information integrated scoreboard 5 recommendations about the care of the second circle, moreover, the unit time integration of the resulting accelerations through the input unit taking into account the effect of wind shear on the height of the decision-making connected with the integrated scoreboard issuing information about changing the decision height, the device includes at least four sensor accelerations, respectively, two sensors on the X-axis and two Y-axis, the outputs of which are connected to the input of the unit for computing the accelerations caused by wind shear.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it is provided with unit weights, the outputs of which are connected, respectively, to the inputs of the computing unit accelerations caused by wind shear, block comparison of the critical values of the integral over time with the current values of the integral of acceleration over time and unit of account for the influence of wind shear on the height of the decision.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it is provided with at least one sensor accelerations along the Z axis and the unit of calculation of the amendments to the acceleration along the Y-axis, which is caused by the bend of the aircraft, and the unit output calculation of the amendments connected to the input of the computing unit of acceleration, and the input unit of the calculation of the amendments connected to the accelerometer Z-axis with index of roll of the aircraft.



 

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