Bottom station (versions)
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions (versions) relates to exploration geophysics, in particular to the systems of equipment for conducting sea geoelectrical exploration and is meant for predicting accumulation of hydrocarbons and other minerals, as well as for studying deep structure of the earth's crust. Proposed is a modular bottom station based on combining a basic module for measuring electromagnetic characteristics of sea bottom rocks with additional modules containing equipment for measuring other parametres of the rocks. The additional modules are fitted by the basic module and a weight. All the recording and power supply systems are accommodated in the basic module and are connected to the other modules via pressure-sealed connectors in the housing of the module, and the modules themselves are fixed on the weight using Kevlar sheets which are fitted with an electrochemical releasing element. The additional modules of the bottom station are modules for magnetic and/or seismic measurements. "Rods" can be fastened at the lower part of the housing of the station and in the initial state they are directed upwards at an angle not less than 15° from the vertical and are held using retainers, which are joined to the releasing element of a hoisting device (HD). The "rods" can be telescopic. In another version of the proposed bottom station, the basic module can be used independently. In that case, a hard conical element "basin", made non-conducting material for example polyethylene, polyurethane etc can be placed between the module and the weight. The basic module can also be connected on a semi-rigid rod to a module for magnetic measurements.
EFFECT: measuring different parametres of sea bottom rocks in a single launch, provision for sensitivity of detectors, which exceeds that of stations with such single type measuring devices, compactness and convenient use.
8 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the field of exploration Geophysics, in particular complexes of equipment for the implementation of the marine geoelectricity, in particular, methods, induced polarization, magnetic-tellurite and/or seismic, and is intended for forecasting of hydrocarbon deposits and other minerals, as well as to study the structure of the crust.
Currently, marine geophysical researches are widely applied bottom station of various designs and purposes. For example, the famous bottom seismic station (EN 24890; Deep-sea bottom samosprava seismic station DT-8 / Soloviev S.L., Contary E.A., patrols T.A., Kovatchev S.A. // Izvestiya an SSSR Fizika Zemli, 1988, No. 9, s-460; Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) Systems. Company Profile Project Companies Kieler Umwelt und Meerestechnik GmbH (K.U.M.), Signal-Elektronik und Nets Dienste GmbH (SEND), April 2002, 11 p.), on the basis of the subsea module, which is a sealed enclosure, provided with a device setting on the bottom, inside of which is placed a recording equipment for sonar signals with appropriate filters, conditioners, converters, drives, timing diagram, power supply and device for determining the orientation of a subsea module.
A major drawback of these stations is the impossibility of complete and adequate transmission changing the, for example by transferring them of soil parameters on the sensor measurement signals, mounted on the tubular support frame, fitted with a metal reclining mechanisms and cuddling to the ground, which in combination with the presence of a boundary soil-metal causes additional error when passing acoustic signals and ultimately leads to a distortion of measurement results. In addition, the use of mechanisms of folding and compression to the ground is not effective due to their complexity, lack of control over their installation, which leads to the release of any unit of the measuring sensors in the loose soil of the seabed and, as consequence, to malfunction.
Known bottom seismic station design SSPE "Sevmorgeo" (brochure Sevmorgeo) buoy and slowspreading type. Station both types have three-component geophone in gimbaled and hydrophone. Mooring stations have good gear ratio in the channels of the geophones due to the large mass of the hull, however, stations of this type are limited in the depth setting, high risk of loss of the station and require a fairly sophisticated technology chute-lifting. Samosprava station performed in the spherical germanacos where the geophones, the power source, the Registrar and the electronic unit of the acoustic isolator of the electrochemical type. Germanacos provides pologitelno the buoyancy of the whole station and for staging station to the bottom of the attached elastic (rubber) wiring to the concrete load through the circuit breaker.
This construction provides high technology tripping, the possibility of working at depths up to 6000 meters, however, the high location of the sensors offset relative to the bottom and elastic fastening station to the load reduces the sensitivity of the station to wave offset.
Known samosprava electromagnetic station (US 5,770,945 A)having a housing located in two mutually-orthogonal induction magnetic field sensor and the measurement system horizontal components of the electric field, consisting of attached to the shell station horizontal semi-rigid "rods" ("arms"), a length of five meters each, with electrodes at the ends.
The disadvantage of this station is the lack of accuracy of measurements, limited scope. Furthermore, the design of the station requires free space on the deck area of not less than 100 square meters and special equipment for round-trip operations.
Another disadvantage of all the above bottom stations is the ability to remove only a specific group of parameters that is due to differences in the requirements for operation of bottom stations of various types. Stations, allowing you to shoot seismic parameters, along with the electromagnetic and/or magnetic characteristics of rocks, previewed in the scientific and technical literature is not found.
Closest to the technical nature of the claimed solution is samosprava station for electromagnetic measurements (US 6,842,006 B2). The station has a body, a block placesthe, system information collection, NC ballast and cargo. Included in the system to measure the horizontal components of the electric field "rods" have a length of five meters and a diameter of about five inches with the electrodes. They form two perpendicular dipole, which can descend in a vertical plane, which facilitates tripping, because it does not require such operations to take out the station from the ship at a distance greater than the length of the "rods".
Induction sensors (one to four) are usually closer to the end of the "rods" to reduce the effect of magnetic masses station on the measurement results of the magnetic field.
The shortcoming is the possibility of using it only for measuring parameters of the magnetic field. In addition, the output station overboard with the "rods", pointing straight down, increases the likelihood of damage to the electrodes and inductive sensors when the flow of water when the shutter does not have time to translate the "rods" in the vertical position or clinches one or more fishing rods under load, particularly when working in shallow water.
The technical problem addressed by the authors, was to design samosprava bottom station, allowing measurements of various parameters of the rocks of the seabed, resulting in more accurate predictions, as well as more convenient and reliable in operation, particularly with less volume dimensions in the pre-start position to optimize chute-lift.
The technical result was achieved through the creation of modular design ground station based on a combination of the base module, designed to change the electromagnetic characteristics of the rocks of the seabed, with additional modules containing equipment to measure other parameters of the rocks.
The inventive modular bottom station is characterized by the fact that between the base module, designed to change the electromagnetic characteristics of the rocks of the seabed, and the load is present on at least one module for measuring other characteristics of the rocks of the seabed, and all registration system and power supply are located in the base module and connected to other modules via Germersheim installed in the housing module, and the modules are fixed on the load using cars with Kevlar, equipped with electrochemical breaker.
As additional modules benthic stations which contains modules for magnetic and/or seismic measurements.
For the convenience of carrying out round-trip "rod" attached to the bottom of the hull of the station and in the initial state directed upwards at an angle not less than 15° from the vertical and fixed by means of clamps connected with a tripping element of the trip unit (SPU) (crane, crane, or pointing device), such as Pentelikon.
For convenience of transportation "rods" made telescopic.
Alternatively, the inventive ground station base module can be used independently. In this case, between the module and the load set hard conical element "pelvis", made of non-conductive material, for example, polyethylene, polyurethane and other materials for fixing the housing of the base module in a horizontal plane and prevent sticking of the housing of the base module to the ground.
While the basic module can be optionally connected to semi-rigid rod module magnetic measurements, which reduces the influence of the magnetic mass of the base module on the measurement results of the magnetic field, for example when working with installed electromagnetic fields (hereinafter dvusvetnye option). Because the average distance from the base module to the magnetic sensor in this embodiment is 0.5-0.8 m, and the influence of the magnetic mass decreases as the cube Russ is sustainability, the proposed design of the station during the length of the rod 5 meters reduces the effect of magnetic masses at 2.5-3 order.
General view of the base module are presented in figa (view module front) and 1B (module side).
Figure 2 presents a ground station containing a base module and a module for magnetic measurements used in the study of magnetotelluric fields, when it is necessary to measure simultaneously orthogonal magnetic and electric components.
3 shows the bottom station, containing the basic module, the module for magnetic measurements and seismic module, which is used if necessary, simultaneous measurements of electromagnetic and seismic fields, for example when working on the State network of reference profiles.
The scheme of the two-tier option, the station carried by the module of the magnetic measurements are shown in figure 4.
In Fig. 1-4 use the following additional notations: 1 - sealed spherical aluminum-magnesium alloy, 2 - insert, 3 "rod", 4 - polarizadas electrodes, 5 - "test", 6 - cargo, 7 - acoustic isolator electrochemical type, 8 - Germersheim, 9 - a sheet of Kevlar, 10 - elastic cord, 11 - fence, 12 - release "fishing rods", 13 - Registrar, 14 - power supply main, 15 - power supply circuit breaker, 16 - e the Lok circuit breaker, 17 - gauge corners, 18 - amplifiers electrical channels (figa-1B), 19 - basic module 20 is a module housing of the magnetic measurements, the 21 - unit placesthe, 22 - induction magnetic field sensors, 23 - attachment points moving "fishing rods", 24, limiters, 25, pin, 26 - cargo (figure 2), 27 - case seismic module, 28 - fastening, 29 - hydrophone, 30 contains a thermal connector (figure 3), 31 - module magnetic measurements, 32 - passive isolator, 33 - sensor housing angles, 34 - gimbal suspension, 35 - semi-rigid rod, 36 - base module, a 37 - elastic fibers (figure 4).
The housing 1 consists of two hemispheres of aluminum-magnesium alloy and the insert 2 from high-strength polyurethane or other similar material. Inside the housing 1 of the basic module are the recorder 13, the construction of which allows you to install from one to three four-channel graphics card, memory flash cards; the main power supply 14, the power supply switch 15, the electronic switch 16, a three-component sensor angles 17 and pre-amplifiers electrical channels 18.
The insert 2 is designed to give the module an additional positive buoyancy, as well as for mounting fishing rods" 3 and install Germersheim 4.
"Rods" 3 are of telescopic construction and made of non-conductive material, for example, glass or carbon fiber. Inside the "rods" are laid to the Belle with Germersheim (not shown), which serve to connect the measuring polarizadas electrodes 4 and connect to the appropriate Germersheim in box 2. "Rods" to measure the horizontal components of the electric field are mounted on the corners of the insert 2 can freely rotate around the horizontal axis. "Fishing rod" to measure the vertical component of the electric field is rigidly attached to the side surface of the insert 2. The length of the "rods" in the unfolded state is not less than 5 meters.
Case 1 base module using the module yourself through the hard conical element "Taz" 5 made of non-conductive material, such as polyethylene or polyurethane, mounted on concrete load 6. "Taz" is used for fixing the housing of the base module in a horizontal plane and prevent sticking of the housing of the base module to the ground when setting the stations on the bottom.
The basic module is rigidly attached to the "pelvis" 5 and the load 6 through the switch 7 mounted on the upper hemisphere, using inextensible, such as Kevlar, cars with 9. To create a primary tension in the direction of the disconnection between the Kevlar sheet and the load is elastic, such as rubber, the cord 10.
The upper enclosure 11 serves to protect the acoustic antenna isolator from damage, the initial angle is a revelation the Oia moving "rods" (not less than 15 degrees from the vertical axis) and locking them in this position before descending.
The tabs 12 are wedge-shaped or conical shape and serve to secure the "rods" 3 on the fence 11. The tabs 12 mooring lines connected to a tripping element of the trip device SDA (crane, crane, or pointing device), such as Pentelikon. The length of the cars with the tabs 12 is selected so that the release of the latches under the weight station was in the water after tripping tripping element of the SPU. While the latches 12 together with the mooring lines remain on SDA for subsequent productions of the stations.
If you want to measure multiple parameters using a variant of the present invention, in which between the base module and load install at least one additional module for magnetic or seismic measurements.
Basic module 19 with the additional channel card 13 Registrar by pins 25, are made of nonmagnetic material, for example brass, is rigidly attached to the block placesthe 21. Block placesthe 21 may be made of standard steklosfera or syntactica and fixed to the body 20 of the module of magnetic measurements in the upper part.
The module housing 20 is made of non-conductive material, for example, polyethylene or polypropylene. In the lower part of the housing 20 are induction sensor 22 for measuring the horizontal is leaving the magnetic field, and attachment points 23 moving "rods" 3 to measure the horizontal components of the electric field.
Fasteners 23 ensure the free movement of "rods" 3 in a vertical plane and are arranged so that in the expanded state fishing rod is parallel with the corresponding induction sensor 22.
Mobile "fishing rod 3 is fastened to the limiter 24 under an initial angle with the clamp 12. Induction sensor 22 and "rod" 3 to measure the vertical components of magnetic and electric fields, respectively, rigidly mounted in a vertical position to the housing 20 on opposite sides.
The electrodes 4 "rods" 3 and induction sensors 22 are connected with the recorder 13 through Germersheim 8, located on the insert 2. The fastening station to the load 26 via the switch 7 using previously described Kevlar cars with 9 and band 10.
The housing 27 has a cylindrical or polusfericheskoi shape and is made of a nonmagnetic material, such as aluminum-magnesium alloy. In the upper part of the body is a hydrophone 29, and on the lateral surface of the cylinder - contains a thermal connector 30. The housing 27 is rigidly attached to the inside of the lateral surfaces of the body 20 of the module of magnetic measurements so that the bottom surface of the housing 27 is flush with the lower edge of the housing 20, and contains a thermal connector 30 is acted out through technological housing bore 20 DL the easy connection to the basic module, in the recorder 13 which in this embodiment is set to another channel card. Inside the housing 27 is a three-component geophone (not shown)rigidly connected with the bottom of the housing 27.
Since the housing 20 of the module of magnetic measurements be permanently attached to the cargo 26 inextensible Kevlar sheet 9, the housing 27 of the seismic module and installed on its bottom, the geophones are strongly associated with massive cargo 26, which dramatically increases the system sensitivity to the waves of displacement. Another positive factor influencing the quality of reception of transverse waves is the lack of a gimbal system of the geophones, because the base module has a three-component sensor angles 17.
Two-tier option bottom station, allows to reduce the influence of the magnetic mass of the base module on the measurement results of the magnetic field, for example when working with installed electromagnetic fields.
Under this option, the module of the magnetic measurements 31 (seismometer or without) is attached to the load 26 by the sheet 9 with bands 10 through passive isolator 32, mounted on the block placesthe 21. In the housing 20 of the module of magnetic measurements set sealed sensor housing corners 33 with a three-component sensor angles. The magnetic module dimensions 31 is connected with the base module 36 semi-rigid Stango is 35. Semi-rigid rod 35 is made of non-conductive material, such as polyethylene, can also be dismantled for easy transportation and has a hollow shape, for example the shape of a tube. The length of the rod 35 in the assembled state at least 5 meters. The rod 35 is connected with the housing 20 via a cardan joint 34, made of non-conductive material, for example polyurethane. The cardan suspension 34 provides for the free movement of the rod 180 degrees horizontal and 160 degrees vertical. With the basic module, the rod 35 is connected to the attachment point of one of the movable fishing rods". Inside the semi-rigid rod 35 is a multi-core connection cable (not shown) with branching at the ends to connect to Germersheim sensors and units module 31 and Germersheim 8 base module. Basic module 36 is placed in the "pelvis" 5 and fixed thereto by elastic bands 37 through the acoustic isolator 7. "Taz" 5 weights to give a basic module of negative buoyancy 1-2 kg Passive isolator 32 is triggered by the signal from the acoustic isolator 7, transmitted through the connection cable.
Bottom station operates as follows. Before descending select a given range of modules and assemble the station, connecting contacts from sensors additional modules and electrodes "rods" to Regis is the operator 13 of the base module through Germersheim 8, located in box 2.
"Rod" is pulled and fastened to the limiter 24 under an initial angle with the clamp 12. Induction sensor 22 and "rod" 3 to measure the vertical components of magnetic and electric fields, respectively, are rigidly supported in a vertical position to the housing 20 on opposite sides. If necessary, install the module magnetic measurements 31, connecting it with the base module 36 semi-rigid rod 35. The fastening station to the load 26 via the switch 7 using Kevlar cars with 9 and band 10.
Using SDA station down from the ship into the water and open interhack. Under the action of gravity, the station starts to sink. The stoppers 12 are released. The "rods" are held during the descent into the quasi-vertical position due to the flow of water.
When reaching the bottom of the rod under the action of gravity to open up and take the horizontal position.
After receiving the signal from the ship station begins to work in the specified mode. After a shutdown signal to the circuit breaker 7, sheet 9, which connects the load 6 (and if there is "Taz" 5) and station modules are released and the station POPs up.
The proposed modular station design allows for a single descent to register various settings on the od of the seabed. This particular module is installed magnetic measurements and seismic module on the station, you can ensure sensitivity of their sensors that exceeds the index of stations with the same type of measuring devices. The proposed station more compact and easy to use.
1. Bottom station-based module for measuring the electromagnetic characteristics of the rocks of the seabed, comprising a housing, a block placesthe, system information collection, including "fishing pole" with the electrodes, NC ballast and cargo, characterized in that between the module designed for measuring the electromagnetic characteristics of the rocks of the seabed and the load is present on at least one module for measuring other characteristics of the rocks of the seabed, and all registration system and power supply are located in the first module and connected to other modules via Germersheim installed in the housing of the module, and the modules are fixed on the load using cars with Kevlar equipped with electrochemical breaker.
2. Bottom station according to claim 1, characterized in that as an additional module it contains a module for magnetic measurements.
3. Bottom station according to claim 1, characterized in that as an additional module it contains a module for seismic measurements.
4. The bottom station is about to claim 1, characterized in that the "rod" attached to the bottom of the hull of the station, in the initial state directed upwards at an angle not less than 15° from the vertical and fixed by means of clamps connected with a tripping element of the trip device.
5. Bottom station according to claim 1, characterized in that the "rods" made telescopic.
6. Bottom station for measuring the electromagnetic characteristics of the rocks of the seabed, comprising a housing, a block placesthe, system information collection, including "fishing pole" with the electrodes, NC ballast and cargo, characterized in that between the housing and the load installed additional hard conical element made of non-conductive material, such as polyethylene, polyurethane and other materials, and "rods" are fixed on the lower part of the body, in the initial state directed upwards at an angle not less than 15° from the vertical and fixed by means of clamps connected with a tripping element of the trip device.
7. Bottom station according to claim 6, characterized in that the "rods" made telescopic.
8. Bottom station according to claim 6, characterized in that the housing is additionally connected to semi-rigid rod module magnetic measurements.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates geophysics, particularly, to electromagnetic LF devices intended for analysing GST. Proposed device comprises two antennas arranged orthogonally and connected to receiver, one of them being installed vertically. Proposed device comprises additionally data processing device and third antenna arranged orthogonally to aforesaid two antennas and connected to aforesaid receiver. The later incorporates transmitter with its output connected to the data processing device input. Transmitter allows transmitting signals comprising data on mutually-orthogonal components Hx, Hy, Hz of natural pulsed electromagnetic Earth field to data processing device the later allows computation of Wzx (x, y)=Hz/Hx and Wzy (x, y)=Hz/Hy, determination of relationship Wzx=F(Δf) and Wzy=F(Δf), where "ДГ" is the range of received frequencies of mutually-orthogonal components Hx, Hy, Hz, from f0 to f and integration of aforesaid relationships Wzx and Wzy.
EFFECT: expanded performances, higher accuracy.
9 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to exploration geophysics. In compliance with this invention, bottom stations are installed on sea bottom along the line, i.e. profile, covering the area to be explored to form the observation profile (OP), the said station are spaced 1000 m apart. A ship incorporating a generating dipole is directed through the centre of one of electrode separations, close to the centre of explored area area, perpendicular to OP, to form an excitation profile (EP). The electric field magnitudes picked off the bottom station receiving electrodes are referenced to the centre of distance between the appropriate separations of aforesaid bottom station to form an area system of measurement profiles (MO). A one-dimensional inversion is performed for every MO. Proceeding from the data obtained, a 3D geoelectric model of the medium is constructed in units of specific resistance, or specific resistance and parametres of polarisability. Now, proceeding from their abnormalities it is possible to judge upon the presence of a deposit, its position in plan and depth. The ship can carry out researches both with horizontal generating dipole towed on sea surface, and with vertical or horizontal dipole towed on over sea bottom.
EFFECT: reliable forecasting at depths from 0 to 2000 m and deeper.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurements.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to geophysical methods of prospecting. An electromagnetic field is generated through generation of a pseudorandom bipolar sequence of packets of periodical current pulses in a transmitter coil. The value of the cross-correlation function is calculated for components (time derivative) of magnetic or electric field and the current form, either with zero-time shift ΔT between time-sequences of the cross-correlation function or without it. From the values of the cross-correlation function with increment, equal to the period of the current pulses, the impulse reaction of the geoelectric medium is determined, which in turn is used to determine the structure of the geoelectric medium. From the difference of impulse reactions on the background and in the absence of primary magnetic field, objects are identified depending on their induced magnetisation. The generator of electromagnetic field has a dc current source, a rectifier bridge, controlled generator of pseudorandom sequences of time intervals, synchronised by a stabilised clock-pulse generator, and a transmitter coil connected to a current sensor. Between the DC current source and the transmitter coil, a current switch is connected, synchronised by a stabilised clock-pulse generator. The generator of pseudorandom sequences of time intervals is connected to the stabilised clock-pulse generator through a frequency divider. In the second version, the transmitter coil generates recurrent packets of current pulses, uniformly distributed according to a random law on the time interval occupied by the packet. In the second version of the device, the current switch is connected to the generator of recurrent packets, randomly and uniformly distributed during pulses, which in turn is connected to the stabilised clock-pulse generator through a frequency divider.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of data from electrical prospecting and reduced labour input.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurements.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to electrical prospecting using an electrical resistance technique. The invention can be used chiefly, for detecting tectonically crushed, water permeable rocks, detection of ore-bearing objects, covered by loose formations, studying the spread of industrially contaminated underground water in the geological environment etc. One supply ground connection is put at infinity. In a well, several supply ground connections are arranged at a given distance from each other. These connections are successively connected to a current source. For each connection, the potential drop between receiving ground connections are measured using a measurement grid. The apparent electrical resistance values are determined from the potential drop values. Isolines for electrical resistance for all depths where the supply ground connections are drawn up. Presence and position of geoelectric irregularities is determined from the layout of the isolines. Within the boundaries of the detected irregular regions, one of the receiving ground connections is moved around the other. The potential drop between them is measured. In the direction of the receiving line, at maximum voltage value, the spread of linear-stretched irregularities or the position of local objects with increased electroconductivity can be determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of detecting irregularities in the geological environment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory includes creation with the help of transmitter and transmitting antenna the electromagnetic field oriented along direction of pneumatic puncher movement. At the output of receive antennas signals are extracted which are proportional to electromagnetic field component strength and which are separated using decoupler and alternatively supplied to receiver input where they are detected and amplified. According to difference of these signals the pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory is evaluated. As transmitting antenna a nonsymmetric dipole is used where pneumatic puncher is long arm and conducting material disk is short arm which disk is connected to it via dielectric disk. Electromagnetic field directional pattern is created in the form of cone in microwave frequency band against electric component. Deviation angle is evaluated according to difference of signal amplitudes at output of comparing device connected by its input to receiver output and by its output - to indicator.
EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency due to increase in accuracy, range capability and interference resistance relative to external natural and artificial noise.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system includes recorder containing multichannel module of analog signal reception and transform; each channel of module includes low-pass filter, analog amplifier and analog-to-digital converter. The system also includes data control and processing module containing interconnected numeric processor, data memory and master microcontroller with program memory. The recorder contains AD converters overload detectors designed as timing units included in numerical processor. The recorder also contains built-in screen and keyboard assembly, connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory of data control and processing module. Differential operational amplifiers with controlled input are used as analog amplifiers in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder contains comprised in numerical processor timing units computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder input contains units, comprised in numerical processor timing, computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. Input of each specified unit is connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory, and output is connected through digital-to-analog converter to driving input of differential operational amplifier mounted in corresponding channel of module of analog signal reception and transform.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and reliability of received data and enhanced ease of use.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sound vibrations are generated in a pipeline to cause mechanic vibration of metal pipe fittings in the magnetic field of Earth. Electric E and magnetic H components of induced electromagnetic emission, ground temperature and noise level environment in the medium transported by the pipe are measured. Pipeline is located by the maximum of E-H correlation function. Ground temperature indicates leakage. The device includes acoustic oscillator with magnetostriction exciter, and gauge. The gauge consists of a case with indicator of electromagnetic emission characteristics and digital temperature indicator installed in the front panel of the case. Battery-powered receiver of electromagnetic, thermal and acoustic emission with amplifier and comparator is placed inside. The receiver can be connected with remote thermal sensor, sensor of ground acoustic oscillations with built-in antenna receiving electromagnetic emission parameters, and geomicrophone.
EFFECT: simple and highly reliable search; wider functional capabilities.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: low-frequency electromagnetic signal is transmitted through the cable. Near the bottom of the water basin, above the cable and across its route, two identical equally oriented systems of magnetic probes tuned to the same frequency, placed at a fixed distance above each other, are moved. At the axis between the magnetic probe systems, a position transducer is placed, used to measure the angle Θ of deviation of this axis from the vertical. Under the lower magnetic probe system, an ultrasonic transducer is placed, used to measure the distance from it to the water basin bottom surface h. The signals from the magnetic probes, the position transducer, and the ultrasonic transducer, are sent to the processing unit. The underwater cable laying depth d is determined using the formula where D is the distance between the magnetic probe systems; α=EL/EU is the ratio of the magnetic field intensity measured by the lower magnetic probe system to the magnetic field intensity measured by the upper magnetic probe system.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and decreased cost.
FIELD: electric geological exploration.
SUBSTANCE: before submergence, clocks installed on the current dipole and the bottom stations are synchronized. The dipole is placed vertically, so that its upper end would be at a distance of no more than 200 metres from the sea surface, and the lower end would be no more than 100 m from the sea bottom (optimally, 20-30 m from the sea bottom). The dipole is excitated with alternating rectangular pulses. The bottom stations are used to record the sweep of the horizontal and vertical field components in time when the current is applied and when it is absent. During signal analysis, the change of primary and secondary fields in time is taken into account and data describing the medium resistance and its polarisation characteristics are determined. The system of equipment includes vessel with a generator and energising field generation unit, which are connected with a vertical dipole with current electrodes, submerged in water, and an onboard data recording and processing unit, using a cable. The system also includes set of bottom stations with horizontal and vertical electrodes and magnetic field sensors. The dipole and the bottom stations are equipped with clocks supporting synchronization.
EFFECT: possibility to obtain data about specific resistance and polarisability of strata during exploration of deep water areas, and provision of more accurate predictions.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: technologies for measurement of specific electric conductivity of sea bottom.
SUBSTANCE: the system contains a large number of blocks, each block representing a unit, made with possible positioning in place on sea bottom for measuring horizontal electrical and magnetic fields. To the block unit, a vertically oriented rigid bar is attached and stretched vertically from it. The bar has a pair of electrodes, shifted vertically, which form a vertically oriented dipole antenna. The electrodes are in electric connection with the amplifier positioned inside the unit. Signal from the amplifier is dispatched to data registration processor, which is also positioned inside the unit. By means of the processor, time series of amplified signals of electric and magnetic fields are accumulated over a given time period.
EFFECT: usage of vertical field for measuring transverse changes in the geological structure of sea bottom.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable in agricultural equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the inductance transducer during operation generates interferences which being amplified by an amplifier-filter may cause actuation of the flip-flop and actuator. The maximum interference signal is produced at the instant of passage of the harvester roll weld above the inductance transducer. At this moment the position pickup generates a compensating signal, which is subtracted in the amplifier from the signal of the inductance transducer. Thus, the signal used for comparison with the set point does not contain interferences.
EFFECT: simplified adjustment of the system, enhanced sensitivity, noise immunity.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: geophysics, in particular, paleomagnetism.
SUBSTANCE: the position of the interfaces formed by inversions of the geomagnetic field is determined by pulse radar detection and ranging of the magnetic field with the aid of radar units with a power potential of 500 to 600 dB. The radiating and receiving devices of the radar units include horizontal magnetic dipoles. The interfaces are separated by comparison of the data of pulse radar detection and ranging of the magnetic field and pulse radar detection and ranging of the electric field.
EFFECT: remote determination of interfaces formed by inversions of the geomagnetic field in ice layers, enhanced depth of survey.
FIELD: geophysical electric prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for ac geophysical electric prospecting which current is induced in ground by inductive method; method can be used for searching and prospecting objects as in non-conducting and conducting media. Low-frequency electromagnet field is induced by current running in non-grounded loop onto day surface of Earth. Phase shifts of components of magnetic induction are measured at preset height for parallel profiles relatively vertical component of magnetic induction along profile crossing epicenter of loop and being perpendicular to parallel profiles. Availability of abnormal conducting objects in Earth is determined from structure in phase shifts at the area.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved efficiency of aerial prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises generating low-frequency electromagnetic field with the use of ungrounded loop at the day earth surface, measuring Cartesian components of magnetic induction from parallel profiles at given levels, measuring real and imaginary parts of the Cartesian components of the magnetic induction with respect to the phase of the vertical component of the magnetic induction in the epicenter of the ground loop, determining deviations of measured components from the normal values for a homogeneous medium, and determining sections of increased electric conductivity from the sign and magnitude of these values.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of measuring.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on measurements of electric field, excited using two electrodes. Distanced along supposed subject. Direction of field strength vector is determined on basis of results of measurements of its components in two orthogonal directions. As interpretation parameters value of difference of azimuths of strength vector observed and background, appropriate for homogenous substance, of electric fields, are used. On basis of character of deviation of force lines from background values, presence and position of non-homogenous areas is evaluated and detected.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: system for finding coordinates of track and coordinates of defects of underground pipeline has navigation satellites and starting chamber marker. The latter has navigation receiver, processing and mating units, data storage, receiving chamber marker and track marker connected in series. Mentioned markers have marker receiver and navigation receiver connected in series with processing and mating unit, data storage and intra-pipe inspection tool. The latter has flaw detection module, synchronized reference generator, marker transmitter, route detector, computational and control unit, registrar, angular speed three-component meter, three-component accelerator and longitudinal accelerator, on-ground subsystem. Before making starting intra-tube inspection tool started, its sync reference generator is synchronized with time scale of satellite radar system. Data from flaw detector module is recorded into data registrar by means of intra-tube inspection tool, as well as in registrar of three-component angular speed meter, three-component accelerometer, longitudinal accelerometer, route detector, temperature detector and current time detector. Radar parameters and current time are recorded in marker of starting chamber. Radar parameters, time of passing of inspection tool and current time are recorded route markers and marker of starting chamber. Coordinate of pipeline and coordinates of flaws are calculated in on-ground subsystem on the base of stored data.
EFFECT: improved precision of coordinate finding.
FIELD: diagnosis and control.
SUBSTANCE: as source of electromagnetic field of cathode protection of pipeline is used. Depth of position of pipeline axis is determined on basis of magnetic transverse, longitudinal and vertical components of electromagnetic field of current of cathode protection of pipeline. longitudinal electric component of electromagnetic current field of cathode protection is measured and transverse component of electromagnetic field of current of cathode protection on the left and right from pipeline axes. Results of measurements are made normal for depth of pipeline, resistance of environment, surrounding pipeline, current force in pipeline, background components of electromagnetic fields. On basis of heightened values of normal electric components of electromagnetic field of cathode protection current position and size of disruptions of isolating cover of pipeline are detected.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: pipeline construction technologies.
SUBSTANCE: method shows presence and location of defects of metallic pipelines, includes measuring above pipeline in given points during movement of magnetic field vectors in rectangular coordinates, by at least two three-component sensors, tensor of magnetic field gradients is built, by matrix transformation received information is processed, on basis of results background value is estimated and deviations from this value, on basis of difference of which for given criterion value from background value presence and location of defects of metallic pipelines is decided and magnetic graph is built to show location of defects. Device for realization of method has registration sensors system, quartz generator, frequency divider, analog-digital converter, control block, threshold block, sound and light indication block, automatic battery charge indicator, block for calculation of magnetic field gradients, block for showing information, recording device segment, recording control block, situation alignment block, block for satellite absolute geographic alignment GPS, block for selecting recording segment.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher trustworthiness, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electro-surveying by inductive profiling method, possible use for studying composition of upper part of geological cross-section.
SUBSTANCE: method uses electromagnetic field source and receiving magnetic indicator distanced from one another. Mutual orientation of electromagnetic field source and receiving magnetic indicator is such, that in normal secondary electromagnetic field, excited in radiated geo-electric section without homogeneousness, measured component of magnetic field strength is close to zero. Profiling is performed by means of horizontal displacement relatively to boundary of earth-air splitting simultaneously of source of electromagnetic field and receiving magnetic indicator with discontinuous or continuous registration of abnormal component of magnetic field. On basis of its distribution, presence of geo-electric non-homogeneousness is determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and resistance to interference, decreased laboriousness.
FIELD: technology for finding deposits of oil and gas, possible use for finding hydrocarbon resources in carbon rocks of foundation of oil-gas containing precipitation beds.
SUBSTANCE: method includes taking samples from oil and gas bearing area with carbon foundation, adjacent to subterranean continental paleorift. Magnetic susceptibility of these is measured. On appearance of magnetic susceptibility values within range 13,0·106-31,0·106 presence of deposits is determined.
EFFECT: increased precision of finding deposits in carbon rocks of foundation, simplified method, lower costs.