Hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for construction of homogenous walls and work procedure

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building, particularly to structures of construction hollow ceramic brick-blocks widely applied at work of homogenous external walls of buildings with specified thermal resistance in various climatic conditions of their operation. There is disclosed the hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for construction of homogenous walls; the brick-block consists of side running and head facets and of an internal structural thermo-insulating structure formed with lengthwise and cross sides and with several rows of through cells situated parallel to running facets; the said cells consist of main slit-like cells arranged with set-off relative to each other in neighbour rows at half of their length and of additional through cells arranged on opposite sides of these rows and separated from each other with partitions along the row length. The brick-block is made out of clay with additives up to 10% of volume; additives correspond to burned-out fine-crumbled charcoal or sifted peat or sawdust and up to 20% of charcoal or TES (thermo-electric stations) cinder. The structural heat-insulating structure is straightened relative to running and head facets at 45° and is divided along length into two equal parts with a ceramic partitions running across running and parallel to head facets. Each part is made out of rows of square main cells separated from one another with ceramic partitions crossing at the angle of 90°. Each square main and additional cell is also separated by depth into two cells with the ceramic partitions set-off relative to partitions of adjacent cells. Internal walls and planes of two parallel pair of facets crossing at 90° are divided with partitions, forming triangle additional cells along internal perimetre of each part in each row; length of hypotenuse of each triangle additional side is equal to diagonal of square of the main cell. All cells are oriented relative to running and head facets of the brick-block so, that diagonals of square cells and hypotenuses of additional cells are arranged across heat flow both from the side of running and head facets, while in the adjacent rows these cells are set off relative to each other at half of their diagonal and they alternate in the following way: one row contains only three main square cells, another row contains two square cells and two additional cells on ends. Three more additional cells are located on the head internal facet and on the wall dividing partitions; while one running head includes two square recesses. Also here is disclosed the work procedure for homogeneous walls out of hollow-porous ceramic brick-block.

EFFECT: upgraded physic-technical indices both of brick-block and work procedure for construction of wall of building due to implementation of available, ecologically safe and reliable homogeneous material; also expanded range of application of hollow-porous ceramic brick-block in building for construction of homogeneous walls of buildings.

6 cl, 12 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction of hollow ceramic bricks-blocks, widely used in the homogeneous masonry external walls of buildings with the required thermal resistance for different climatic conditions.

Known ceramic hollow bricks-blocks, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural thermal insulation structure, made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges parallel rows of end-to-end or closed with one or two sides pastel faces - voids (See. PM EN No. 17052, IPC ES 1/00, publ. 10.03.2001; EN No. 18548, IPC ES 1/00, EV 2/00, publ. 27.06.2001; RU patent No. 2120923, IPC SW 33/00, publ. 27.10.1998), or voids, in the form of recesses located on opposite two pastel faces, different cross-sectional shapes of the first and second order are shifted from each other in adjacent rows, mostly, half of their width and are more side across the direction of cold flow (Cm. patent RU No. 2108430, IPC IS 2/04, publ. 04.10.1998).

Such hollow bricks-blocks having constuction-insulating structure with a through slit-like or extended from two sides of the cavities, sorien the new across the heat flux, have separately high heat, and economic performance, in comparison with solid brick or block, which allows their use as thermal insulation facing element multilayer walls in combination with other structural elements of the bearing basic load structures.

However, to maintain these high rates of these bricks-blocks in the construction of homogeneous walls and even multi-storey low-rise buildings is difficult.

When the walls of these hollow bricks used cement-sand mortar of high thermal conductivity (λ>0.9 W/MS), which is applied to pastel, stretcher, stretcher bond plane of each adjacent brick, block, and thus is the main conductor of cold through all the joints of masonry, and in particular, through solid pastel plane block for each adjacent row walls.

In addition, such a brick block with a slit-like voids with unilateral internal structural thermal insulation structure made relative to the header or header faces, during the construction of homogeneous walls in one, one and a half, two or more bricks loses not only its thermal insulation performance, and physical characteristics, as walls, partitions, bulkheads, and accordingly the through slit-like blank which you lower and subsequent rows of masonry do not coincide with each other, and when the ligation intersect transversely, and thereby violated equal load distribution on all ceramic elements of brick-block in each row of the wall, there are local, over-voltage, leading to cracks in some places the ceramic elements and masonry, which affects physico-technical, thermal protection, economic indicators constructed homogeneous walls of the specified brick-block.

Closest to the proposed invention is a brick in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped containing the outer header and stretcher faces and internal structural thermal insulation structure, made of longitudinal and transverse side walls with spaced rows across the direction of heat flow slit-like cavities separated by partitions and jumpers so that one row contains two void main length, and the other one void main length between two voids additional length, with jumpers in adjacent rows offset from each other by 0.4-0.5 longitudinal void main length, which is 0,280-0,379 or 0,381-size 0,470 brick along the hollow of the number and the width of the void is 0,017-0.3 or 0,017-0.2 size of bricks across the void series (see patent RU No. 2183710, IPC ES 1/00, publ. 20.06.2002).

The disadvantage of the prototype is low those who azasite brick in the construction of homogeneous walls as multi-storey, and low-rise buildings caused by leaking masonry mortar into the voids of thermal insulation system of each brick, a block, and the creation of "cold bridges" through the joints of masonry and saakshi solution that reduces its heat-shielding characteristics to 25-30%.

Another disadvantage of this brick-block are its low physical-technical specifications during the construction of homogeneous walls in one, one and a half, two or more bricks as walls, partitions, bulkheads, and accordingly the through slit-like cavities of the lower and subsequent rows of masonry do not coincide with each other, and intersect transversely and thereby violated equal load distribution on all ceramic elements of brick-block in each row of the wall, there is a local excess voltage, leading to cracks in some places the ceramic elements and masonry.

There is a method of erecting a wall laid out by miles of stretcher bond brick, and laying between them, back filling (see patent RU No. 2169240, IPC EV 2/02, publ. 20.06.2001). When all the bricks back filling should preferably be laid in stretcher bond position for placement across the direction of heat flow maximum number of voids. All vertical joints of masonry, with the exception of the seam adjacent to the outer mile wall, set the slab insulation. The wall can be howled the wife in half, two and two and a half brick with back filling of stretcher bond series, hosted bonder apertures through three rows, and insulation in all longitudinal vertical joints of masonry, with the exception of the seam adjacent to the outer mile wall.

The disadvantage of this method is the counterpart is that the header rows of apertures (bricks) with a slit-like cavities, performed relatively stretcher bond faces of the brick are limited by the corresponding thin elongated walls, ridges and inner walls, placed in masonry walls across stretcher bond adjacent rows of bricks, and therefore all ceramic elements and a slit-like voids adjacent bricks and rows of masonry do not coincide with each other, resulting in inadequate heat indicators walls and uneven load distribution over the entire area of the ceramic elements of adjacent bricks, there is a local excess voltage, leading to cracks in some places of brick and masonry. In addition, the use of tiled insulation for masonry walls above significantly reduces the strength of the wall. These shortcomings remain even if used for masonry walls two types of bricks: one stretcher bond with heat system, another - with header.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a way of masonry walls, etc is osmatrivali linking mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements and the formation so the bottom horizontal row of the wall, the subsequent formation with ligation of other upstream horizontal rows of the wall, by linking mortar adjacent faces of the construction elements of the already laid in each, formed below a horizontal row, and from other construction elements forming a new horizontal row (see patent RU No. 2304674, IPC ES 1/00, EV 2/02, publ. 20.08.2007). Masonry mortar spread on the faces of each building element in the grooves encircling its ridges, parallel to its longitudinal and transverse cross-section of the erected wall and the masonry is produced so that the ridges on the sides of adjacent elements coincide with each other, and filling the grooves of these ridges of mortar formed on the inside wall of cold surrounds each construction element of the closed zone are parallel and perpendicular to walls associated with similar zones adjacent building elements and forming together with surfaces abutting faces of adjacent building elements limited to these zones, the heat storage miraglia cavity slit open along the entire height of the wall.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that the wall is performed without ligation of vertical nagradnyh seams that violates the rigidity of the entire wall.

The load from the slab is passed on in the morning a mile, which leads to an uneven load and sediment longitudinal rows of walls, which may cause spalling of mortar joints along the entire height of the wall, i.e. its destruction and leakage of warm air through vertical slots in the same way over the entire height of the wall.

An object of the invention is the improvement of physical and technical indicators, such as brick, block and masonry wall buildings, through the use of affordable, clean, reliable and practically proven homogenous material, the expansion of the scope hollow porous ceramic brick-block construction for the construction of homogeneous walls of buildings.

The goal of the project is ensured by the fact that in the hollow porous ceramic brick block in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped containing side header and stretcher faces, internal structural and heat-shielding structure made of longitudinal and transverse sides and parallel to the stretcher bond faces several rows of through cavities, consisting of the main slit-like voids located offset relative to each other in adjacent rows on half of their length, and additional end-to-end cavities located on opposite ends of these rows and separated from each other along the length of the series of ridges, the brick-block executed is C clay with the addition of up to 10% of the burnable fined charcoal or sifted peat, or sawdust and up to 20% of wood or TPP ash; structural-thermal insulation structure is deployed relative to the header and stretcher faces at 45° and is divided lengthwise into two equal parts ceramic strap passing across the header and parallel bonder faces, each part is made from the ranks of the main square cavities, separated from each other by ceramic walls intersecting at an angle of 90°, each square main and additional voids also divided according to the depth of two cell ceramic jumper located offset relative to the jumper interconnecting voids and an inner wall and a plane parallel to the two pairs of faces intersecting at an angle of 90°, the partitions forming on the inner perimeter of each part, in each row of the rectangular triangular fixing cavities, the length of the hypotenuse of each triangular fixing side is equal to the diagonal of the square main emptiness; emptiness is oriented relative to the header and stretcher faces of the brick-block so that the diagonal of a square voids and hypotenuse of additional voids placed across the heat flow from the side of the header, and the header faces, and in the adjacent rows of these cavities are offset from each other by half their diagonal and alternate: one row contains only three fundamental is x square of emptiness, another set contains two square voids and two additional cavities at the edges on the bonder inner edge and the wall separating the jumpers are three more additional cavities, and one stretcher bond face includes two square niches.

In addition, on the surface of each face, except for one stretcher bond faces, hollow-porous ceramic brick-block performed under furrow mortar, as problemsof equidistant from its edges, and each furrow docked along the edges of the faces of the other grooves located on the surfaces of adjacent faces and forming two longitudinal closed zone, parallel vertical stretcher bond edges, two transverse belt, parallel vertically bonder sides, the perimeter separating jumper structural-thermal insulation composite system, one stretcher bond faces of each brick-block made two niches, equidistant from the bonder and pastel faces and from the centre separating the jumper in heat patterns.

Hollow porous ceramic brick-block can be made in the form of a square, and structural thermal insulation structure is provided by two separate jumpers, passing through the center perpendicular to each other and its outer faces, one of which, parallel stretcher bond faces in each of its frequent is performed on two slit-like voids, separated by a jumper and equidistant from the bonder of the parties and from the transverse axis dividing the jumpers, and each vertical emptiness separated by an internal jumper on the two equal opposite cell.

The goal of the project is ensured by the way homogeneous masonry walls of hollow porous ceramic brick-block in one and a half, two or more bricks, including the formation of the bottom horizontal row of the wall, then the formation of the next row, by linking the first row of the wall mortar adjacent faces of the bricks-blocks between themselves and with the laid bricks-blocks of the first row and so on.

Masonry walls do with a single stretcher bond orientation of all of the longitudinal rows, with a single dimensional ligation mezhramnyh cracks, bricks, blocks, milestone, zabutovochnyh and adjacent rows is a multiple of half the length of the rectangular hollow porous ceramic brick block, with a single combination of all ceramic and hollow pastel structural elements-heat patterns below and overlying bricks, blocks, masonry first base number of walls perform from the corner of two adjacent walls at the mortar, ground or Foundation, solid pastel end-to-end, with permissible gap between the adjacent vertical edges, installed between themselves kirpi is it-blocks, by observing the horizontal position and straightness of the upper bedding plane of the whole number and the matching of longitudinal and transverse grooves, covering every brick-block of the first row of the wall; then fill mortar vertical cavity of the first row formed adjacent furrows when the coupling between them, then fill the upper horizontal pastel furrows complete profile of the ellipse of the first row of mortar, using the extrusion device; forming a second series make hand loading with dressing on top pastel first row of masonry with filled with a solution furrows.

In addition, the wall thickness of one and a half, two or more bricks-blocks are made of alternating adjacent rows: the first row contains two milestone of some of the main rectangular brick-block, and the second from one milestone to the number of square ceramic brick, block, masonry half brick-block perform alternating adjacent rows, so that one adjacent row contains one mile from the main rectangular brick-block and the second internal mile from the square brick block, and the second adjacent row contains the opposite: one internal main square mile and the second outer a mile from the square brick-block; clutch two brick-block perform from eredvisie adjacent rows, so that one adjacent row contains two milestone of some of the main rectangular brick-block and one zabutovochnyh of square bricks-block, and the second adjacent row contains two milestone number of square bricks-block.

When the walls of any thickness receive additional miraglia heat chamber, which is formed by clamping the adjacent niches bricks-blocks, due to the clamping of adjacent cells flat vertical voids separating jumpers square brick, block, due to the clamping of the cell structural-thermal structures adjacent bricks-blocks.

Performing brick-block of available environmentally friendly material: clay with the addition of up to 10% of the burnable melkodroblenoj charcoal or sifted peat, or sawdust and up to 20% of wood or TPP ash reduces thermal conductivity of 0.17 W/MS and bulk density of 850 kg/m3due to heat air, placed in closed pores and cavities of structural and heat-shielding patterns deployed by 45° relative to the header and stretcher faces.

Due to the fact that structural and heat-shielding structure is deployed relative to the header and stretcher faces at 45° and is divided lengthwise into two equal parts ceramic strap passing across the header and parallel bonder faces, the achievement of which highlighted the expansion of the scope of this brick-block in the construction of homogeneous walls, relevant regulatory requirements of the building regulations for thermal resistance and energy in their manufacture and operation.

Due to the two niches on the same stretcher bond face and encircling grooves under mortar to bind bricks-blocks in the masonry of the walls, was able to significantly improve the physical and technical performance of constructed walls, their strength.

Hollow porous ceramic brick-block, made in the form of a square, with sides equal to the length of the main hollow ceramic brick block, with similar structural and heat-shielding structure may serve as a secondary dressing brick milestone, zabutovochnyh and adjacent rows of stretcher bond with the orientation of the clutch relative to the heat flow.

Additional dressing square hollow porous ceramic brick-block in a pair of major provides a new way of laying homogeneous walls of any thickness, stretcher bond orientation relative to the heat flow, with a single ligation bricks-blocks and longitudinal milestone, zabutovochnyh and adjacent rows simultaneously in the longitudinal and transverse direction, which provides a simple load distribution on all ceramic elements brick, block, each row, and all walls, increases its strength and stability.

Developed new with the persons masonry walls with a single stretcher bond orientation of all of the longitudinal rows, with a single dimensional ligation mezhramnyh cracks, bricks, blocks, milestone, zabutovochnyh and adjacent rows is a multiple of half the length of the rectangular hollow porous ceramic brick block, with a single combination of all ceramic and hollow pastel structural elements-heat patterns below and overlying bricks-blocks.

The inventive method of homogeneous masonry walls of hollow porous ceramic bricks-blocks is different from the traditional and the prototype method that provides for the distribution of masonry mortar do not produce all of the abutting surfaces between the adjacent faces of the bricks-blocks, and the grooves are spaced equidistant edges of each face brick, block, forming with mortar when it is freezing zone, encircling each brick block in the longitudinal and transverse planes joining adjacent faces with niches bricks-blocks milestone, zabutovochnyh and adjacent rows form a closed mortar belts insulating hollow, flat square vertical chambers, respectively parallel or stretcher bond stretcher sides brick, block, resulting in all inner faces with recesses bricks-blocks and all the walls are protected from the cold flow penetrating through the mortar bridges hall is Yes."

A new way of homogeneous masonry walls in half, one, half, two, etc. hollow porous ceramic brick-block with ligation of each row of the wall provides:

- stiffness and tightness of the wall like a dry masonry of the pyramid;

- uniform transfer of load on all ceramic elements and masonry zone of each brick, block and series wall;

- creation of accumulating heat, closed additional air chambers in each row of masonry, at the expense of NIS bricks-blocks, closed between a vertical longitudinal seams adjacent the milestone and zabutovochnyh series;

connection of adjacent bricks-blocks and stretcher bond milestone and zabutovochnyh series wall between the surrounding mortar belts, eliminating "cold bridges";

- saving of masonry mortar more than 5% of the volume of constructed walls;

- get more heat-sealed air chambers, at the expense of stretcher bond adjacent faces with recesses in the clutch milestone and zabutovochnyh series, thereby increasing thermal resistance of the wall two bricks to 3.2

m2C/W;

- provides steam and air permeability of the wall and in the room - the required temperature and humidity conditions at any time of the year.

The claimed technical solution is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 - General view of the cavity-on the East of ceramic brick unit in a perspective view;

Figure 2 - General view of the rectangular hollow porous ceramic brick block in the plan;

Figure 3 - cross section a-a rectangular hollow porous ceramic brick-block;

4 is a General view of the square hollow porous ceramic brick-block;

5 is a cross section along B-B square hollow porous ceramic brick-block;

6 - the wall one brick-block;

7 - the masonry walls half brick-block;

Fig - masonry walls in two brick-block;

Fig.9 is a section on In-In masonry walls in one brick-block;

Figure 10 is a top view of the wall in one brick-block;

11 is a section along y-Y along the wall in one brick-block;

Fig - coupling four bricks-blocks.

Hollow porous ceramic brick block in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped contains pastel face 1, stretcher bond faces 2, bonder faces 3 and two parts 4 and 5 construction-heat system, separated by a transverse, Central ceramic jumper 6. Every part 4 and 5 structural-thermal insulation composite system contains the main square cavities 7 and additional cavities 8, separated by an internal jumper 9 is offset from adjacent jumpers in a checkerboard pattern. Additional cavities 8 rectangular triangular cross-section are located respectively at the edges of the inner stretcher bond gr is it 2 and stretcher faces 3 by the separating crosspiece 6. All cavities 7, 8 formed ceramic faces of the two pairs of perpendicularly intersecting partitions 10 and the additional cavities 8 and even the inner edges of the walls 4 of brick and separating jumper 6. All cavities 7, 8 are oriented relative to the header and stretcher sides so that the diagonal 11 square cavities 7 and hypotenuse 12 additional voids 8 are placed across the heat flux 13, as part of the bonder faces 3 and stretcher bond side faces 2 and in the adjacent rows of these voids are interleaved relative to the outer wall and dividing jumpers: one row contains only three main square of emptiness 7 with the ridges 9, another series contains two main cavities 7 and two on the edges of fixing cavities 8, and the edges of each piece construction-heat system and along the inner walls bonder faces and separating the jumpers are located respectively on three additional cavities 8. In addition, on the surface of each face, except for one stretcher bond faces are equidistant from the edges of the recessed grooves 14 (2, 11, 12) in the form of problemsof under mortar covering belts 15 (Fig 3 and 4) around the perimeter of each brick block in the transverse and longitudinal direction. These two grooves 14 are held on the surface of the separating jumpers 6 and its distance from its Central axis on both sides.

In addition, one is C, the header of the sides of the brick includes two square niches 16 (1, 3), depth in the body of the brick. Pastel face 1 brick-block perform without niches, but necessarily grind to perform under GOST tolerances raznesennost and non-parallelism.

Hollow porous ceramic brick-block, made in the form of a square (Figure 4, 5)has the structural-heat a structure similar to a hollow ceramic brick block in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, with the only difference that there are two jumpers 6, dividing it into four equal parts, in which the header face 2 has two niches 16 (1, 3, 4), and on one of the separating crosspiece parallel to the stretcher bond faces in each of its parts are made by two slit-like voids 17 (Figure 4, 5), divided between a bridge 18 and equidistant from the bonder of the parties and from the transverse axis dividing the jumpers, and each vertical void 17 separated by an internal jumper 19 into two equal opposite cell.

Rectangular hollow porous ceramic brick-block in a pair of square hollow porous ceramic brick block provide a new way of homogeneous masonry walls, which is as follows.

Masonry walls start with the outer corner of two adjacent walls forming external milestone of some of the main rectangular hollow porous brick-block is thus his stretcher bond side 2 without niches are rotated out of the right wall, and bonder 3 - out adjacent wall. Laying the first row (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) the walls are produced on solid ground pastel masonry mortar, with no gaps between adjacent faces of ordinary bricks, blocks, controlling the straightness and horizontal position of the top surface of laying the first row of the wall. Then, using a hand-screw extruder, make under the pressure of masonry mortar in vertical holes 15 (figure 10, 11, 12)formed interlocked between adjacent grooves 14 adjacent faces of ordinary bricks-blocks, and then entered masonry mortar in the longitudinal and transverse pastel grooves 14 (Figure 10, 12) of the upper faces of the first row, then are forming and laying the second row, etc. Must follow strict coincidence encircling zones 15 (furrows with solution) (Figures 9, 10, 11, 12) adjacent bricks-blocks milestone and between them zabutovochnyh rows of masonry and the wall in General, any thickness.

Laying one brick-block (6) perform alternating adjacent rows: one row contains two milestone number 21 of the main rectangular hollow porous ceramic bricks, blocks, and the second one milestone of a number of additional square hollow porous ceramic brick, block 22.

Masonry half brick-block (7) perform alternating adjacent rows, so that one adjacent row contains one outer mile 21 and the second internal extra mile 22, and the second adjacent row contains the opposite: one internal basic mile 21 and the second outer extra mile 22.

Clutch two brick-block (Fig) perform alternating adjacent rows, so that one adjacent row contains two main milestone of some of the main brick-block 2 and one between them for more zabutovochnyh a number of additional brick-block 22, and the second adjacent row contains two additional milestone number of additional brick-block 22.

When the adjacent masonry walls should be positioned in the primary and secondary adjacent bricks-blocks so that their stretcher bond side of 2 recesses 16 were inside the walls.

When the ligation bricks-blocks and longitudinal milestone and zabutovochnyh between rows, brick-block separating their jumpers 6 structural-thermal insulation composite system overlaps the abutting faces (Figures 9, 11) above and the underlying adjacent bricks-blocks and rows of masonry so that the transverse bonder the verge of joining them are under and over a continuous transverse separating crosspiece 6, containing voids 17 with an internal jumper 19. Macroscale between the faces are blocked by the mi with two sides, a solid separates the ridges 6, and stretcher bond between adjacent faces on the contrary, open, connected cells slit-like voids 17 (Figures 9, 11).

This sequence and feature brickwork provides education inside the wall, cold masonry mortar in the furrows, encircling each brick is a block of zones associated with a similar zones of adjacent rows, which, together with the surfaces of the faces of the recesses 16 and a flat slit-like cavities 17 separating jumper 6 adjacent bricks-blocks form an additional, air, thermal insulation, heat storage, flat, vertical, closed chamber over the entire height of masonry wall (Fig.9).

Thus, a versatile hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of homogeneous walls and the method of its masonry, high adaptability, low bulk density, high economic efficiency, applicable for the construction of low-rise residential buildings in all climate conditions.

1. Hollow porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of homogeneous walls containing side header and stretcher faces, internal structural thermal insulation structure, made of longitudinal and transverse sides and parallel to the stretcher bond faces several rows of through cavities, consisting of the main slit-like blank is t, located offset relative to each other in adjacent rows on half of their length, and additional, end-to-end cavities located on opposite ends of these rows and separated from each other along the length of the number of jumpers, characterized in that it is made from clay with additives by volume to 10% of the burnable fined charcoal or sifted peat, or sawdust and up to 20% of wood or TPP ash; structural-thermal insulation structure is deployed relative to the header and stretcher faces at 45° and is divided lengthwise into two equal parts ceramic strap passing across the header and in parallel bonder faces, each part is made from the ranks of the main square cavities, separated from each other by ceramic walls intersecting at an angle of 90°, each square main and additional voids are also divided according to the depth of two cell ceramic jumper located offset relative to the jumper interconnecting voids and an inner wall and a plane parallel to the two pairs of edges that intersect at an angle of 90°, the partitions forming on the inner perimeter of each part, in each row, rectangular, triangular fixing cavities, the length of the hypotenuse of each triangular fixing side is equal to the diagonal of the square main emptiness; emptiness oriented Rel the relatively header and stretcher faces of the brick-block so what is the diagonal of the square voids and hypotenuse of additional voids placed across the heat flow from the side of the header, and the header faces, and in the adjacent rows of these cavities are offset from each other by half their diagonal and alternate as follows: one row contains only three main square of emptiness, another set contains two square voids and two additional cavities at the edges on the bonder inner edge and the wall separating the jumpers are three more additional cavities, and one stretcher bond face includes two square niches.

2. Hollow porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of a homogeneous wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of each of its facets, but one of stretcher bond, executed under furrow mortar, as problemsof equidistant from its edges, and each furrow docked along the edges of the faces of the other grooves located on the surfaces of adjacent faces and forming two longitudinal closed zone, parallel vertical stretcher bond edges, two transverse belt, parallel vertically bonder sides, the perimeter separating jumper structural-thermal insulation composite system, one stretcher bond faces of each brick-block made two niches, equidistant from the bonder and pastel faces and from the centre of Adelaide jumpers heat patterns.

3. Hollow porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of a homogeneous wall according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it can be executed in the form of a square, and structural thermal insulation structure is provided by two separate jumpers, passing through the center perpendicular to each other and its outer faces, one of which, parallel stretcher bond faces in each of its parts are made by two slit-like voids separated by jumper and equidistant from the bonder of the parties and from the transverse axis dividing the jumpers, and each vertical emptiness separated by an internal jumper on the two equal opposite cell.

4. How homogeneous masonry walls of hollow porous ceramic brick-block in one and a half, two or more bricks, including the formation of the bottom horizontal row of the wall, then the formation of the next row by binding of the first row of wall mortar adjacent faces of the bricks-blocks between themselves and with the laid bricks-blocks of the first row and so forth, characterized in that the walls do with a single stretcher bond orientation of all of the longitudinal rows, with a single dimensional ligation mezhramnyh cracks, bricks, blocks, milestone, zabutovochnyh and adjacent rows is a multiple of half the length of the rectangular hollow porous ceramic brick-Blo is a, with a single combination of all ceramic and hollow pastel structural elements-heat patterns below and overlying bricks, blocks, masonry first base number of walls perform from the corner of two adjacent walls at the mortar, ground or Foundation, solid pastel end-to-end, with permissible gap between the adjacent vertical edges, installed between a bricks-blocks, subject to the horizontal position and straightness of the upper bedding plane of the entire series, and the coincidence of the longitudinal and transverse grooves, covering every brick-block of the first row of the wall; then fill mortar vertical cavity of the first row formed by adjacent grooves at their dock among themselves, then fill the upper horizontal pastel furrow, a complete profile of the ellipse of the first row, mortar, using the extrusion device; forming a second series make hand loading with dressing on top pastel first row of masonry with filled with a solution furrows.

5. How homogeneous masonry walls of hollow porous ceramic brick-block according to claim 4, characterized in that the wall thickness of one and a half, two or more bricks-blocks are made of alternating adjacent rows: the first row contains two milestone of some of the main rectangular Cyrus the ICHA-block, and the second one of the milestone of the number of square ceramic brick, block, masonry half brick-block perform alternating adjacent rows, so that one adjacent row contains one mile from the main rectangular brick-block and the second internal mile from the square brick block, and the second adjacent row contains the opposite: one internal main square mile and second outer mile from square bricks-block; clutch two brick-block perform alternating adjacent rows, so that one adjacent row contains two milestone of some of the main rectangular brick-block and one zabutovochnyh of square bricks-block, and the second adjacent row contains two milestone number of square bricks-block.

6. How homogeneous masonry walls of hollow porous ceramic brick-block according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that the walls of any thickness receive additional miraglia heat chamber, which is formed by clamping the adjacent niches bricks-blocks, due to the clamping of adjacent cells flat vertical voids separating jumpers square brick, block, due to the clamping of the cell structural-thermal structures adjacent bricks-blocks.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial construction materials, and more specifically to double-layer structures and method of making such structures, particularly non-sparking double-layer tiles, meant or covering floors in category A and B fire safety buildings. The non-sparking double-layer tile is in form of a concrete monolithic body with a face layer, which has a regular or irregular geometrical shape, where material for both layers is a mixture, used in semi-dry state, containing, wt %: composition of the mixture of the base layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 20.55 to 22.78, construction sand with particle size 5 mm with fineness modulus of not less than 2.4 72.89 to 75.34, Poliplast MB-1 0.20-0.30, water - the rest; composition of the mixture of the face layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 23.98 to 26.19, limestone in form of sand from siftings from crushing sedimentary rocks with strength grade of at least 400 with particle size 2 to 4 mm and fineness module of not less than 2.4 69.84-71.94, Poliplast MB-1 0.23 to 0.30, water - the rest, where the face layer has thickness of not less than 10 mm. The method of making the said tile involves preparation of each of the said mixtures with moisture content of 6-8% in mixers by successive loading the given filler, additive, portlant cement, stirring dry components for 30 to 60 s, then, while stirring, adding water and continue to stir the mixture for the base layer for 30 to 40 s, and the mixture for the face layer - for 2 minutes, placing the mixture for the base layer into a mould, preliminary compacting with light vibration or ramming without vibration, placing the mixture for the face layer on top of the compacted base layer, final compacting with vibrocompression for 20 to 23 s of the said mixtures and solidification in a steam curing chamber at temperature of 40°C, moisture 95 to 100 % and rate of increase and decrease of temperature not more than 25°C/h. Invention is developed in subclaims.

EFFECT: increased compression and bending strength, reduced wearability.

4 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl

Masonry unit // 2358071

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: masonry unit consists of a lightweight block with face being coated with decorative-protective layer. The vertical grooves are made on lightweight block face during forming. The face of block is implemented with a plate, which is glued leak tightly to the said block after solidification or represents pigment stained layer of highly strong concrete mix as forming open-end vertical channels in masonry unit parallel to block face.

EFFECT: wide functional applications of masonry unit due to increase gas permeability.

7 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: construction block with fixing element for mortarless brickwork consists of an open-end hole and rod for block fixing. The fixing element is represented with triangular eyes mounted on block and an open end hole made in the block for rods hammered inside. The eyes are welded to the block framework rods according to the block size and along its axes. The distance between rods is half of the block length. The block framework is placed to the half of the block length, while the holes are arranged so that eyes could be placed in front of them when block is put above the other one, and top point of the eye could be above the frame rod.

EFFECT: improved effectiveness of erection building and dismantling.

11 dwg

Masonry unit // 2352733

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in production of lime-sand and ceramic bricks, and also hollow blocks made of foam concrete and other mixes. Masonry unit has partitions in bed sides and through cavities of rectangular section. Heat insulation inserts made of cane fiber or cork plates are tightly installed in cavities. Cavities on both sides are closed by metal covers. Blind cavities are arranged in section in the form of truncated cone, their lower wider part is pneumatically communicated with its vertical holes to atmosphere. Ratio of unit wall thickness δw to width δc of cavity makes 0.9÷1.3. Ratio of partition thickness δp to thickness of unit wall δw makes 0.8÷1.0. Ratio of outlet opening diameter doo of blind cavity to diameter of its wider part dwp makes 1:2.

EFFECT: higher strength of wall made of suggested masonry unit, and increased heat engineering properties.

4 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: block used for building of wall that is made of several similar blocks overlapped in a staggered manner without gaps. Block is made in the form of an element with longitudinal profile and has top surface, bottom surface and two side surfaces. Generally, cross section of block is made in the form of a cavity broadening downwards. On top surface of block there is longitudinal centre protrusion that rises above sides of the surface so that left-handed supporting slope and right-handed supporting slope are formed. Construction of top and bottom surfaces is provided so that when a block is being overlapped with a similar block from below for the purpose of wall building, top surface of lower block is connected to bottom surface of upper block, and left-handed and right-handed supporting slopes are used as blocking elements for mutual blocking of vertical adjacent blocks. Blocks are of such shape and size that at vertical joining of three similar blocks, vertical distance from top of protrusion of the lowest block to bottom of the highest block turns out to be less than 1/3 of height of one block. There described as well is a group of blocks for wall building, and wall built of such blocks.

EFFECT: preventing leakages in walls used in underground structures, wall water retaining, and preventing soil washing out.

18 cl, 103 dwg

Brick // 2344245

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, mainly to brick production technologies and may be used for the brick development and production and for construction of different brick buildings. The brick contains through hollows between opposite surfaces and, at least one hollow orifice area is made variable along the hollow length. The above hollow includes, at least, two sections where hollow orifice area decreases to the minimum value of the orifice size at this section, and increases to the maximum value of the hollow orifice at this section.

EFFECT: improved brick heat exchange with the environment during drying, annealing and cooling.

8 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 21 dwg

FIELD: security facilities.

SUBSTANCE: according to the first version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure based on composite plates can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected and comprises low-density basalt-fibrous material layer, adhesive interlayer and heat-resistant protective-decorative plate which are sequentially adjacent to the above surface. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers are chosen so that to provide for evaporation of water containing in the outer layer and adhesive interlayer, diffusion of the produced water vapour into the inner basalt-fibrous layer and under further heating evaporation of moisture condensed on the fibres surface, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface. According to the second version the proposed sandwich fire protective structure can be fixed on the surface of the facility being protected with an air gap. The adhesive interlayer is made from heat-expanding material which is characterised by sooting when heated. Thicknesses and materials of the structure layers in this version are chosen so that to provide for precipitation of carbon particles on the inner layer fibres surface resulting from cracking of hydrocarbons which are included into the composition of the products of thermal decomposition of the adhesive interlayer organic or polymer part and for formation of an additional layer of foam coke resulting from thermal decomposition and swelling of the adhesive interlayer containing thermally expanding graphite, in case of fire attack or non-stationary heating of the structure outer layer surface . Fire protective structure layers are made with the consideration of physical effects appearing under heating and leading to the alteration of the adjacent layers composition; this fact allows blocking of radiant-convection heat flow coming from the flame to the surface of the facility being protected.

EFFECT: increasing up to the specified level fire resistance ratings of supporting and enveloping building structures primarily in high-rise buildings.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to heat-insulating constructions. Heat-insulating block element consists of internal air-proof shell made from flexible material, and external air-permeable shell that protects internal shell from damage. External element shell has areas where it is firmly connected with internal shell as well as areas wherein there is no firm connection of external and internal shells. External shell is made, fully or partially, from air-permeable material at the location of latter areas; total external surface of internal shell equals or exceeds total internal surface of external shell. Internal cavity of air-proof shell is filled with gas and/or heat-insulating material capable of reversible deformation. Method of manufacturing heat-insulating enclosure from heat-insulating block elements is described.

EFFECT: reducing material consumption, improving enclosure heat-insulating characteristics, and providing possibility to produce heat-insulating enclosure of any configuration.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry and can be used for producing prefabricated constructions from separate modular units, and mainly from wood. Modular building block is made from wood in the form of rectangular parallelepiped with connecting elements and grooves provided on mating ends. Key grooves are made on block longitudinal ends parallel to those ends, and two mutually perpendicular key grooves parallel to those ends are provided on block end faces. Connecting elements are made in the form of keys, the cross section configuration of which complies with cross section configuration of key grooves.

EFFECT: producing easy-to-manufacture and easy-to-transport modular building block which can be connected with other same blocks, thus forming solid pre-fabricated constructions within the wide size range and of any configuration.

1 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to multi-layer construction blocks used during erection of building and construction walls, and can also be used mostly for storing light gases, e.g. hydrogen which is used as fuel in hydrogen power engineering. Storage construction block consists of solid concrete casing with external concrete layer and porous centre portion. Block is equipped with metal reservoir and gas-distributing device with supply/discharge tube and two connections. Metal reservoir is located in porous centre portion, and tube is installed in external concrete layer. One connection of gas-distributing device is directed inside metal reservoir, and the other one is directed inside porous centre portion.

EFFECT: enhancement of functional capabilities and operating properties of storage construction block.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: inventions are related to the field of construction and may be used in enterprises making construction materials, and also in individual and industrial construction in erection of walls and foundations, and also in arrangement of dams, coffer dams, fortification structures, etc., especially in emergency conditions. Package for packing of dry construction mixes, comprising shell and insert. Shell is made as moisture-proof, and insert - as moisture-permeable, at the same time insert is made with the possibility to take shape of rectangular parallelepiped when filled, ribs of which are preliminarily marked, and one of insert facets has a marking modular grid. Also construction element is described, as well as method for application of construction materials.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of construction due to expansion of functional and technological resources of flexible construction elements.

4 cl, 8 dwg

Method of masonry // 2346117

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, namely to methods of walls erection. Method of masonry that stipulates for binding of construction element adjacent sides by masonry mortar and thus shaping lower horizontal row of wall, further formation of other above-located horizontal rows of wall with bonding by means of construction element adjacent facets binding by masonry mortar from the ones laid in every horizontal row located below, and from other construction elements that form the new horizontal row, with the possibility to form heat accumulating hollows between facets of construction elements of neighboring rows. Besides after formation of every horizontal row of wall, at first rows of strings are placed on this row on top along its length, parallel to erected wall, and masonry mortar is applied in strips above every row of strings, thus forming longitudinal channels parallel to wall on surfaces of horizontal rows from construction elements between rows of strings, and the channels form chambers of heat accumulating cavities inside the wall during masonry mortar hardening between joined surfaces of neighboring horizontal rows of construction elements.

EFFECT: provision of heat-shielding properties of erected wall and masonry manufacturability, reduction of erected wall thickness and lower consumption of masonry mortar.

4 cl, 1 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the sphere of construction and may be employed in brick work of walls of small cellular-concrete blocks performed on thin layer mortar (adhesive mixture) with 1-3 mm seam thickness. Brickwork of walls of small cellular-concrete blocks is made on thin layer mortar (adhesive mixture) with seam thickness of 1-3 mm. Brickwork includes also reinforcing rods set in the slots. Slots are arranged in the blocks in the level of horizontal seams of the brickwork and are filled in with concrete or mortar. Reinforcing rods press glass-net to the bottom of the slots. Glass-net is set in the thin layer mortar and covers the entire horizontal surface of the brickwork seams.

EFFECT: increased bearing capacity of the brickwork of the walls of small cellular-concrete blocks.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: external wall of cottage that contains protective layer from fine-sized blocks, medium layer of aerated concrete and internal layer of sheet materials joined to protective layer. It is provided with monolithic reinforced concrete frame arranged in the form of columns row inside the wall on building foundation, which are connected to each other with monolithic reinforced concrete belt along building perimeter in the form of flat plates that embrace columns and have reinforcing projections passing through column reinforcing carcass, and having cavities of diamond and triangle shape filled with thermal inserts from heat insulating material, at that width of plates is equal to the total thickness of the wall.

EFFECT: increase of strength, provision of possibility to erect buildings directly in construction site, reduction of costs with simultaneous provision of strength and convenience.

4 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to low-rise and cottage construction with application of multi-layer construction blocks that meet the highest requirements to decorative outside lining of buildings, heat and sound insulation of premises, for instance, prefabricated residential buildings, cottages and other structures. Building wall assembled from set of different construction blocks that consists of row, angular and intermediate blocks that are installed in rows, joined to each other in a certain manner and fixed between each other. Every block consists of decorative layer, bearing layer and heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. Angular blocks are provided of two types, at that the first type is arranged with L-shaped location of decorative and heat insulating layers that project with their one end to the side facet of the block, and with its other end - to the back facet of the block, at that bearing layer is made as shortened with one end that projects to side facet of the block, and the other end that joins to short shelf of heat insulating layer, and length of front layer of angular block short shelf is selected as equal to block thickness. The second type of angular unit is arranged with L-shaped location of bearing and heat insulating layers that project with their one end to the side facet of the block, and with its other end - to the front facet of the block, at that decorative layer is shortened with one end that projects to the side facet of the block, and the other end that joins to the short shelf of heat insulating layer, and length of bearing layer of the angular block short shelf is selected as equal to the block thickness. Intermediate blocks are installed in the zone of window and door openings of the wall and are provided of three types, at that the first type of intermediate blocks is arranged with stepped side facet formed with projecting decorative layer, and side link that connects bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them in stepped side facet, and the second type of intermediate blocks is arranged as shortened in length that is multiple to half of block length from the side of its front facet, and the third type of intermediate blocks is arranged with stepped side facets that are formed by projecting decorative layer, and side links that connect bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on both stepped side facets. Method is also described for erection of building wall.

EFFECT: simplification of construction blocks design in set and technology of wall erection with observance of all required technical and technological parameters, optimisation of number of blocks in set, increase of masonry strength characteristics and reduction of construction cost.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of building walls having necessary thermal resistance for different usage environment.

SUBSTANCE: building member is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped provided with slots made in building member faces. Each building member face surface has relief projections forming parallel ridges with slots to be filled with mortar. Each ridge is joined with other ridges formed on surfaces of adjacent faces along ridge edges so that united ridge is created around building member perimeter. The united ridge has longitudinal section parallel to one vertical face. Each face surface has at least two parallel ridges spaced equal distances from face edges. Wall erection method is also disclosed.

EFFECT: provision of uniform strength, improved manufacturability, increased heat-shielding properties of wall to be erected along with increased technological efficiency of the masonry, decreased wall thickness and decreased mortar usage.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg

FIELD: FIELD: construction, particularly to erect building and building structure walls of separate block rows.

SUBSTANCE: wall panel consists of blocks laid in rows and reinforcement. Each block comprises longitudinal sides and X-shaped partitions, which define cavities filled with structural and heat-insulation materials. The panel is constituted of vertical tier block rows, wherein at least two block rows located one adjacent another in horizontal plane are provided with at least one reinforcement bar in longitudinal direction and with anchors in transversal direction. Reinforcement bars and anchors are secured in cavities of adjacent blocks forming tier rows, wherein the cavities are filled with structural material.

EFFECT: increased heat insulation quality, output and assemblage capacity, decreased construction time and enhanced conditions of work.

1 cl, 2 dwg

Wall panel // 2296197

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect building and building structure walls of separate hollow blocks.

SUBSTANCE: wall panel consists of blocks laid in rows and reinforcement. Each block comprises longitudinal sides and X-shaped partitions, which define cavities filled with structural material in staggered order. Blocks are connected with each other in horizontal plane with at least one reinforcement frame having reinforcement bars connected with each other by means of structural material in crossing points thereof.

EFFECT: increased wall panel quality, improved labor productivity, decreased construction time and enhanced conditions of work.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly composite and cast-in-place building erection, for outer load-bearing structure heat insulation due to elimination of cold penetration through joints of reinforced concrete floor structure with load-bearing walls and/or columns.

SUBSTANCE: envelope wall structure includes end surfaces of load-bearing members arranged between cast-in-place reinforced concrete floor panels and blocks fastened one to another with concrete and arranged between floor panels. The structure also has heat insulation. The blocks project outwards with respect to end surfaces of load-bearing members for a distance of not less than 1/6 of block width. The heat insulation is arranged in depressions. Depression walls are defined in vertical direction by end projected surfaces of blocks and load-bearing members and in horizontal direction by lower and upper projected surfaces of blocks and end surfaces of reinforced concrete floor panels.

EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced costs of wall envelope structure, increased thermal properties and elimination of cold joints between floor structure and load-bearing walls.

3 cl, 3 dwg

Building system // 2263747

FIELD: building unit production.

SUBSTANCE: building system comprises building units with fixing members made as extensions and depressions. Building units are formed as sectors arranged in horizontal plane and forming a circle. The sectors may be added in length in vertical direction. Centers of fixing members are located on concentric circle and spaced equal distances one from another. Some sectors facing circle centre form cylindrical cavity for fastening rod receiving during system lengthening.

EFFECT: simplified building unit transportation, reduced material consumption, increased convenience of system installation in confined area.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly outer load-bearing walling structures of buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: building wall formed of small building members comprises outer and inner layers and metal inserts. The wall additionally has vertical stiffening diaphragm plates. Metal inserts have Z-shaped cross-sections and are periodically spaced along wall plane. Flanges of the inserts are arranged in inner and outer wall layers correspondingly so that vertical middle face works in shear and folded flanges located on masonry plate work in crush. Metal inserts unite inner and outer wall layers along stiffening diaphragm plates in single structure.

EFFECT: increased wall maintainability and reliability of cooperation between masonry members.

2 cl, 15 dwg

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