Filtering material, method of producing said material and respirator

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making filtering materials for respirators. Filtering fibre material is proposed, as well as a method of making said material by electrostatic moulding microfibres from a polymer solution in an organic solvent. The material contains fibre of diametre 1-10 mcm from chlorinated polyethylene, characterised by mass content of chlorine of 60-70%, has surface density of 20-60 g/m and is used as the working layer of the respirator.

EFFECT: high mechanical strength of the material with high retention potential.

4 cl

 

The invention relates to the field of fibrous filter material type AF (Petryanov Filters®), used to protect the environment, as well as respiratory organs from toxic aerosols.

Known filter material obtained by the method of electrotorture containing a mixture of fibers with a diameter of 1-10 μm, made of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and a copolymer of styrene and Acrylonitrile (EN 2283164, 10.09.2006).

The disadvantage of this material is the difficulty of its manufacture associated with the use of two spinning solutions.

A method of obtaining a filtering material of a copolymer of styrene with Acrylonitrile diameter fibers 1-10 μm from a spinning solution containing dichloroethane, electrolytic additives and solvents from the series: acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, or ethyl acetate, or butyl acetate. The filter material has a surface density of 20-80 g/m2and aerodynamic resistance 3-60 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S. filter material made working layer respirator type "Petal" (EN 2182511, 20.05.2002).

The disadvantage of the material is its low mechanical characteristics which complicate the Assembly process of the respirator.

Known filter material for respirators, which contains the outer and inner protective SL is and a working layer of polymeric fibrous material, made from a mixture of perchlorovinyl and a copolymer of styrene with methyl methacrylate and acrylnitrile, with perchlorovinyl is present in quantities of 1-9 or 91-99 wt.%. The method of obtaining the filter material includes forming electrostatic fibrous material from a solution containing a mixture of the above polymers in a solution of dichloroethane (EN 2170607, 20.07.2001).

The disadvantage is the complexity of the process of obtaining, due to the complexity of the preparation of the spinning solution.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the filter material of the fibers perchlorovinyl with a diameter of 1 to 10 μm, which has a surface density of 20-50 g/m2and the way to obtain the filter material of the spinning solution containing perchlorovinyl, dichloroethane, electrolytic additives and solvents from the series: acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, or ethyl acetate, or butyl acetate. The filter material is used as the working layer of a respirator having aerodynamic resistance 3-50 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/s (EN 2182510, 20.05.2002).

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is no currently on the market perchlorovinyl resin that meets sanitary standards for respiratory filter material.

The purpose of this breath is retene is the creation of a filtering material for the working layer of the respirator, which has a high mechanical strength while maintaining a high retention.

The problem is solved fibrous filter material obtained by the method of electrostatic molding of the polymer solution in an organic solvent, which contains fibers with a diameter of 1-10 microns of chlorinated polyethylene, characterized by mass of the chlorine content equal to 60-70%, and has a surface density of 20-60 g/m2.

The task is also solved by a method of obtaining a fibrous filter material, which includes electrostatic forming fibers from a solution in dichloroethane containing 5-20 wt.% chlorinated polyethylene with a massive chlorine content of 60-70%, having a dynamic viscosity of 1 to 10 poises.

Preferably, the lead forming from a solution containing electrolytic salt additive is introduced in an amount to provide specific conductance of a solution of 10-7Cm/cm-10-4Cm/see

In addition, the problem is solved by the claimed apparatus containing a working layer of fibrous filter material containing fibers with a diameter of 1-10 microns of chlorinated polyethylene, characterized by mass of the chlorine content equal to 60-70%, and having a surface density of 20-60 g/m2and aerodyna the systematic resistance 3-30 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S.

The use of the polymer of the chlorinated polyethylene provides increased mechanical strength of the fiber, the choice of a polymer having a bulk chlorine content of 60-70%, due to the fact that only in the stated interval chlorine provides good technological quality spinning solution in dichloroethane, with a claimed range of concentration of polymer in the solution due to the optimal dynamic viscosity of the spinning solution allows to obtain fibers with a diameter in the specified range. The stated conductivity of the spinning solution is optimal for conducting stable of electrospinning.

Below are examples of receipt of declared material and respirator based on it.

Example 1.

Prepare a spinning solution containing 7 wt.% chlorinated polyethylene having a bulk chlorine content of 66% and a dynamic viscosity of 5 P. Bring the conductivity of the solution up to 1·10-5S/cm by adding a solution of 0.001 wt.% tetrabutylammonium iodide.

The solution is subjected to molding electrocapillary method. The potential difference at the electrodes is 40 kV, the volume flow solution of 1 capillary 9·10-4cm3/s

On a grounded electrode a layer of microfibers with a diameter of 1-3 μm, the surface is based density of 35 g/m 2, aerodynamic 16 PA.

Of the obtained material are made working layer and going respirators type "Petal".

Below are data on the composition of the spinning solutions and physico-mechanical and filtration properties of the resulting fibrous material.

Data on the composition of the spinning solutions, operational properties of filter materials are summarized in tables 1, 2.

Table 1
No.The solution composition, wt.%Characteristics of the solution
The CCEEDCTBAη poiseλ, Cm/cm
1495,80,21,58·10-5
2792,90,15,01·10-5
3990,95 0,057,02·10-6

Table 2
Material capabilityno material table 1
123
The diameter of the fibers, mcm0,5-11-37-10
The mass of the unit area, g/m2203560
Aerodynamic resistance at 1 cm/s, PA30165
Overshoot factor on CMT, %0,0020,0120,0015
Elongation at break, %404650

It follows from the presented tables, physico-mechanical characteristics of the material obtained exceed the relevant characteristics of the Mat is the real prototype, when this filtering properties are located on the same level.

1. Filtering fibrous material obtained by the method of electrostatic molding of the polymer solution in an organic solvent, characterized in that it contains fibers with a diameter of 1-10 microns of chlorinated polyethylene, characterized by mass of the chlorine content equal to 60-70%, and has a surface density of 20-60 g/m2.

2. The method of obtaining fibrous filter material including electrostatic forming fibers from a polymer solution in dichloroethane, characterized in that the shaping is done from a solution containing 5-20 wt.% chlorinated polyethylene with a massive chlorine content of 60-70%, having a dynamic viscosity of 1 to 10 Poises.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the molding lead from a solution containing electrolytic salt additive is introduced in an amount to provide specific conductance of a solution of 10-7-10-4Cm/see

4. Respirator containing a working layer of fibrous filter material, the protective layers, the obturator, and means fastening, characterized in that the functional layer is made of a material described in claim 1, and has aerodynamic resistance 3-30 PA at the air flow rate of 1 cm/S.



 

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the effective filtration of the aerosol particles at the high thermostability of the filter.

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