Method to control and adjust one-bucket excavator drive load in operating conditions and device to this end

FIELD: mining machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining machinery DC drives operated at lower temperatures and variable loads. Proposed adjustment method comprises monitoring control system malfunction via determination of electric drive time constants and generation of feedback signal, which allows decreasing motor RPM in case control system malfunctions. Proposed device incorporates drive component active parametre pickups, data acquisition and processing device, indication device and operator electronic key.

EFFECT: reduced dynamic loads at lower temperatures and control system malfunction.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the control of electrical drives of the main mechanisms shovel excavator on a Generator-motor, and can be used in other DC drives of mining machines and mechanisms operating in conditions of low temperatures and variable nature of the load.

It is known that the excavators at mining enterprises operate in conditions of influence of significant external and internal factors destabilizing the operation of the machine. The main external factors are significant fluctuations in the ambient temperature and the variable nature of the load in the process of digging. These factors affect the nature of the loading of the operating equipment, the magnitude of the dynamic load and determine the increase in the number of failures in the winter in 1,5-2 times [Kuhinje B.C. operation of the quarry mining and transport equipment in the North. - M.: Publishing house of Moscow state mining University. 2002. - 243 S.: ill. page 13, second paragraph above]. In addition, the temperature changes in a wide range leads to a change in the parameters of the power part of the drive, control system parameters, detuning, the deterioration of the quality of regulation and, as a consequence, additional dynamic load of the actuator, and metal working equipment in PR is in the process of digging. Loads that act in transient regimes are dynamic.

In excavating the DC drive limit dynamic load is achieved by limiting the current (torque) of the engine and its automatic regulation in function of the temperature of the metal of the machine.

Known way to control DC electric shovel excavator implemented in the device as the USSR №1416625, INC4 02F 9/20, the control Unit electric shovel excavator /Auth. the invention Warclient, Iverboat, Deano, Ehitushinna, Uhazherov, Aiedam and Vsav/published 15.08.88,, bull.№30. The control method includes the start-up, reversing, speed control of a drive motor mechanism in accordance with the technology of excavation, shutdown, and automatic current control (torque) locking drive motor mechanism in the function of a complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and speed changes of these values.

Signs consistent with the essential features of the proposed method are: start-up, reversing, speed control of the engine in accordance with the technology of excavation, stop, control point locking drive motor mechanism.

the Disadvantage of this method and device is the large magnitude of the dynamic load mode locking and the deterioration of the filling of the bucket during the digging of when the locking of the dynamic loads are determined primarily by the reserve of kinetic energy, and it is when the work is proportional to the square of the speed of movement and little depends on the current (torque) braking of the motor mechanism. At lower current (torque) braking worsens the filling of the bucket during the digging, especially during low speed movement of the bucket, as the moments developed by the engines of the mechanisms of head and lifting, are also reduced.

In addition, changes in the ambient temperature causes the change of the drive parameters and the detuning of the control system and thus increase the dynamic component of the boot drive and work equipment excavator.

Known way to control DC electric shovel excavator, selected as a prototype (patent RU 2255184 C1 IPC7E02F 9/20, H02P 5/00 /Auth. patent Set, Avicularin, Deano, Asianism, Mavaw/, publ. 27.06.2005,). The control method includes an additional control point locking control motor excitation current simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the speed reference of the motor and the speed control of the motor function of a complex parameter that takes into account the level of negative temperature machine metal wind load and speed changes of these values.

The characteristics of the prototype method, coinciding with the essential features of the proposed method are: start-up, reversing, speed control of the engine in accordance with the technology of excavation, the regulation point locking drive motor mechanism, and regulation of the time of locking is performed by regulating the excitation current of a drive motor mechanism for simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of velocity.

The disadvantage of the prototype method is that when the temperature of the ambient air within wide limits change the settings in the system control and power section of the drive that leads to a detuning of the control system and the deterioration of the quality of regulation, increasing dynamic component loading drive and work equipment excavator.

A device copyright certificate №1416625 (SU # 1416625, INC4 02F 9/20, the control Unit electric shovel excavator /Auth. the invention Warclient, Iverboat, Deano, Ehitushinna, Uhazherov, Aiedam and Vsav/published 15.08.88,, bull.№30), in which the control modes is performed using the function block, the output of which is connected through parallel connected EMF regulator and link constraints to the current regulator, which is connected with PR is the Creator, connected to the drive motor mechanism, and shaper of the complex signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, which is connected to the control input of the link constraint.

Signs of a device similar, coinciding with the essential features of the claimed device are: the drum, the output of which is connected through parallel connected EMF regulator and link constraints to the current regulator, which is connected to the Converter, connected to the drive motor mechanism.

The disadvantages of the device-similar due to the fact that the change of the ambient temperature leads to a change of the drive parameters and the detuning of the control system, the origin of oscillations of current and torque, and thus increase the dynamic component of the load actuator and operating equipment.

For the prototype accepted, the control unit DC electric shovel excavator (patent RU 2255184 C1 IPC702F 9/20, NR 5/00 /Auth. patent Set, Avicularin, Deano, Asianism, Mavaw/, publ. 27.06.2005,), in which the control modes is performed using the function block, the output of which is connected through parallel connected EMF regulator and the link og is anichini to the current regulator, which is connected to the Converter, connected to the drive motor mechanism, and shaper of the complex signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, which is connected with the second controller input EMF.

In the device according to patent RU 2255184 added unit maximum motor excitation current and excitation current controller of the engine, the output of which is connected to a source of controlling the excitation current of the motor, the unit loosen the motor excitation current, the input connected to the output of the controller, and the output unit attenuation of the excitation current of the motor is connected with the second input of the regulator motor excitation current, the first input of which is connected to the output of the generator maximum excitation current of the motor, and the driver integrated signal, taking into account the level of negative temperature metal machine, wind load and the rate of change of these quantities, which is connected with the second controller input EMF.

Signs consistent with the essential features of the claimed device are: the drum, EMF regulator with link constraints, the regulator armature current of the motor, the excitation current controller of the engine.

In the prototype, due to regulation the Finance excitation current is inversely proportional to the target speed of the engine, is regulated by the time of braking of the motor. In addition, depending on the ambient temperature decreases the maximum speed of the engine. All this provides the reduction of dynamic loads in the drive.

However, the drawback of the prototype is that significant variations low temperatures, the control system parameters change. Is the detuning of the control circuits and, as a consequence, the occurrence of fluctuations in the current and torque of the motor mechanisms of the excavator, which increases the dynamic component of load actuators and operating equipment excavator in operating modes.

The technical result of the proposed method and device is to reduce the dynamic load of the drive and work equipment excavator in operating modes with significant fluctuations of low temperatures and the detuning of the control system.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of monitoring and controlling the boot drive shovel excavator in operating conditions, including start-up, reversing, speed control of the engine in accordance with the technology of excavation, the regulation of the time of braking of a drive motor of the mechanism of regulation of the motor excitation current simultaneously obratno in proportion to the magnitude of the speed of the engine, according to the invention additionally they control the detuning of the control definition of the time constant circuit of the voltage generator circuit armature current of the motor, and the electromagnetic constant of excitation circuit of the generator, the electromagnetic constant of armature circuit of the motor, comparing them with the corresponding setting values of time constants and form the feedback signal provides a decrease in motor speed when the detuning of the control system, and determining the time constant is performed by applying a sinusoidal voltage reference in a control system of electric drive before you begin and during the process stops excavator with a frequency lower cutoff frequency amplitudeaccuracy characteristics of the most inertial element, and amplitude, providing the armature current of the motor is less than the current start the engine, and measurement in static mode input voltage of the i-th link in the moments of time when the current i-th element equal to zero and the maximum, thus determining the time constant is conducted according to the following mathematical expression:

Ti=(Ui=0/Ui=imax)·Tcwhere

Ti- the time constant of the i-th element of the actuator;

Ui=0- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the electric drive when the DC link current, ravnopol;

Ui=imax- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the actuator at a current level equal to the maximum;

Tc- period of the sinusoidal voltage reference in the system of electric drive control.

Control the detuning of the control systems for a variety of reasons, including due to significant fluctuations of low temperatures, and the formation of a feedback signal, provides a decrease in motor speed when the detuning of the control system allows to reduce the stock of the kinetic energy of all moving masses, which is proportional to the square of the speed, and, consequently, to reduce the dynamic component of the boot drive.

Control the detuning of the control system by measuring the time constant of the links of the loop voltage generator circuit armature current of the motor, the electromagnetic time constant of excitation circuit of the generator, the electromagnetic time constant of armature circuit of the motor provides control of the entire system drive in all modes of operation, as the time constants are complex structural parameters of the links of the drive which does not depend on the operation mode, and depend only on changes of the parameters determining the time constant value.

Determination of time constants by applying a sinusoidal voltage is adania in the control system of electric drive before you begin excavator and during technological breaks with a fixed frequency, the lower frequency cutoff amplitudeaccuracy characteristics of the most inertial element, and amplitude, providing the armature current of the motor is less than the current start of the engine, and measurement in static mode input voltage level at time when the DC link current is zero and the maximum, and the determination of time constants on the proposed algorithm allows the control of a technical condition in the same initial conditions of the actuator, allowing unambiguous determination of time constants.

Forming a feedback signal, provides a decrease in motor speed when the detuning of the control system reduces the supply of kinetic energy in all rotating and moving forward elements of the kinematic chain of the actuator, and hence the dynamic load.

Thus, the proposed method and device limits the operation of the excavator at base speed motor mechanisms upset with the control system, reducing dynamic loads, increasing the resource excavator.

The difference of the proposed method from the prototype is that additionally they control the detuning of the control definition of the time constant circuit of the voltage generator circuit armature current of the motor, and the electromagnetic constant circuit, the excitation is Oia generator, electromagnetic constant of armature circuit of the motor, comparing them with the corresponding setting values of time constants and the formation of a feedback signal, provides a decrease in motor speed when the detuning of the control system, and determining the time constant is performed by applying a sinusoidal voltage reference in a control system of electric drive before you begin and during the process stops excavator with a frequency lower cutoff frequency amplitudeaccuracy characteristics of the most inertial element, and amplitude, providing the armature current of the motor is less than the current start of the engine, and measurement in static mode input voltage of the i-th link in the moments of time when the current i-th element equal to zero and the maximum while the definition of the time constant is conducted according to the following mathematical expression:

Ti=(Ui=0/Ui=imax)·Tcwhere

Ti- the time constant of the i-th element of the actuator;

Ui=0- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the electric drive when the DC link current is zero;

Ui=imax- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the actuator at a current level equal to the maximum;

Tc- period of the sinusoidal voltage reference in the system of electric drive control.

The technical result is achieved at the the device control and regulation of the boot drive shovel excavator in operating conditions, containing sequencer, EMF regulator with link constraints, the regulator armature current of the motor, the voltage regulator of the generator, a source of excitation of the generator, the generator, the motor, the current sensor armature circuit of the motor, the sensor voltage armature circuit of the motor controller motor excitation current, the excitation source engine according to the invention further comprises a sensor excitation current of the generator, the sensor voltage generator excitation system of data collection and processing, including analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), a software MCU core, generator voltage regulator control EMF generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor, the generator voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor, the display device and display, the electronic key of the excavator, and the output controller connected to the first input of the ADC, the output of the controller EMF with link constraints connected with the second ADC, the output of the current regulator is connected to the third input of the ADC, the output of the sensor excitation current of the generator is connected to the fourth input of the ADC, the output of the sensor excitation voltage of the generator is connected to the fifth whodo the ADC, the sensor output current armature circuit of the motor is connected to the sixth input of the ADC, the sensor output voltage of armature circuit of the motor is connected to the seventh input of the ADC, the first controller input EMF with link constraints is connected to the output of the generator voltage regulator control EMF, and the first input of the excitation current controller motor connected to the generator output voltage feedback weakening of the motor excitation current, the second input of the excitation current controller motor connected to the generator output voltage reference maximum current of the motor, and the output of the software core of the microcontroller is connected to the input of display device and display, and electronic key driver of the excavator.

The difference between the claimed device from the prototype is that it further comprises a sensor excitation current of the generator, the sensor voltage generator excitation system of data collection and processing, including analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), a software MCU core, generator voltage regulator control EMF generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor, the generator voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor, the display device and display, the electronic key of the excavator, and the output komandoak is connected to the first input of the ADC, the controller output EMF with link constraints connected with the second ADC, the output of the current regulator is connected to the third input of the ADC, the output of the sensor excitation current of the generator is connected to the fourth input of the ADC, the output of the sensor excitation voltage of the generator is connected to the fifth input of the ADC, the output of the current sensor armature circuit of the motor is connected to the sixth input of the ADC, the sensor output voltage of armature circuit of the motor is connected to the seventh input of the ADC, the first controller input EMF with link constraints is connected to the output of the generator voltage regulator control EMF, and the first input of the excitation current controller motor connected to the generator output voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current the engine, a second controller input excitation current of the motor connected to the generator output voltage reference maximum current of the motor, and the output of the software core of the microcontroller is connected to the input of display device and display, and electronic key driver of the excavator.

The presence sensor excitation current of the generator, sensor excitation voltage of the generator, an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), a software kernel microcontroller, generator voltage regulator control EMF of generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor, the generator voltage and the feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor, display device and display, electronic key of the excavator driver allows control of the drive parameters for the proposed algorithms before starting work and during process interruptions and reduce the motor speed and, therefore, dynamic load when the detuning of the control system.

The new essential features in the proposed method and the device confirms the compliance of the technical solutions of the criterion of "novelty".

In the prior art it is known measurement time constant of the dynamic link method test diagnosis (Mozgalevsky AV, Kalabin VP, Kostandi, Diagnostics of electronic circuits / edited Averageaverage. - Leningrad: Sudostroenie. 1984, str, 176-178). At the entrance of even served sinusoidal effect Bsin(ωt), and the output in certain arbitrarily chosen points in time is fixed in the static mode, the reaction Asin(ωt+φ), and determined the values of the derivatives of input and output signals, then the mathematical expressions define time constants.

This method requires computation of the derivatives of input and output signals, which is a significant disadvantage, as the real differentiation in technical systems related to overcoming the challenges: interference immunity, the stability of the solution is, ensure accuracy.

In the present method, in contrast to the known, the time constant of links carried out as follows. The dynamic link (DZ) is sinusoidal forcing and, in static mode, the measured input voltage DZ at time when the DC link current (output signal DZ) is equal to zero and the maximum, and these values calculated time constant DZ according to the mathematical expression:

Ti=(Ui=0/Ui=imax)·Tcwhere

Ti- the time constant of the i-th element of the actuator;

Ui=0- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the electric drive when the DC link current is zero;

Ui=imax- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the actuator at a current level equal to the maximum;

Tc- period of the sinusoidal voltage reference in the system of electric drive control.

Evidence to confirm the validity of the above mathematical expression to determine the time constant of the i-th element of the actuator is the following.

Let us take as DZ aperiodic link, such as the field winding of the DC generator (system drive Generator-motor"). The equation of electrical equilibrium in the winding can be written in the form:

,

where u=Umsinωt+φ u- the voltage across the coil; i=Imsin(ωt+φi- the current in the circuit of the winding, φuand φi- phase voltage and current (displacement angle).

In the steady state (figure 3) at point a current equal to the maximum value, i.e. i=imaxand the derivative of the current. The resistance value R at the point is defined as:

,

where Ui=imax- the value of the voltage at point a, i.e. when current equal to the maximum.

At point b, the current is zero (ωt+φi)=0, π, 2π... the inductance L at this point will be defined as

Ui=0the voltage at point b, i.e. when the current is zero.

On the other hand

,

as in point b cos(ωt+φi)=1.

Then

The time constant is defined as

,

where Tc=1/ω is the period of the sine wave exposure at the entrance DZ.

Example. Let the measured circuit is established voltage and current defined by the expression

u=Umsin(ωt+φu)=52,5sin(628t+75°C);

i=Imsin(ωt+φi)=7sin(628t+45°).

The resistance value R=6,495 Ohms, and the inductance L=5,97·10-3Mr..

The time constant circuit.

When the current is zero, sin(ωt+φi)=0. Therefore,

ωt+φi=628t+450=0, t=-45/628

i=0=52,5sin[628(-450/628)+750]=52,5sin300=26,25V.

At a current equal to the maximum value of sin(ωt+φi)=1. Therefore,

ωt+φi,=628t+45°=90°, t=45/628

Ui=imax=52,5sin[628(45°/628)+75°]=52,5sin120°=45,W.

The time constant

.

Thus, in the present method, in contrast to the well-known definition of the time constant of the links is another way, namely by applying a sinusoidal voltage to the control system, and the measurement of only one parameter - input voltage level, bypassing the operation of differentiation.

Supply a sinusoidal voltage with a frequency lower cutoff frequency amplitudeaccuracy characteristics (AFC) most of the inertial element, provides a measurement of the time constant at the same time on the initial linear section of the frequency response that defines and high accuracy of measurement.

In the new set of features using a new mathematical apparatus of the inventive method allows to provide a new mechanism for the influence of features on the achievement of the claimed technical result is the reduction of dynamic loads of drive and work equipment excavator in operating modes.

Another mechanism of influence on the achievement of the technical result of the proposed method proves its compliance with the condition of the patent is sposobnosti "inventive step".

The proposed method is implemented by a device that is illustrated a functional block diagram of the inventive device control and regulation of the boot drive shovel excavator in operating conditions is presented in figure 1. Figure 2 presents a graph of the operation algorithm of the microcontroller System of collecting and processing data SOD. Figure 3 presents a graph explaining a method of determining the time constant of the dynamic link.

In tables 1, 2 and 3 presents the beginning, continuation and end, respectively, of the flowchart of the algorithm of data acquisition and processing SOD.

Figure 1 is taken notation:

RESET - external signal forcibly reset the system to its original state, made in the form of a button with a delay of 200 MS (not specified);

1P, 2P, the first and second inputs of the excitation current controller of the engine 10;

1E, 2E, the first and second inputs of the regulator EMF with level 2 restrictions;

U1, U2, ...U7 analog signals to corresponding inputs of an analog-to-digital Converter 14;

U8 - analog signal coming from the output of the generator voltage regulator control EMF 16 at the first input of 1E regulator EMF with level 2 restrictions;

U9 - analog signal coming from the output of the generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor 17 to the second in the ar 2P excitation current controller of the engine 10;

U10 - analog signal coming from the generator output voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor 18 to the first input of 1P excitation current controller of the engine 10.

Figure 2 taken notation:

Di- room electronic key driver;

I, II, III, IV, V, VI - state microcontroller:

I - initial; II - measurement of drive parameters; III - calculation of drive parameters; IV - work; V - technological pause; VI - emergency state;

t - time;

Toptoptimal value of the i-th time constant;

Ti- the current value of the i-th time constant.

Figure 3:

curve u is a plot of the voltage at the input of a dynamic link from t;

curve i is a plot of the current dynamic link from t;

imax- the maximum value of the current dynamic level;

Ui=imax- input voltage dynamic link in the current dynamic level equal to the maximum;

Ui=0- input voltage dynamic link in the current dynamic level of zero.

Device control and regulation of the boot drive shovel excavator in operating conditions includes the drum 1, the EMF regulator with link constraint 2, the regulator armature current of the motor 3, the voltage regulator of the generator 4, the source of excitation of the generator is 5, the generator 6, the motor 7, the current sensor armature circuit of the motor 8, the sensor voltage armature circuit of the motor 9, the excitation current controller of the engine 10, the excitation source of the engine 11, the sensor excitation current of the generator 12, the sensor excitation voltage generator 13, a system for collecting and processing data (SOD), including analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 14, a software MCU core 15, the generator voltage regulator control EMF 16, the generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor 17, the generator voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor 18, the display device and display unit 19, an electronic the key driver of the excavator 20. The output of controller 1 is connected to the first input of the ADC 14. The controller output EMF from the level 2 restrictions connected with the second input of the ADC 14. The output of the regulator armature current of the motor 3 is connected to the third input of the ADC 14. The output of the sensor excitation current of the generator 12 is connected with the fourth input of the ADC 14. The sensor output voltage of the generator 13 is connected to the fifth input of the ADC 14. The sensor output current armature circuit of the motor 8 is connected to the sixth input of the ADC 14. The sensor output voltage of armature circuit of the motor 9 is connected to the seventh input of the ADC 14. The first entrance is the 1st of EMF regulator with link constraint 2 is connected to the generator output voltage control reg is the centre EMF 16. The first sign of 1P excitation current controller of the engine 10 is connected to the generator output voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor 18. Second input of the 2P excitation current controller motor connected to the generator output voltage reference maximum current of the motor 17. The output of the software core of the microcontroller 15 is connected to the input of display device and display unit 19 and the electronic key of the excavator 20.

Galvanic isolation of the inputs U1-U7 implemented on the elements of the HCPL-7840 company Agilent Technologies.

Modules 14-18 form a system of collection and processing of data (SOD), implemented on the microcontroller mixed analog-digital signal CY8C29866 company "Cypress".

The microcontroller CY8C29866 has a digital part, providing work for the program, a set of configurable analog modules, non-volatile flash memory for storing program code and special function registers, RAM for storing results of intermediate calculations and the current state of the microcontroller. To ensure the right of access to the excavator in non-volatile flash memory of the microcontroller, in addition to the work program are unique serial number electronic key drivers (D1D2, ..., DN).

Of reconfigurable analog modules microcontroll the RA CY8C29866, by programming special registers, built 7-channel 14-bit ADC 14 and 9-bit digital to analogue Converter - generator voltage regulator control EMF 16, the generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor 17, the generator voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor 18. The desired magnitude of the output voltage U8, U9 and U10 provides 4-channel operational amplifier LM324 company "National Semiconductor".

The display device and display unit 19 is performed on matrix liquid crystal display with integrated management controller FDCC1602A firm "Fordata Electronic".

Electronic key driver of the excavator 20 is an element of a mobile non-volatile memory DS1994 company "Dallas Semiconductor" displacement of 4096 bits with a unique serial number and a real time clock.

In the electronic key of the excavator 20 is stored in encrypted form:

1. Topt- the value of the optimal time constant of the actuator, are obtained when the chef-up excavator.

2. k - coefficient of proportionality of the output voltage controller 1 is U1 and the input of the voltage regulator control EMF - U8.

3. p is the coefficient of proportionality of the output voltage of the regulator EMF - U8 and input voltage feedback weakening of the current vazbu the Denia engine U10.

4. U9 - voltage value to specify the IVmag.

5. Utrog- the value of the voltage U8 in measurement mode, providing the amplitude of the armature current of the motor is less than or equal to the current start of the engine.

6. Statistical data of the shovel.

The algorithm of the microcontroller Data Processing System (ODS) can be represented by a graph (Figure 2) and in the form of block diagrams (tables 1, 2 and 3).

State I (the Initial state)

The condition occurs when the power System or forced System reset signal RESET.

The microcontroller displays the display device and display 19 message: "SET passkey" and continuously reads the number of the electronic key of the driver D.

If the serial number of D coincides with one of the D1D2, ..., DNstored in non-volatile flash memory of the microcontroller, then:

1. Extinguished the message on the display of display device and display 19.

2. Read in the RAM of the microcontroller key options:

Topt, k, R, U9, Utrog.

3. Sets the voltage U9 to specify the IBmax.

4. The transition to State II.

Condition II (Measurement of drive parameters)

1. The generator voltage regulator control EMF 16 generates a sinusoidal voltage U8 with amplitude 0,9U trogproviding the armature current of the motor is less than the current start of the engine, and a frequency less than the cutoff frequency amplitudeaccuracy characteristics dynamic link

U8=0,9·Utrog·SIN(2·π·f·t).

2. The generator voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor 18 generates a voltage U10=0.

3. For 10 with measured values of the voltages U2, U3, U4, U5, U6, U7 and stored in the RAM of the microcontroller.

4. After 10 with the transition State III.

Condition III (Calculation of parameters in the drive)

1. Based on the values U2-U7 calculates the current value of the i-th time constant of the actuator - Tiin the proposed algorithm:

- the time constant circuit of the excitation winding of the generator;

- the time constant of the armature circuit of the motor;

- the time constant of the closed circuit voltage of the generator;

- the time constant of the closed current loop.

2. From the comparison of Tiand Toptcalculated allowable value USSvoltage regulator control EMF - U8 determined by the expression:

where U8HOM- voltage regulator control EMF corresponding to the nominal voltage to anchor the motor 7.

3. On the display of display device and display unit 19 sets the percentage of the current value of T relative to Topt.

4. If the current value of Tiless than 50% of Toptthen the transition to the State VI.

5. The transition State IV.

Condition IV (Work)

1. Measured output voltage controller 1 - U1.

2. If U1<Utrog/k, then the transition in State V.

3. Computes U8=k·U1. If |U8|>USSthen U8=sign(U1)·USS.

4. Generator output voltage regulator control EMF 16 sets the voltage U8.

5. Generator output voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor 18 is set to the voltage U10=p·U1.

6. Return to item 1.

The condition V (Technological pause)

1. Measured output voltage controller 1 - U1.

2. If U1≥Utrog/k, then the transition State IV.

3. If the time spent in State V is greater than 20 s, the transition to State II.

The condition VI (Emergency condition)

1. Turns on the alarm.

2. On the display of the display device and display unit 19 displays the message: "FAILURE".

Exit the emergency state occurs through a recycle System or through the signal enforcement System reset - RESET.

The application of the proposed method and device allow you to plug the et to increase the reliability of a single bucket excavators, to increase their resource in the complex impact of negative temperatures and variable nature of the load.

1. Method of monitoring and controlling the boot drive shovel excavator in operating conditions, including start-up, reversing, speed control of the engine in accordance with the technology of excavation, the regulation of the time of braking of a drive motor of the mechanism of regulation of the motor excitation current simultaneously and inversely proportional to the magnitude of the speed of the engine, characterized in that additionally they control the detuning of the control definition of the time constant circuit of the voltage generator circuit armature current of the motor, and the electromagnetic constant of excitation circuit of the generator, the electromagnetic constant of armature circuit of the motor, comparing them with the corresponding setting values of time constants and form the feedback signal, lowering the speed of the engine when the detuning of the control system, and determining the time constant is performed by applying a sinusoidal voltage reference in a control system of electric drive before you begin and during the process stops and excava the ora with frequency, the lower frequency cutoff amplitude-frequency characteristics of the most inertial element, and amplitude, providing the armature current of the motor is less than the current start of the engine, and measurement in static mode input voltage of the i-th link in the moments of time when the current i-th element equal to zero and the maximum, thus determining the time constant is conducted according to the following mathematical expression:
Ti=(Ui=0/Ui=imax)·Tc,
where Ti- the time constant of the i-th element of the actuator;
Ui=0- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the actuator, when the DC link current is zero;
Ui=imax- instantaneous input voltage value of the i-th element of the actuator, at a current level equal to the maximum;
Twith- period of the sinusoidal voltage reference in the system of electric drive control.

2. Device control and regulation of the boot drive shovel excavator in operating conditions, containing sequencer, EMF regulator with link constraints, the regulator armature current of the motor, the voltage regulator of the generator, a source of excitation of the generator, the generator, the motor, the current sensor armature circuit of the motor, the sensor voltage armature circuit of the motor controller motor excitation current, the excitation source engine, characterized in that it additionally with the contains sensor excitation current of the generator, sensor excitation voltage of the generator, the system of data collection and processing, including analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), a software MCU core, generator voltage regulator control EMF generator voltage reference maximum current of the motor, the generator voltage feedback attenuation of the excitation current of the motor, the display device and display, the electronic key of the excavator, and the output controller connected to the first input of the ADC, the output of the controller EMF with link constraints connected with the second ADC, the output of the current regulator is connected to the third input of the ADC, the output of the sensor excitation current of the generator is connected to the fourth input of the ADC, the output of the sensor excitation voltage of the generator is connected to the fifth input of the ADC, the output of the current sensor armature circuit of the motor is connected to the sixth input of the ADC, the sensor output voltage of armature circuit of the motor is connected to the seventh input of the ADC, the first controller input EMF with link constraints is connected to the output of the generator voltage regulator control EMF, the first controller input excitation current of the motor connected to the generator output voltage feedback weakening of the motor excitation current, the second input of the excitation current controller motor connected to the generator output voltage reference Maxi is the real motor excitation current, and the output of the software core of the microcontroller is connected to the input of display device and display, and electronic key driver of the excavator.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control over DC traction motors of electric locomotives. Proposed device comprises starting-regulating unit, pilot exciter source, pilot exciter supply contactor, output pilot excitation contactor, two pickups of armature rotation, current adder, sequencer unit, current limitation setting unit, armature current position setting unit, excitation current position setting unit, two analysers of traction motor shaft rotation, two comparator units, element OR, blocking unit, armature current controller and excitation current controller.

EFFECT: increased traction.

2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric engineering and may be used in textile industry to drive winding units and gas spin dryers and in other machine-building industries. The control method provides for reducing voltage during overdrive from heavy-duty level to a deeply depressed level of rated voltage value when electromagnetic torque margin in motor remains on the rated level as it is when nominal load is created in motor shaft. In case of one or several rotor synchronism failure, voltage is initially increased from the rated to startup voltage level before the overdrive process is repeated. Then, time is delayed to bring the failed motor into synchronism. The control method for multi-motor hysteretic electric drive ensures long-term operation in synchronised mode at low rated feeding voltage with high drive efficiency factor.

EFFECT: increased power parametres during overdrive mode.

4 dwg

FIELD: electricity, electric equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the sphere of electric equipment and may be used in metallurgy, ore mining and processing industry and other industries, where the controlled electric motors of alternating current of high power for voltage higher than 1 kV, in particular, on compression plants, booster and blowers. Technical result is the provision of controlling part power supply with low voltage, the removal of which leads to disconnection of working mechanism from the drive motor. The device of high voltage motor control consists of static frequency transducer with intermediate link of direct current, working mechanism, sensor of working mechanism shaft rotation frequency, pressure sensor in working manifold, adders, analog pressure transducer in manifold, setting microprocessor device, threaded differential transmission gear. The first link of threaded transmission is mechanically connected to the shaft of high voltage drive synchronous motor, its second link is connected to the shaft of working mechanism, and third link - with controlled low voltage induction motor. Stator winding of induction motor is connected to the outlet of static transducer with intermediate link of direct current, which is connected to low voltage, to the outlets of which the mismatch signals from both adders are sent.

EFFECT: provides control of high voltage motor with the help of low voltage control circuit.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity, electric equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the sphere of electric equipment and may be used in electromechanical systems during operation of several electric motors for common load in fast-acting controlled electric drives of conveyors, weight lifting cranes, and other equipment, which should meet strict requirements of dimensional-weight and operation characteristics. Technical result is exclusion of dynamic loads on electric drive and executive mechanism, which occur during joint operation of two and more electric motors for common load and increase of reliability and durability of technological equipment operation. In multimotor frequency-regulated electric drive there are n similar in power local electric drives, which operate for common load. Every electric drive includes electric motor, transmitting mechanism, sensor of electric motor rotor rotation speed, setter of current angular speed and controller of multimotor electric drive rotation speed. Electric motors are induction motors, and speed sensors are pulse sensors. Pulse sensors have two outputs: by angle of turn and by speed. Every local electric drive contains sequentially connected unit of moment vector control of electric motor and power transducer, the output of which is connected to windings of induction motor control. Multimotor electric drive is equipped with averaging device of local electric drives speeds. In every local electric drive the first input of electric motor moment vector control is connected with output of multimotor electric drive rotation speed controller, and the second input - with output of pulse sensor by turn angle. Output of pulse sensor by speed of all local electric drives is connected to the input of averaging device of local electric drives speeds, the output of which is connected to the second input of multimotor electric drive rotation speed controller.

EFFECT: improves reliability and durability of electric drive operation and exclusion of dynamic loads on electric drive and executing mechanism, which occur during joint operation of two and more electric motors for common load.

2 cl; 3 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, possible use in rotary support devices of various purposes, metal-processing machines, metallurgy mechanisms, etc.

SUBSTANCE: control method includes creating main controlling effects of opposite sign for setting moving momentums of electric motors depending on the total of values of same-named coordinates of full state vectors of electric motors and on total mass coordinates and creating an additional control effect for each electric motor depending on full state vector of that electric motor, considering the combined mass to be immobile. Speed of generation of additional control effects is set to be unified and above the speed of generation of main control effects. To ensure static stabilization of braking momentum of electric motor, an additional control effect is generated depending on coordinate values of full state vector of that electric motor and integration component of its kinematic transmission resilience momentum. Main control effects are generated depending on the total of kinematic transmissions resilience momentum values and total mass coordinates. Speeds of generation of additional control effects are set above the speed of generation of main control effects. To control electric motors with highly different parameters, main control effects are generated depending on values of coordinates of full state vector of each electric motor and total mass coordinates.

EFFECT: increased reliability of electric motor operation, precise and fast action control of movement of common working organ based on electro-mechanical thrust principle in case of presence of resilient elements and gaps in kinematic transmissions from electric motors to total mass.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, possible use in rotary support devices of various purposes, metal-processing machines, metallurgy mechanisms, etc.

SUBSTANCE: control method includes creating main controlling effects of opposite sign for setting moving momentums of electric motors depending on the total of values of same-named coordinates of full state vectors of electric motors and on total mass coordinates and creating an additional control effect for each electric motor depending on full state vector of that electric motor, considering the combined mass to be immobile. Speed of generation of additional control effects is set to be unified and above the speed of generation of main control effects. To ensure static stabilization of braking momentum of electric motor, an additional control effect is generated depending on coordinate values of full state vector of that electric motor and integration component of its kinematic transmission resilience momentum. Main control effects are generated depending on the total of kinematic transmissions resilience momentum values and total mass coordinates. Speeds of generation of additional control effects are set above the speed of generation of main control effects. To control electric motors with highly different parameters, main control effects are generated depending on values of coordinates of full state vector of each electric motor and total mass coordinates.

EFFECT: increased reliability of electric motor operation, precise and fast action control of movement of common working organ based on electro-mechanical thrust principle in case of presence of resilient elements and gaps in kinematic transmissions from electric motors to total mass.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, possible use in electric motor for automation of technological processes for controlling a group of asynchronous electric motors working in parallel.

SUBSTANCE: composition of a system for controlling a group of electric motors for water pumps includes multi-zone scanning transformer consisting of adders, integrator, relay elements, setting signal source, smoothing filters of, for example, first order, additional relay elements, voltage regulators for smooth launch of asynchronous electric motors, water pumps, draining water main.

EFFECT: increased reliability of operation.

6 dwg

FIELD: electrical equipment for electrified traction consists.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has synchronous traction generator set in rotary motion by means of heat-engine shaft, first electric-power transmission gear control unit (driver's controller), first uncontrolled rectifier, off-line current inverter, traction slip-ring induction motor, current sensor of first uncontrolled rectifier, voltage sensor of third uncontrolled rectifier, traction synchronous generator excitation unit, third control unit, and microprocessor controller; traction induction motor shaft is coupled with axles of traction-vehicle moving wheels; two three-phase rotor windings of traction induction motor are shifted apart through 30 el. degrees and connected by means of series-interconnected second and third rectifiers to first uncontrolled rectifier; synchronous traction generator excitation unit is connected to first output of microprocessor controller by means of second control unit.

EFFECT: reduced cost, size, mass, and power requirement for cooling power transmission, enhanced reliability and efficiency of device.

1 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; computerized electric drives; converter engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electric drive has semiconductor converter, electric motor, tachometer generator, current sensor, speed governor, temperature sensors, microprocessor control unit, and assembly of matching components; double-section speed governor has numeric-control device, such as PI controller, incorporated in microprocessor control unit, as well as external analog regulator, such as proportional one.

EFFECT: improved static and dynamic characteristics of electric drive.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: controlling speed of dual-speed three-phase motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device has terminal of one phase in first switching unit directly connected to that of interconnected like phases of two motor windings. Terminals of two other phases of mentioned switching unit are connected to those of transfer contacts of second two-phase switching unit. Terminals of break contacts of second switching unit are connected to those of other phases of motor low-speed winding. Ground-fault pre-detection unit is connected through break contact of first switching unit to phase contact of mentioned switching unit which is directly connected to like phases of motor windings.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability, safety, and simplified design of device.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to equipment used in mining for excavation and earth movement, more specifically to control of mine excavators using electrical actuation. The method involves, in excavation mode, limiting of the current to the turning motor armature to a threshold value of the control signal, equal to 20-30% of the shutoff current value. The state of the excavation mode is established from readings of sensors for length of cables, stroke length of lift arms, and sensor for actuating lift and the current to the turning motor armature is automatically limited. Proposal is also given of a device for implementing this method.

EFFECT: reduction of dynamic lateral loads on the working equipment of the mining excavator, which lead to fatigue accumulation in stress concentration zones in metal and fatigue flaking.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the mining industry and may be used for the control of dragline excavator implement during excavation. For this purpose, the device has lifting and pulling hoist motors controlled by speed control units of these motors, a lifting cable (LC) tension controller with the first input connected to the output of the LC tension selector, the second input connected to the output of the LC tension transducer, and the third input connected to the outputs of the main and two additional functional generators (FG) through switches. The controller output is connected to the input of the lifting hoist speed control unit. A signal from the pulling cable tension transducer is supplied to the FG inputs. The switches are controlled through a non-linear element with the inputs connected to the output of selector 1 and an excavation path transducer, and the output connected to the switch control inputs through diodes. The actuating contacts of these switches are connected into circuits switching one of the FG's to the third input of the LC tension controller.

EFFECT: increased capacity, reliability, and service life duration of dragline excavator due to adjusting lifting cable (LC) tension value in case of change of cut and soil hardness conditions.

2 dwg

FIELD: automation of processes.

SUBSTANCE: system consists of sensor of earth volume in front of actuator, sensor of actual speed of machine movement, which is connected to the slave wheel, setter of reference signals, control unit and actuating mechanism. At that the control unit consists of input device, single crystal microcontroller, permanent memorising device and output device. Actuating mechanism includes electric slides, standard device of shellboard turn and one additional hydraulic cylinder for shellboard turn in relation to longitudinal axis of machine.

EFFECT: achievement of maximum possible current capacity of motor grader with high quality of received surface in the process of earth planning at the account of change of skew installed shellboard clamping angle.

1 dwg

FIELD: automation of processes.

SUBSTANCE: system of automatic control of earth-moving transport machine (ETM) actuator in the process of earth digging consists of sensor of earth volume in front of actuator, sensor of earth physical and mechanical properties, sensor of fuel flow rate, sensor of actual speed of ETM movement, which is connected to the slave wheel, setter of reference signals, control unit and actuating mechanism. At that the control unit contains device of input, single crystal microcontroller, permanent memorising device and output device, and actuating mechanism consists of electric slides and hydraulic cylinders. Signal of automatic regulation clearance by parameter of instant efficiency factor is only sent under the condition of predominance of parameters measured by sensors above the reference signals. Specification of reference signals level is performed by information signal of sensor of physical and mechanical earth properties.

EFFECT: increases efficiency of ETM use at the account of ETM actuator control accuracy increase, capacity of ETM operation and energy savings.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the mining industry. The device consists of the elevator hoist and the pulling hoist motors controlled by the hoist speed control units, and the excavation route sensor which output is connected through the programmable drag cable pull-up setup unit to one of the drag cable pull-up control unit inputs. Another input of the drag cable pull-up control unit is connected to the drag cable pull-up sensor. The drag cable pull-up control unit output is connected to the first input of the elevator cable pull-up control unit; another elevator cable pull-up control unit input is connected to the elevator cable pull-up sensor. The elevator cable pull-up control unit output is connected to the elevator hoist speed control unit input. The device is equipped with the additional drag cable pull-up control unit with the programmable drag cable pull-up setup unit, which input is connected to the excavation route sensor output. The output of the latter and the output of the drag cable pull-up sensor are connected to the inputs of the additional drag cable pull-up control unit. The output of the additional drag cable pull-up control unit is connected to the drag hoist speed control unit input.

EFFECT: increase of accurate soil cutting depth adjustment by the dragline bucket.

2 dwg

Scraper set // 2295610

FIELD: mechanical engineering; earth-moving machinery.

SUBSTANCE: proposed scraper set includes tractor connected by mount with bowl, blade system controlled by hydraulic cylinder, forced sensor and control hydraulic distributor coupled with hydraulic cylinder of blade system. Adhesion weight sensors are mounted additionally on tractor, and engine is furnished with speed sensor. Automation unit is installed on tractor to inputs of which adhesion weight sensors are connected and also speed sensor and traction force sensor, and to output of which beginning of penetration, end of penetration and beginning of lowering relays are connected, and also engine speed limiting relay. Control hydraulic distributor is provided with penetration and raising coils which are connected in parallel with supply source and in series with coils of auxiliary penetration and raising relays. Auxiliary raising relay is connected in series with raising coil, its normally-open auxiliary contacts, normally-closed auxiliary contacts of relay of end of raising and lowering are connected. Connected in parallel to auxiliary contacts of auxiliary raising relay are normally open auxiliary contacts of engine speed limiting relay and relay of beginning of raising. Connected in series with penetration coil are auxiliary penetration relay, normally-closed auxiliary contacts of relay of beginning of raising and auxiliary contacts of raising relay and also normally open auxiliary contacts of beginning of lowering relay, normally-open auxiliary contacts of auxiliary raising relay being connected in parallel to auxiliary contacts of relay pf beginning of lowering.

EFFECT: improved automation of digging process.

4 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automation of working processes of earth-moving machines. Proposed system contains machine actual speed pickup, soil volume pickup, physical and mechanical properties pickup of soil before working member of earth-moving machine, reference signal shaper, control unit including input device, fixed memory to outputs of which single-chip microcontroller is connected which is connected by its output to output device, and actuating mechanism consisting of electric spools connected by input to output device, and hydraulic cylinders connected by input to output of electric spools which control working member. Outputs of actual speed pickup, pickup of physical and mechanical properties of soil before working member, soil volume pickup and reference signal setter are connected to input of input device, and single-chip microcontroller has feedback with input device, fixed memory and output device.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of automatic control of earth-moving machine working member.

1 dwg

FIELD: electric equipment for mining machines, possible use in low-voltage set devices of quarry excavators.

SUBSTANCE: method includes generating command signals for force, lifting and turning or driving motors by means of two command devices, measuring voltages and currents of anchor windings of motors and generating control signals for power amplifiers of appropriate motors in function of command signals and measured values of currents and voltages of appropriate motors by means of microcontroller adjusting devices. Memory of each microcontroller adjusting device stores identification numbers of all main movement drives, appropriate for their values, and command signals for drives are generated in form of serial codes, containing information about identification number of drive and value of setting effect.

EFFECT: increased quality of processes for controlling drives of excavator main movement in different modes of operation.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly component parts of dredgers or soil-shifting machines.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises sensor and set unit, which sets lifting cable tension. The sensor and set unit are connected to lifting cable tension regulator, which form signal to maintain minimal tension thereof. Device also has manual setting means, which sets lifting winch drive speed. Outputs of manual setting means and lifting cable tension regulator are linked to the first and the second inputs of unit, which generates maximal drive control signal. Output of above unit is connected with input of drive speed regulation unit through lifting cable limiting unit controllable by output signal of tension cable sensor. Device comprises serially connected haulage cable tension sensor and functional sensor signal generator. The device includes regulator, which corrects lifting cable tension. Outputs of functional generator and lifting cable tension sensor are linked to inputs of above regulator. Lifting cable tension correcting regulator output is connected with the third input of unit, which generates maximal lifting winch drive control signal.

EFFECT: increased reliability and service life.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly control devices for drag-line excavator.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises sensor and hoist rope tension setting means linked to the first and the second hoist rope regulator inlets correspondingly. The device also has manual hoist engine speed setting means. Outputs of manual hoist engine speed setting means and hoist rope tension regulator are connected to inlets of maximal engine control signal extraction unit, output of the unit is linked to hoist engine speed regulation unit input through hoist rope speed limiting unit controlled by output signal of rope tension sensor. The device is also provided with hoist rope length and tension sensor and setting means, two comparator circuits and controllable keys, manual speed setting means signal and hoist rope setting means signal synchronizer unit. Outputs of hoist rope length sensor and setting means are linked to one comparator circuit input, comparator circuit output is connected to control input of the first key. Outputs of hoist rope tension sensor and setting means are linked to inputs of another comparator circuit connected to control input of the second key. Manual hoist engine speed setting means output are connected to the third input of hoist rope tension regulator through the first and the second controllable keys and hoist rope speed and tension setting means signal synchronizer unit.

EFFECT: increased drag-line excavator output due to reduced time of bucket introduction in solid ground as a result of bucket introduction force increase.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth moving equipment; mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control of dc electric drive of main mechanisms of single-bucket excavator and it can be used in other dc drives of mining machines and mechanisms operating at low temperatures and wind loads. Method comes to control motor stopping by control of field current simultaneously and in inverse proportion to value of motor setting speed. Control of motor speed as a function of complex parameter taking in account level of negative temperature of machine metal, wind load and speed of change of these values, is also carried out. Device for implementing the method contains additionally motor field current setter mechanism, motor field current regulator whose output is connected with motor field current source, motor field current weakening setter whose input is connected with output of master controller, and output, with second input of field current regulator. First input of motor field current regulator is connected to output of motor maximum field current setter. Shaper of complex signal taking into account negative temperature of metal of machine, wind load and speed of change of said values is connected with second input of emf regulator.

EFFECT: reduced dynamic loads at starting, reversing and stopping, improved conditions of excavator bucket filling at digging.

3 cl, 5 dwg

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