Cryogenic liquid evaporator

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to cryogenic equipment, and namely to cryogenic liquid evaporators, and can be used in gasification plants. Cryogenic liquid evaporator includes housing with cryogenic liquid supplying assembly and cooling agent output assembly and heat exchange assembly made in the form of a tube bank, inter-tube space of which includes dump packing. In addition, heat exchange assembly is equipped with gas distributing grid located in lower part of tube bank and having the shape of flattened cone installed with smaller base upwards. Dump packing is located on gas distributing grid.

EFFECT: use of invention will allow more efficient use of thermal and physical properties of heat exchange assembly of cryogenic liquid evaporator owing to arrangement of dump packing with section having constant resistance, and creating conditions of uniform distribution and passing of warm gas vapours through the head piece.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to cryogenic technique, namely the evaporation of the cryogenic liquid, and can be used in gasification plants.

Known evaporator cryogenic liquid [A.S. USSR №1275182, F17 9/02. Publ. 07.12.86, bull. No. 45], comprising a housing with inlet and outlet distribution devices placed inside the primary heat exchange element in the form of regular packing with channels for the flow of cryogenic fluid and an additional heat exchanger element with a bulk nozzle mounted behind the primary heat transfer element along the flow of the cryogenic fluid.

Cryogenic liquid flows through the inlet distribution device to the body of the evaporator, where the heat exchange element is a complete evaporation of the cryogenic liquid in the film boiling regime. Additional heat exchanger element is designed for droplet evaporation, preserved in the stream, their return to the evaporation zone and maintain a given pressure difference between the evaporation zone and the outlet of the evaporator.

The disadvantage of this vaporizer is that the evaporation of the cryogenic liquid occurs due to the heat stored from the pre-heating with hot gas, which leads to additional energy consumption. Also this device does not allow you to return a pair of heated cryogen is OI fluid to re-cooling, that leads to excess cryogenic liquid.

Known evaporator cryogenic liquid [RF patent №2239121, F17 9/02, F25 39/02. Published. 27.10.2004, bull. No. 30], adopted for the prototype. The evaporator cryogenic fluid includes a housing with feeders and issuance of the refrigerant and heat exchange site. Site feed contains refrigerant pipe forming with the outer wall of the Central pipe a ring cavity communicated with the chamber of the liquid refrigerant. The heat exchange unit is designed in the form of a tube bundle, the tube space which contains the bulk head. The node issuing the refrigerant is made in the form of a Central tube with ejector, suction chamber which is in communication with the annular space, and a nozzle with camera gaseous refrigerant.

Cryogenic liquid such as liquid nitrogen) flows through the inlet, the annular cavity and the lower chamber of the liquid refrigerant into the tubes of the heat exchange element where there is complete evaporation of the cryogenic liquid. The resulting vapors through the upper chamber of the gaseous refrigerant and the pipe comes into the nozzle of the ejector. A pair of cryogenic liquid from the nozzle picks up the gas (at the initial moment of time the air from the receiving chamber of the ejector, mixing with it and cooling it, transport it through the main pipe, and then cooled in the apparatus. Of the cooling apparatus h is thermally treated (waste) a pair of cryogenic liquid newly admitted to the evaporator. In the evaporator due to the vacuum in the receiving chamber created by the ejector, a pair of pass through holes in the cylindrical shell, bulk head and received in the receiving chamber of the ejector. Vapors are cooled, giving heat to the bulk of the nozzle and the heat exchange element. From the camera cooled vapors are sent by the ejector in the Central tube, where, at the same time mingling and additionally cooled with pairs of cryogenic liquid from a nozzle of the ejector, out of the evaporator for cooling apparatus.

Evaporator design does not effectively carry out the process of heat exchange in the heat exchange site large diameter between the evaporated cryogenic liquid and the incoming warm (exhaust) pairs of this fluid, as in the heat exchange site large diameter warm gas does not pass in the Central part of the nozzle due to the resistance created by the bulk head, and rises along the inner surface of the cylindrical shell on the path of least resistance.

The invention aims to improve the heat exchange efficiency in the heat exchange site large diameter between the evaporated cryogenic liquid and the incoming warm (exhaust vapors to the liquid, due to the uniform distribution of the warm vapors of the gas over the entire cross-section of the exchanger nozzles.

For the purposes of the task is solved by the evaporator cryogenic fluid includes a housing with a node of a supply of cryogenic fluid and the node issuing the refrigerant, heat exchange unit, performed in the form of a tube bundle, the tube space which contains the bulk of the nozzle, while the heat exchange node is further provided with a gas grill, located in the lower part of the tube bundle and having the shape of a truncated cone, installed a smaller base upwards, and fill cap is located on the gas grid.

Figure 1 shows a longitudinal section of the evaporator; figure 2 - cross section a-a of the evaporator; figure 3 - remote element B in figure 1.

The evaporator includes a housing 1 (see figure 1), the node 2, the supply of the cryogenic fluid heat exchange node 3 and node 4 issue of the gaseous refrigerant. The housing 1 contains a pipe 5 (see figure 2) input exhaust vapor of the cryogenic fluid and the pipe 6 with a valve to regulate flow of exhaust refrigerant. Node 2 for supplying cryogenic liquid consists of a chamber 7 cryogenic fluid communication with the annular cavity 8 formed by the Central tube 9 and coaxially located her pipe 10. The flow of cryogenic fluid through the pipe 11. In the cylindrical shell 12 is heat-exchange node 3, which is made in the form of a tube bundle 13, the annular protrans is filled in bulk nozzle 14, for example, the steel balls. The nozzle 14 is located at gas distribution grid 15 is installed in the bottom part of the tube bundle 13. Naturally grating 15 has the shape of a truncated cone, installed a smaller base up. The camera 16 of gaseous refrigerant through the pipe 17 is connected to the nozzle 18 (see figure 3) of the ejector 19. The nozzle 18 is able to move by means of a screw 20 (smpeg) along the axis of the evaporator to adjust the ejector 19. From the camera 16 of the gaseous refrigerant leaves the nozzle 21 with a valve to regulate the flow of vapor of the cryogenic fluid. Node 4 issue gaseous refrigerant consists of a Central tube 9 to the upper edge of which is attached to the diffuser 22 of the ejector 19, and a pipe 10 connected to the confuser 23 of the ejector 19. Heat exchange node 3 has the insulation 24, which forms a receiving chamber 25 of the ejector 19 and with the inner side of the housing 1 an annular gap 26. In the lower part of the evaporator is placed receiving chamber 27 of the spent refrigerant, in which through the pipe 5 is served warm exhaust the refrigerant and to regulate the flow from the evaporator is installed a valve on the pipe 6.

The evaporator operates as follows.

Cryogenic liquid such as liquid nitrogen, is passed through the pipe 11 through the annular chamber 8 and the chamber 7 of the cryogenic liquid in the pipe p is the choke heat exchanger 13 node 3, where there is complete evaporation of the cryogenic liquid. The resulting vapors through the chamber 16 of the gaseous refrigerant and the outlet 17 are received in the nozzle 18 of the ejector 19. The valve on the pipe 21 at the initial inclusion of the evaporator is fully closed. A pair of cryogenic liquid from the nozzle 18 pick up the gas (at the initial moment of time the air from the receiving chamber 25 of the ejector, mixing with it and cooling it, transport it on the pipe 10 and then cooling apparatus (not shown). Of the cooling apparatus is heated (used) pair of cryogenic liquid newly admitted to the evaporator through the pipe 5 and the receiving chamber 27 of the spent refrigerant. In the evaporator between the camera 27 exhaust refrigerant and the chamber 25 of the ejector 19 there is a pressure drop due to the negative pressure created by the ejector 19. Due to this pressure differential pair from the chamber 27 of the spent refrigerant passing along the tube bundle 13 through the nozzle 14 and are received in the receiving chamber 25 of the ejector 19. Naturally grating 15 provides a uniform passage of the vapor throughout the cross section of the material nozzle 14. When this exhaust vapors are cooled, giving heat to the bulk of the nozzle 14 and the tube bundle 13. Cooling occurs through the use of the heat of vaporization of the cryogenic liquid in the annular cavity 8, in the cryo chamber 7 is military and liquid in the tubes of the tube bundle 13. The height of the conical gas distribution grid 15 is selected so that the resistance of the material nozzle 14 along the pipe 9 is equal to the resistance of the nozzle along the inner surface of the cylindrical shell 12. From the chamber 25 of the ejector 19 chilled pairs are sent by the ejector 19 in the pipe 10, where, at the same time mingling and additionally cooled with pairs of cryogenic liquid from the nozzle 18 of the ejector 19, out of the evaporator for cooling apparatus.

The presence of the gas distribution grid in the lower part of the tube bundle and the location of bulk packing allows to hold in the heat exchange unit of any diameter heat exchange between the evaporated cryogenic liquid and the incoming warm (exhaust vapors to the liquid, due to the uniform distribution and uniform passage of the warm vapors of the gas over the entire cross-section of the exchanger nozzles.

The use of the invention allows for the most efficient use of thermophysical properties of heat-exchange node evaporator cryogenic fluid through the organization bulk packing cross-section, having a constant resistance, and create conditions for uniform distribution and flow through the nozzle of the flow of warm gas vapours.

The evaporator cryogenic liquid, comprising a housing with a node of a supply of cryogenic liquid and the node issuing the refrigerant, heat exchange unit, performed in the form of a tube bundle, the tube space which contains the bulk of the nozzle, characterized in that the heat-exchange node is further provided with a gas grill, located in the lower part of the tube bundle and having the shape of a truncated cone, installed a smaller base upwards, and fill cap is located on the gas grid.



 

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