Filtering material, method of producing said material and respirator
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making filtering materials for respirators. Filtering fibre material is proposed, as well as a method of making said material by electrostatic moulding microfibres from a polymer solution in an organic solvent. The material contains fibre of diametre 1-10 mcm from chlorinated polyethylene, characterised by mass content of chlorine of 60-70%, has surface density of 20-60 g/m and is used as the working layer of the respirator.
EFFECT: high mechanical strength of the material with high retention potential.
The invention relates to the field of fibrous filter material type AF (Petryanov Filters®), used to protect the environment, as well as respiratory organs from toxic aerosols.
Known filter material obtained by the method of electrotorture containing a mixture of fibers with a diameter of 1-10 μm, made of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and a copolymer of styrene and Acrylonitrile (EN 2283164, 10.09.2006).
The disadvantage of this material is the difficulty of its manufacture associated with the use of two spinning solutions.
A method of obtaining a filtering material of a copolymer of styrene with Acrylonitrile diameter fibers 1-10 μm from a spinning solution containing dichloroethane, electrolytic additives and solvents from the series: acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, or ethyl acetate, or butyl acetate. The filter material has a surface density of 20-80 g/m2and aerodynamic resistance 3-60 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S. filter material made working layer respirator type "Petal" (EN 2182511, 20.05.2002).
The disadvantage of the material is its low mechanical characteristics which complicate the Assembly process of the respirator.
Known filter material for respirators, which contains the outer and inner protective SL is and a working layer of polymeric fibrous material, made from a mixture of perchlorovinyl and a copolymer of styrene with methyl methacrylate and acrylnitrile, with perchlorovinyl is present in quantities of 1-9 or 91-99 wt.%. The method of obtaining the filter material includes forming electrostatic fibrous material from a solution containing a mixture of the above polymers in a solution of dichloroethane (EN 2170607, 20.07.2001).
The disadvantage is the complexity of the process of obtaining, due to the complexity of the preparation of the spinning solution.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the filter material of the fibers perchlorovinyl with a diameter of 1 to 10 μm, which has a surface density of 20-50 g/m2and the way to obtain the filter material of the spinning solution containing perchlorovinyl, dichloroethane, electrolytic additives and solvents from the series: acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, or ethyl acetate, or butyl acetate. The filter material is used as the working layer of a respirator having aerodynamic resistance 3-50 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/s (EN 2182510, 20.05.2002).
A disadvantage of the known technical solution is no currently on the market perchlorovinyl resin that meets sanitary standards for respiratory filter material.
The purpose of this breath is retene is the creation of a filtering material for the working layer of the respirator, which has a high mechanical strength while maintaining a high retention.
The problem is solved fibrous filter material obtained by the method of electrostatic molding of the polymer solution in an organic solvent, which contains fibers with a diameter of 1-10 microns of chlorinated polyethylene, characterized by mass of the chlorine content equal to 60-70%, and has a surface density of 20-60 g/m2.
The task is also solved by a method of obtaining a fibrous filter material, which includes electrostatic forming fibers from a solution in dichloroethane containing 5-20 wt.% chlorinated polyethylene with a massive chlorine content of 60-70%, having a dynamic viscosity of 1 to 10 poises.
Preferably, the lead forming from a solution containing electrolytic salt additive is introduced in an amount to provide specific conductance of a solution of 10-7Cm/cm-10-4Cm/see
In addition, the problem is solved by the claimed apparatus containing a working layer of fibrous filter material containing fibers with a diameter of 1-10 microns of chlorinated polyethylene, characterized by mass of the chlorine content equal to 60-70%, and having a surface density of 20-60 g/m2and aerodyna the systematic resistance 3-30 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S.
The use of the polymer of the chlorinated polyethylene provides increased mechanical strength of the fiber, the choice of a polymer having a bulk chlorine content of 60-70%, due to the fact that only in the stated interval chlorine provides good technological quality spinning solution in dichloroethane, with a claimed range of concentration of polymer in the solution due to the optimal dynamic viscosity of the spinning solution allows to obtain fibers with a diameter in the specified range. The stated conductivity of the spinning solution is optimal for conducting stable of electrospinning.
Below are examples of receipt of declared material and respirator based on it.
Prepare a spinning solution containing 7 wt.% chlorinated polyethylene having a bulk chlorine content of 66% and a dynamic viscosity of 5 P. Bring the conductivity of the solution up to 1·10-5S/cm by adding a solution of 0.001 wt.% tetrabutylammonium iodide.
The solution is subjected to molding electrocapillary method. The potential difference at the electrodes is 40 kV, the volume flow solution of 1 capillary 9·10-4cm3/s
On a grounded electrode a layer of microfibers with a diameter of 1-3 μm, the surface is based density of 35 g/m 2, aerodynamic 16 PA.
Of the obtained material are made working layer and going respirators type "Petal".
Below are data on the composition of the spinning solutions and physico-mechanical and filtration properties of the resulting fibrous material.
Data on the composition of the spinning solutions, operational properties of filter materials are summarized in tables 1, 2.
|No.||The solution composition, wt.%||Characteristics of the solution|
|The CCE||EDC||TBA||η poise||λ, Cm/cm|
|Material capability||no material table 1|
|The diameter of the fibers, mcm||0,5-1||1-3||7-10|
|The mass of the unit area, g/m2||20||35||60|
|Aerodynamic resistance at 1 cm/s, PA||30||16||5|
|Overshoot factor on CMT, %||0,002||0,012||0,0015|
|Elongation at break, %||40||46||50|
It follows from the presented tables, physico-mechanical characteristics of the material obtained exceed the relevant characteristics of the Mat is the real prototype, when this filtering properties are located on the same level.
1. Filtering fibrous material obtained by the method of electrostatic molding of the polymer solution in an organic solvent, characterized in that it contains fibers with a diameter of 1-10 microns of chlorinated polyethylene, characterized by mass of the chlorine content equal to 60-70%, and has a surface density of 20-60 g/m2.
2. The method of obtaining fibrous filter material including electrostatic forming fibers from a polymer solution in dichloroethane, characterized in that the shaping is done from a solution containing 5-20 wt.% chlorinated polyethylene with a massive chlorine content of 60-70%, having a dynamic viscosity of 1 to 10 Poises.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the molding lead from a solution containing electrolytic salt additive is introduced in an amount to provide specific conductance of a solution of 10-7-10-4Cm/see
4. Respirator containing a working layer of fibrous filter material, the protective layers, the obturator, and means fastening, characterized in that the functional layer is made of a material described in claim 1, and has aerodynamic resistance 3-30 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S.
FIELD: textile fabrics, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of water treatment. Filtering element for drinking water treatment is made in the form of bobbin wound at the angle of 12°-15° onto porous cylinder by two parallel cords with thickness of 1-2 mm from polymer ion-exchange fibre in mixture with activated carbon particles, besides one cord is arranged with the right twist, and the second one - with the left twist.
EFFECT: full use of filtering material components.
FIELD: textile fabrics, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to multilayer filtering materials. Suggested nonwoven material consists of inlet and outlet layers. Outlet layer consists of main and additional sublayers previously attached to each other. Inlet layer and main sublayer of outlet laye consist of mixture of hollow silicone fibre with linear density of 0.68 tex and polypropylene fibre with linear density of 2 tex, and additional sublayer of outlet layer consists of polypropylene fibre with linear density of 0.68 tex. Ratio of surface densities of inlet and outlet layers makes 1:1÷1:1.5.
EFFECT: improved operational properties.
FIELD: means of protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a filtering and sorbing material used in the means of personal respiratory protective equipment to cleanse the air form fumes and aerosols of hazardous substances. The filtering and sorbing material containing polypropylene fibers filled with microatomised carbon, fibers of sulfate unbleached cellulose and fibers of mercerised cellulose is obtained by adding the polypropylene fibers in the amount 5-10% of the total mass at the stage of grinding the sulfate unbleached cellulose after which combined grinding of the mixture is continued until the grinding degree of 28±2°SHR is reached, the mixture is then mixed with the fibers of mercerised cellulose and carbon, paper web is poured dried and treated with an impregnating solution containing nickel chloride (II) - 10%, ferrous chloride (III) - 10%, copper chloride (II) - 10%.
EFFECT: production of elestic well draped filtering and sorbing material with high mechanical and adsorbtion characteristics and a low aerodynamic resistance to respiration.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves as follows. Electroformed nonwoven fibrous polymer fabric is impregnated with aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic suspension of aluminium material particles then hydrolysed by heating the suspension impregnated fabric that is impregnated by suspension spraying over its surface. The heating process in performed in the open air at relative humidity at least 70%, preferentially 95-100% of at least two stacked suspension impregnated fabrics. Upon termination of hydrolysis process, plane parallel wringing of the fabrics follows.
EFFECT: improved performance of a sorbent owing to formation of the composite sheet sorbent involving uniform distribution of porous particles of oxide-hydroxide aluminium phases over the entire volume of the fabric, formation of the sheet sorbent fabric of uniform thickness and density.
7 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of fibrous filtering materials. Filtering material is suggested for respirators, which contains working layer of fibres with diametre of 1-10 mcm produced by method of electrostatic moulding from solution containing 6-16 wt % of polycarbonate in mixture of dissolvents that consists of dichloroethane and methylene chloride with their mass ratio of (1-5):(9-5), accordingly, and having surface density of 30-60 g/m2. Respirator is made with application of produced material.
EFFECT: improved mechanical strength of material and products on its basis.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: electret article comprising polymer material, which has electret charge given to it, besides, polymer material includes one or several types of heteroatoms, and coefficient of saturation with fluorine that represents ratio of atomic percentage ratio of fluorine relative to amount of saturated and unsaturated fluorine-containing groups, does not exceed approximately 200, moreover, atomic percentage content of fluorine makes at least approximately 40%. Article is used as filtering material in respirators, filters and face masks.
EFFECT: provision of high quality of material.
22 cl, 5 dwg, 8 tbl
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fibrous filtering materials. Filtering fibrous material is proposed which is produced by electrostatic formation from a solution of polymer mixture - sterol copolymer with acrylonitrile and polyurethane with their weight relation of (50-95):(50-5) respectively, diametre of 1-10 mcm; the material is characterized by the unit area weight of 2070 g/m2 and aerodynamic resistance of 3-30 Pa under the air flow speed of 1 cm/s. Method of the material production and respiratory personal protective gear made from it are proposed as well.
EFFECT: providing for effective filtering material with improved physical and chemical parametres.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: filter is made of nonwoven fabric and/or injected filter structures or sheets, i.e. produced after processing the synthetic artificial fibres. At first fibres are processed with antibacterial compounds and sliced to monothreads. Natural, artificial, synthetic, metal fibres or their mixtures are used. Web and felt are formed from these threads. Required number of nonwoven fabric layers is connected, thereafter processed, sliced and rolled.
EFFECT: extended application of aforesaid filters, improved wetting and filtering ability ensured.
31 cl, 16 dwg, 11 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of fibrous filtering materials production. Materials are suggested from polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate with fiber diameter of 1.5-3 mcm. Materials are produced by means of electrostatic moulding of fibres from polystyrene or polymethyl methacrylate solution in organic dissolvent, which is ethyl acetate or dichloroethane that have been previously purified till content of admixtures is not more than 0.001 wt %, at that polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate prior to dissolution are purified till content of admixtures is not more than 0.01%, and electric moulding is realised in air medium, which is dust-free till particles content is not more than 0.01 mg/m3 and relative humidity of not more than 35%.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce filtering easily-cindered materials that are efficient in analysis of gas mediums for inorganic aerosol admixtures.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to production of sorbtion-filtering materials for purification of gases from organic and inorganic chemical substances. Filtering material contains at least two layers of base from nonwoven polymer fibrous material and particles of aluminium oxide hydrate fixed on fibres on one side of every layer surface, at that surfaces with fixed particles of aluminium oxide hydrate of two layers are folded towards each other, thus layer of aluminium oxide hydrate particles is created between mentioned layers of base, which has sorbtion properties. Material is produced by application of aluminium-based material particles on one side of nonwoven polymer fibrous material, subsequent folding of two such treated material cloths with treated surfaces towards each other and performance of hydrolysis with creation of layer of aluminium oxide hydrate particles between two cloths.
EFFECT: suggested filtering material has high sorbtion properties, high efficiency of air purification from contaminants of organic and inorganic origin and low aerodynamic resistance.
14 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: methods of production of electret items, electret filters and respirators.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of production of electret items, electret filters and respirators with heightened resistivity to the oil mist. The invention falls into production processes of electret items, electret packed beds and respirators, and may be used for removal of corpuscles from gases, especially for removal of aerosols from air. The method provides for: formation of a melted material consisting of a mixture of a polymer composed of a mixture of a polymer representing a non-current-conducting thermoplastic resin with a specific resistivity exceeding 1014 Ohms·cm with a fluorine compound as an additive compound; shaping it to the required form and quenching it up to the temperature lower than the melting point of the polymer. The material is calcined and treated with an electric charge to give it electret properties. The invention improves the capability of filtering oily aerosols.
EFFECT: the invention improves the capability of filtering oily aerosols.
19 cl, 16 tbl, 19 dwg, 23 ex
FIELD: methods for imparting charge to fibrous webs by means of non-aqueous liquid for usage of said webs as filters in filtering face masks for protection of user's mouth and nose.
SUBSTANCE: method involves wetting web formed from non-conductive fibers with non-aqueous polar liquid; substantially drying web for producing fibrous electronic web. Method differs from known methods of imparting charge to web in that it requires less energy for drying of web than methods using aqueous liquids. Also, many kinds of filaments poorly wetted with aqueous liquids are immediately wetted with non-aqueous liquids.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified method.
12 cl, 2 dwg, 6 tbl, 26 ex
FIELD: fine-fiber filtering materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to fine-fiber filtering materials used for individual means of protection of respiratory organs. The invention offers a protection material, a means of protection containing the offered material and a method of production of the fibrous material providing for electrostatic forming of the fibrous material from a solution of styrene copolymer with acrylonitrile in an organic solvent at the presence of electrostatic additives of bromide or iodide salts of tetraethyl- or tetrabutyl-ammonium. At that a solution containing an additive of a high-molecular methylmethacrylate in amount of 0.001-0.01 mass % in the capacity of dissolvent is used a mixture of ethyl acetate with butyl acetate at their mass ratio in the solution from 1/9 up to 9/1 accordingly. The invention allows to produce a material with improved mechanical characteristics and to provide stability of the production process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the material with improved mechanical characteristics and stability of the production process.
5 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: fine filtration of air; cleaning ventilation emissions from oil mist; cleaning air in venting pipe lines of gas-transfer unit oil tanks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed filter includes filter element with filter medium made from coarse and fine fibers laid in between outer and inner cylinders, cover and bottom. Filter medium is made from longitudinal and transversal oil-resistant synthetic (polypropylene) fibers; ratio of mass of longitudinal and transversal fibers is equal to (6-8) : 1 and ratio of diameters of thin and coarse fibers is equal to (0.5-1) : 10.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of cleaning at considerable increase of service life, oil return coefficient; enhanced ecological safety around compressor stations.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: filtering materials for liquid and gaseous fluids.
SUBSTANCE: filtering material is made of thermoplastic polymeric fibers. The density of material increases downstream, whereas the diameter of fibers decreases downstream. The inner layer of the material has areas the density of fibers in which is lower than the averaged density of upper layers by a factor of 2-6.
EFFECT: enhanced strength.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: polymer materials and gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymeric fibrous filter materials designed for effective cleaning of air stream due to realization of mechanical and electrostatic filtration. Material suitable for use in respiratory masks contains (i) a layer in the form of cloth 1 mm thick made from polypropylene fibers with diameter 0.5-1.5 μm, packaging density 0.25-0.30 g/cm3, and electric charge with surface density 17-21 nCl/cm2, the layer being made by aerodynamic atomization of melt and electrization of fibers in corona discharge field during their formation, and (ii) an additional layer in the form of non-electrized cloth 1 mm thick made from polypropylene fibers with diameter 10-20 μm and packaging density 0.25-0.30 g/cm3, which is placed on the side directly facing air stream to be cleaned, the two layers being attached to each other by spot weld. Presence of two layers results in separate but complementary realization of mechanical and electrostatic filtration.
EFFECT: enhanced air cleaning efficiency and prolonged lifetime of filter material.
FIELD: methods and devices used for production of fibrous electret linen.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to methods and devices used for production of fibrous electret linen. The method of giving of an electrostatic charge to the fibrous non-woven linen provides that the fibrous linen is soaked with a wetting liquid, then it is saturated with a water polar liquid and dried. The gained dry product represents an electret, which may be efficiently used in the air filters, for example, in respirators.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a fibrous electret linen, which may be efficiently used in the air filters, for example, in respirators.
13 cl, 3 ex, 5 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of materials for the filtering water-separating elements used in devices for purification of organic fluids, predominantly, hydrocarbon fuels, oils, oil products from the emulsified water and mechanical impurities, and may be used for purification of aircraft and car fuels in chemical industry, oil refining industry and other industries. The porous reinforced material is produced out of a permeable in all directions polymeric material with a side-porous deep structure having a total porosity of no less than 50 % with the sizes of the elementary pores, predominantly, of 10 - 200 microns. At that the porous reinforced material is formed out of a framed material having filaments or fibers with a diameter, predominantly, of 5 - 400 microns, and an arranged between the above mentioned filaments or fibers filler manufactured out of a porous polyvinyl formal produced by the method of a dew-point structurization with the thermal treatment of a homogenized in water composition containing at least polyvinyl alcohol and aldehyde. The element for the screen-water-separator contains a filtering-coagulating septum embraced by a perforated shell rings and limiting from above and from below covers. At that the septum is made multilayered out of a sheet manufactured out of the above porous reinforced material. The technical result consists in an increased effectiveness of purification of fuels (jet engine fuels and diesel fuels) and the gaseous oil products from water, and also asphalt-resinous and sulfur-containing materials, an increased service life and productivity of the filtering screens based on the indicated filtering-coagulating material.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased effectiveness of purification of jet engine fuels, diesel fuels, gaseous oil products from water and also asphalt-resinous and sulfur-containing materials, service life and productivity of the filtering screens based on the filtering-coagulating material.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of production of filtering materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of production of filtering materials, in particular, to the method of production of the filtering fibrous materials, which may be used in a means of individual protection. The filtering fibrous material is produced by an electrostatic formation of a non-woven fibrous material from a working polymeric fiber-forming solution with dynamic viscosity of 1-30P, electrical conduction of 10-4-10-7 ohm-1 cm-1 in an electrostatic field at a potential difference from 10 up to 150 kV. The solution contains in the capacity of the polymer from 8.9 up to 24.6 mass % of styrene copolymer with 5.2-30.4 mass of acrylonitrile or triple styrene copolymer with 5.2-30.4 mass of acrylonitrile and 3.7-42.1 mass % of methyl methacrylate. As a dissolvent they use ethyl acetate, or butyl acetate either their mixture. The solution in addition contains high-molecular polymethyl methacrylate, a distilled water, the lowest alcohol taken from the group ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, at the following contents of ingredients of the polymeric fiber-forming solution, in mass %: polymeric compound - 8.9-24.6; high-molecular polymethyl methacrylate - 0.011-0.02; distilled water - 0.01-0.1; the lowest alcohol - 17-28; dissolvent - the rest. The efflux of the working polymeric fiber-forming solution is exercised at the volumetric speed of 0.1 up to 6 cm3 /minute. Feeding of the working polymeric fiber-forming solution is conducted from the space interval of 12-42 cm beginning from the point of its coming out from the batching device up to the settling surface. The produced filtering fibrous material contains a technological and a working layers made out of the polymeric fibrous material produced by the above described method. The technological layer material has the surface density of 1-3 g/m2 and is made out of fibers of 3-5 microns diameter. The working layer material is made out of fibers of 1.5-3 microns diameter. The double-layer material has the surface density of 32-38 g/m2, the standard resistance of 0.8-1.2 mm of the water column and the skip coefficient of no less than 95 %. The invention ensures an improved quality of the filtering material due to an increase of efficiency of penetration of fragments with a diameter of 0.3 microns at the standard resistance of 1.0 mm of the water column.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved quality of the filtering material, an increased efficiency of penetration of fragments with a diameter of parts of microns at the standard resistance of 1 mm of the water column.
4 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: natural gas industry; petrochemical industry; oil-producing industry; other branches of industry; methods of production of filtering materials and the filters for purification of gases and aerosols.
SUBSTANCE: the invention offers the filtering material made out of the polysulfone fibers with different diameter of the fibers produced by electromolding from the solution in the organic solvent with addition of an electrolyte; and the frame design filter supplied with the produced material having the density of 30 - 50 g/m2. The invention ensures the effective filtration of the aerosol particles at the high thermostability of the filter.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the effective filtration of the aerosol particles at the high thermostability of the filter.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg