Hardening fill mixture
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to hardening fill mixtures. It includes filler, liquid sodium glass, gypsum, cement. Fill mixture is additionally supplemented with flocculant and martite-hematite iron ore, with the following ratio of mixture components: liquid sodium glass 20-22%; cement 1-2%; gypsum 1-2%; flocculant 0.002-0.004%; martite-hematite iron ore 1%; filler - the rest.
EFFECT: improved quality of technological properties of hardening fill mixture, reduced prime cost, increased bearing capacity of filled mass, reduced consumption of hardening solution and simplified technology of stripped area filling.
2 cl, 1 tbl
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in underground mining systems with mined-out space hardening filling mixture, which is applied substandard Sands with low fineness modulus less than 0.7. The use of a flocculant (Alclar) allows to reduce the dispersion of sand that makes it possible to reduce the cement content to a minimum (1-2%), but as a main binder to use liquid glass with density ρ=1300 kg/m3.
Known backfill material (application No. 2001104570 from 20.01.2003), including crushed rock and hardening the mixture, characterized in that the quality of the crushed rocks it contains crushed rock with grain size, providing after her vibrating laying in a goaf education laid the array with porosity 7-15%, and as a hardening mixtures injectively in its pores hardening solution.
The lack of backfill material for the mixture is the fact that as aggregate backfill material contains crushed rock rock, which greatly increases its value, for example, compared with non-conforming sandy filler and makes it difficult to control the quality of the bookmark.
Known for the hardening busslinjerna stowing mixture (patent RF №2275505, from 05.11.2004), including crushed lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material and calcined carbonate rocks, mixing water, phlegmatizer, the placeholder that contains annealed at 900-1200°C carbonate rocks with the content of the active oxides of calcium and magnesium CaO+MgO in them not less than 40% and not more than 9.1 percent by weight of the mixture, crushed to sieve residue of 0.08 mm, not more than 15%, as the active aluminosilicate material is burnt marl or calcined clay or calcined tailings kimberlite ores, or granulated blast furnace slag and water mixing contains phlegmatizer in the amount determined by the formula: D=(0,005÷0,021)·C/NE, where D is the number of phlegmatizer in 1 l of water mixing, kg (0,005÷0,021) - coefficient taking into account the proportion of phlegmatizer and burnt carbonate rocks in the mixture; C - consumption burned carbonate rocks in the mixture, kg; SV - experimentally determined flow rate of the mixing water in the mixture, l, with the ratio of components in the filling mixture, wt.%: active aluminosilicate material - 5,6-33,2, burnt carbonate rocks - 1,0-16,7, the water mixing with phlegmatizer - 10,6-27,5, filler - the rest. When exceeding the specified content of active CaO+MgO in the mixture is transferred CaO and MgO in the hydroxide spraying water in to the Icesave not more than 20% by weight of the calcined carbonate rocks in terms of active CaO+MgO. As carbonate rocks using the host rock kimberlite deposits, as aggregate - sand, and/or tailings, and/or crushed silica rock - tuff, and/or diabase rock, and/or carbonate rock, as phlegmatizer - lignosulfonate technical - lsls or superplasticizer C-3 and lsls taken in a 2:1 ratio.
The disadvantage backlinking backfill mix is the fact that a high concentration of active oxides of calcium and magnesium provides vodonepronitsaemost this filling mixture; when exposed to water containing carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, or acidified water due to the dissolution and removal of Cao and MgO is a sharp decrease of the strength and stability of the backfill array. These disadvantages are completely absent in the proposed composition of the filling mixture in which the binder is glass with a minimum cement content.
Known cement slurry, selected as a prototype (patent No. 2001135982 from 27.12.2001), for bridging Sakrebulo space shafts potash mines, containing cement, shuts the fluid, characterized in that the plasticizing and sealing additives, regulating the timing of hardening, use a solution of lignosulfonates as additives that increase the resistance and the density of the MCA and, used fly ash, liquid glass, calcium chloride, as expanding additives used gypsum, quicklime.
The disadvantage of cement slurry is the use of cement as the main binder, which significantly increases the cost of filling mixture, and the use of lignosulfonate - toxic waste pulp and paper industry does not meet the environmental requirements on the application materials in mines, as well as the protection of groundwater against pollution. In the present invention are environmentally friendly components, which significantly reduce the monetary cost of manufacturing large volumes of backfill mixtures with the use of substandard Sands with low fineness modulus.
The technical result - the quality improvement of technological properties of hardening filling mixture, reduce costs, increase the bearing capacity of embedded array.
The technical result is achieved by hardening filling mixture comprises a filler, sodium liquid glass, plaster, cement, according to the invention in the mixture is further added flocculant (Alclar), martite-hematite iron ore, when the ratio of mixture components:
- sodium liquid glass (density 1300 kg/m3) 20-22%;
- gypsum 1-2%;
- Flo is meant 0,002-0,004%;
- iron ore, martite-hematite 1%;
placeholder - the rest.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that, as a filler mixture contains substandard quarry sand with fineness modulus less than 0.7.
Studies were conducted on the basis of theory of experiment planning, involving analytical developments in the field of physico-chemical and chemical processes for the synthesis of binding using substandard aggregates based on the criterion of their particle size distribution (module size), laboratory works, consisting of certain stages:
- preparation of air-dried mixture of several components (sand + cement + gypsum + iron ore) in the specified percentage by weight of sand;
- preparation of solutions (liquid glass + flocculant);
- thorough mixing of the solid and liquid components;
- forming samples of a certain shape and size;
- hardening of the samples at room temperature 20±2°C for 4-28 days;
- test samples for presses to get the size of the temporary resistance to compression.
To study the optimal composition was studied 15 recipes.
Example. Table 1 shows the results of the research hardening filling mixture.
The proposed composition of the filling mixture provides the opportunity ISOE is isawanya as the main filler substandard thin and small career Sands with low fineness modulus with the use of active flocculant (Alclar) to aggregate fine sand fractions, that allows to reduce the consumption of expensive cement and used as a binder liquid glass and a small quantity of gypsum as a binder, as well as to prevent shrinkage of the mixture during its hardening.
|The results of research strength multicomponent filling mixture.|
|№№ p/p||Solid components of the filling mixture in % by weight of filler (substandard sand)||The liquid binder components||The ratio of liquid and solid components||The density of the mixture ρ,|
|Temporary compression resistance RSG, MPa|
|The sand||Gypsum||Cement M300||Iron ore "paint"||Liquid glass ρ=1300 kg/m3||The flocculant solution, in % by weight of liquid glass density||28 days, 100% strength||4 with the current, 40% of final strength (28 days)|
1. Hardening filling mixture including a filler, sodium liquid glass, plaster, cement, characterized in that in filling the mixture is further added flocculant, martite-hematite iron ore with a ratio of mixture components:
liquid glass sodium 20-22%;
the flock is and 0,002-0,004%;
iron ore, martite-hematite 1%;
the aggregate else.
2. Hardening filling mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that as a filler it contains substandard quarry sand with fineness modulus less than 0.7.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mineral resource industry, namely to methods of protection of workings mainly at great depths and flat gradient of thick deposits in worked-out filling area and may be used during selective mining of thick deposits of highly valuable ore minerals. Method includes formation of secondary local zone of unloading by rock pressure in filling mass of worked-out area by means of balance bags and their filling with flexible material. Balance bags are performed during formation of filling mass in area of next working-out and as a flexible material layer of consolidating stowing is used which flexibility is enhanced as compared to the other layers.
EFFECT: improving of stability of workings formed in consolidating stowing mass.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of mining, namely, to travelling bulkheads for arrangement of filling mass in underground mine openings. It includes metal pressure shield, which consists of separate elements fixed to each other by means of bolts, soft shells, equipped with nozzles for supply and exhaust of compressed air, pipes for drainage with filters and pipes for sampling with plug. Metal pressure shield is arranged in the form of right-angled parallelepiped, which is made of four triangular fixed prisms, bases of which have the shape of isosceles right-angled triangle. Height of triangular prisms is accepted as higher than distance between roof of filled opening and metal pressure shield, in which door opening with door is installed, and door opens in direction of filling mass location. On upper and lateral sides of metal shield, there are soft shells arranged, height of which, when completely filled with compressed air, exceeds distance between metal pressure shield and contour of opening section. On the lower side metal pressure shield is equipped with rubberised apron on the side of filling mass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency and reliability of filling mass control in filling of lengthy mine openings and layer excavation of mineral.
SUBSTANCE: development method of lodes by layers with backfilling includes driving of preparatory-temporary workings 1, excavation of ore by diagonal layers 3, breaking by explosive blast holes into open area of layer, shipping of ore and filling of open area of layer by backfilling. Angle of slope of diagonal layer 3 is accepted equal to minimal limit angle, overcoming by self-propelled equipment. Backfilling is implemented up to designed taking-out capacity of lode by undermined rocks of bottom layer and/or granulated laying mixture from mill tailing.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of development, cost cutting for development of lodes, losses of minerals and anthropogenic load to environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of mineral raw materials in running of stable ores by heading-and-stall methods. Method for strengthening of filling mass includes supply of filling materials with various content of binders. Hydraulic filling of chamber with finely dispersed material without binders is carried out to elevation of drilling horizon soil. After water drainage and setting of filling mass the following are drilled in staggered order along chamber perimetre from the side of processed interchamber sight pillars: boreholes - in chamber ceiling and, opposite to them - wells for the whole capacity of filling mass. Anchors having ring in lower part are inserted in boreholes and wedged, and case pipes are lowered into wells, and then for the whole depth - armature rods, ends of which are suspended to chamber ceiling with anchor rings, afterwards wells and case pipes are filed with mortar, containing binder. Upper part of chamber up to ceiling is filled with filling mass without binder.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase technological resources of stripped chambers filling and to reduce consumption of binder.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of mining and, in particular to underground development of ore deposits in cryolithic zone. In period of ambient air negative temperatures completely dehydrated tailings are briquetted and frozen on surface, then transported and placed in stripped area of stopes. And in period of ambient air positive temperatures tailings are partially dehydrated and supplied along pipes into stripped area of these stopes, which was before filled with frozen briquettes, for filling of interbriquette space with further freezing of created two-phase fillins mass due to natural negative temperature resource of enclosing strata and added negative ambient temperature resource of briquettes frozen on surface. Completeness of tailings location in stripped area created at stage of stoped excavation is provided by specified ratio of ore production volumes in period of negative and positive temperatures of ambient air. Using geothechnology with solid excavation of ore spreading without separation into stoped blocks, completeness of interbriquette space filling with pulp from tailings is provided by detection of distance between points of unloading into stripped area of frozen briquettes and pulp pouring from flowing tailings.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase ecological safety of ore deposits development due to return of solid enrichment wastes into stripped area and their recycling by means of permafrost mass restoration in stripped area.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of mining and can be used for laying of cleaning space at underground mining. Method of waste chambers' laying includes feeding into chamber of laying mixtures with different content of binding. Laying of chambers by mixtures, containing bindings, it is implemented in its bottom part up to level of top boundary of adjustment of underlying horizon, them up to mark of soil of drilling level it is implemented laying by mixtures without bindings. After shrinkage of laid massif, filtration and evaporation of water by perimetre of chamber into shrink slot it is located reinforce structure. In laid massif lengthwise chamber's walls there are driller wells up to mark, located lower top mark of laying layer in bottom part of chamber. Part of massif between chamber walls and walls of wells is destroyed. Into wells there are put in re-bars with exceeding of them over level of laid massif. And then wells and shrink slot is saturated with solution, containing bindings, after what top part of chamber it is filled with mixture with binding.
EFFECT: effectiveness increase of laying of cleaning space at underground mining.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at underground operation heavy abrupt layer with stowing of open area. Method includes implementation of layerwise drifts, upraise and alternate development of cut in horizontal fibers by means of combine and following filling of cuts by cast solid stowing. Before stowing supplying, on cut soil there are laid chutes and are installed shields for reservation as operating layerwise drift in waste horizontal fibers. Layerwise drifts are implemented up to beginning of layer development nearby top or nearby layer soil and they are used for coal transportation, ventilation and feeding of cast solid stowing into cuts of underlying horizontal layer.
EFFECT: increase of labour productivity and safety of mining.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry and can be implemented at underground development of steep pitched deposits represented with unstable ore, under thickness of water-flooded sediments, excavation of which is connected with hazard of underground water inrush into mine workings. The procedure of development of thick steep pitched ore bodies consists in division of ore body into layers mined in descending order, in mining layers with cuts and in filling mined space with a solidifying material. Sections of location of cavities above filled massif and sizes of these cavities are determined by visual or instrument survey from cuts mined adjoined to the filled massif. Solidifying materials are supplied to places of after-filling in adjoined cuts using, for example a concrete pump equipped with the system of control over filling mixture supply. Cavities are after-filled in a divergent order in the direction off their boundaries, from uttermost adjoined cuts to adjoined cuts.
EFFECT: increased completeness of filling mined space, decreased space of mining auxiliary entries and increased safety of mining at development of deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in excavation of mineral along strike with inclined layers, in forming hauling and filling-airway entries, in blast-hole drilling breakage of ore and layer-by-layer backfilling of worked-out space. Breakage of ore is performed with inclined oriented boreholes which are bored from an airway entry, where their inclined bores are arranged at an angle equal to the angle of a natural slope of loose backfilling, which is bigger, than the angle of natural slope of broken ore. Bore charging is performed to the point of cut of the inclined bore, while backfilling of the block is carried out along an up-hole; an elastic continuous shell is installed in it at the level of a backfilled layer. The elastic continuous shell is arranged at the level of the backfilling layer in a neighbour up-hole. After laying loose backfilling fast hardening solution is poured over it; after that the cycles are repeated. A shape of elastic continuous shells is accepted as close to cross-section of up-holes. The elastic continuous shells are made out of rubber-cord.
EFFECT: reduction of backfilling material cost, increased efficiency of block during stoping and safety of operations performed in block.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at underground development of minerals mainly in zone of permafrost. The method of rock pressure control consists in forming a massif and in stacking of flexors in a massif roof or in a massif bottom. The massif is formed out of mixture of rock mass cooled to subzero temperature of -10°C to -40°C and water used as binding at the ratio of volumes of water and rock mass of negative temperature from 1:28 to 1:4. Flexors in form of elastic vessels filled with a working agent are arranged in the body of the massif. Compressed gas, liquid or gas-liquid mixture is used as a working agent.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety at mining due to control over yielding of built massifs and to reduction of labour intensiveness at their building.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.