Inertial-satellite navigation, orientation and stabilisation system

FIELD: physics; navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to navigation satellite corrected inertial navigation and gyrostabilisation systems for sea objects and can be used on ships and other vessels in a wide range of navigating conditions. The inertial-satellite navigation, orientation and stabilisation system has a gyrostabilised platform in a triaxial cardan suspension with angle sensors, on which are mounted three rate integrating gyroscopes and three accelerometres, digital device, corrector, where outputs of the angle sensors for rotation of the rings of the cardan suspension and outputs of the accelerometres of the gyrostabilised platform are connected to inputs of the digital device, one of the outputs of which is connected to the input of the gyrostabilised platform, and the other to the corrector. The inertial-satellite navigation system is fitted with a control console which generates system control signals, and the system is also fitted with an accelerated correction unit, the input of which receives current values of coordinates of navigation satellites used, generated by the satellite receiving device and current device values of parametres of orientation of the gyrostabilised platform, a channel switch for standard and accelerated correction, where outputs of the correctors are connected to inputs of the switch, outputs of which are connected to the digital device.

EFFECT: determination of course error from coordinate data of only two satellites of a satellite navigation system and current device parametres of orientation of an object, generated by an inertial navigation system.

4 dwg, 1 tbl


The invention relates to the field corrected by the navigation satellites inertial navigation systems and gyrostabilization for offshore facilities and can be used on ships and vessels in a wide range of sailing conditions. This inertial systems provide a solution to the problem of determining the position coordinates, heading and speed of sea object, and solving orientation and stabilization of on-Board sensors, weapons, and generate dynamic parameters of the motion of the ship. Satellite tools provide periodic correction of inertial navigation system (ins).

Currently known and tested domestic picking corrected ins [1], mandatory the property which is the need of the use of the satellite navigation AIDS (SNA).

Also known marine uniform system of inertial navigation and stabilization (EVERY "Ladoga - M) [2], adopted as a prototype. The system is designed to generate the full range of output parameters that are required for solving navigation problems, and to provide information ship complexes air defense, anti-submarine and managed missile weapons.

The development of the "Ladoga - M" completed in 1999, the system has been tested in the complete volume.

The system prototype is represented by the flowchart in figure 1.

EVERY "Ladoga - M" generates and displays the following information:

- geographical coordinates - latitude and longitude;

the course geography in the plane of the horizon;

- the corners of the pitching side, measured in the plane of the frame, and pitching angles, measured in a vertical plane;

- angular velocity side and pitching and the exchange rate;

two components of linear velocity of the ship relative to the ground in a geographic coordinate system;

three components of the instantaneous velocity of the vehicle in the geographic coordinate system, caused by motion and orbital motion of the ship at the place of installation Gidropribor;

three components of the linear displacement of a ship in a geographic coordinate system, caused by motion and orbital motion of the ship at the place of installation Gidropribor;

- the sum of the angle of tilt of the deck.

The system implements a classical algorithm of Ann semianalytic type of correction.

The system includes: SE - Gidropribor (1), TC - device thermal stabilization (2), UMT - power amplifier thermal stabilization (3), PC - digital device (4), PU - a control unit (5), B-41 - computer Baguette - 41" (6).

The system operates as follows. From SE in PC through analog-to-digital converters do the three components of acceleration (W x, Wy, Wz), the angles of pitch and azimuth angle (θk, ψ, A), and from the HRC in SE serves signals

x, Ωy, Ωz).

The correction is carried out by EVERY generation of the correcting information of the navigation data (Δ) algorithms computer B-41 (6) according to the HRC (4) ND and receiving equipment of satellite navigation systems (SNS), generating information about the coordinates and the velocity Vc.

The system gets the following external information:

speed from Las Vl,

- rough course from the gyrocompass Toabout,

coordinates φc, λcthe velocity Vwithand the travel angle from the receiver of the SNA.

The system has two operating modes:

- adjust mode (CU),

- offline mode (AR).

In each run of the system is its calibration, which lasts from 6 to 8 hours (depending on conditions). Calibration requires the receipt of external positional and speed data. For CU uses information from the receiver SNA and lag, and art only from the log.

Despite the high performance of the system, shown in the process of testing, not to mention significant deficiencies relating to the interaction of EVERY "Ladoga - M" and the means of correction.

Being a non-Autonomous radio navigation system of the SNA show the and itself dependent on many external factors, affecting the efficient functioning of its component parts. These factors include: the quantitative composition and condition of the orbital constellation of space vehicles (OG KA), the functioning of the ground control center (GCC), the operation of onboard equipment consumers (AP). In addition, the effects are the communication channels of the SNA. All these and other disturbance lead to the deterioration of the characteristics of operation of the correction system and the implementation difficulties of the adjustable mode EVERY.

In the normal state of the SNA contains EXHAUST gas from 21-24 KA, uniformly distributed in the near-earth space. In accordance with the requirements of the International Maritime Organization, the current system must have certain properties. The main performance characteristics of the SNA are availability and integrity. In accordance with the requirements of the global SNA in a normal mode of operation should ensure the availability >99.8% for 30 days, and the integrity of the system must be <10 C. In the modern real conditions GLONASS correction system does not operate normally EVERY "Ladoga - M in the adjusted mode and leads to the improvement of equipment and the communication structure of navigational AIDS.

Among the problems to be solved EVERY, there C is giving information support ship complexes and anti-submarine managed missile weapons. Use of weapons is not confined to certain regions and can be used in any place and at any time. According to EVERY coordinate position and course of the ship is targeting and firing rockets. A necessary condition for achieving the objectives, are the maximum accuracy and secrecy of the operation. Regular usage for EVERY information support of missile weapons accompanied by the need for a long session observation signals of the SNA and the danger of being detected by means of observation of the enemy. The reduction in the duration of the session observation leads to less accurate production data kurokaze.

The technical solution to the problem of minimizing the time interval of pre-launch missiles and increase the accuracy of targeting is to implement the following method for determining an adjustment to a rate based on the coordinates of only two satellites SNA and current instrument parameter values orientation of the object produced by the Ann. The implementation of the method provides both one-time and continuous measurements with high accuracy amendments of the course in real time in any area of navigation, including high-latitude regions of the Earth.

At the present time to determine the course and pitching angles of the object signals sredneformatnykh navigation satellites use the form in the main phase method. This method is based on the use of spaced receiving antennas, fixed relative to the housing of the rolling object, followed by measuring and converting the phase difference of the received signals.

However, the implementation phase method on offshore facilities is fraught with difficulties. In [3] it is noted that when determining the orientation of an object according to the phase measurements using interferometers with a base of up to several meters. At the same time, real gazoizmeritelnye devices have unambiguous range measurements within the same wavelength. This causes the problem of non-uniqueness of solutions in measuring the phase difference of signals received at spaced antennas. In addition, due to the identical high-frequency channels of the equipment arise systematic measurement errors that need to be considered when solving the navigation task.

Attempt the practical implementation phase method on sea mobile objects do not give grounds for excessive optimism. Implemented the accuracy of the orientation parameters of the object often does not meet specified requirements [4]. The reasons for the decrease in the accuracy of the equipment, in addition, are the errors of the alignment of the extended antenna systems on the ship, the non-rigidity of the structural elements of the object, m is Holocaust distribution of signals.

To solve the problem of determining the orientation parameters of the object we propose to use the position data of the navigation satellites used for the purpose of observation (figure 2).

Using data about the coordinates of the satellites SNA to determine the orientation of the object if known bond angles ψ, υ, γ with the data obtained in the process of observation. This relationship is revealed when considering the expressions for the projections of the vectors KA sight axis Tigranian ξηζ and Mxyz (figure 2). In the present case, these expressions correspond to the matrix based

where rcxrcyrcz- coordinates of the SPACECRAFT in the system Mxyz;

rrr- coordinates of the SPACECRAFT in the system Mξηζ;

transform matrix corresponding to the considered geometry [5].

According to the gyro system produced the current values of the orientation angles of the ship, which contain errors.

The instrumental values of the angles of roll, pitch and yaw can be represented by the expression

where ψa, υathat γa- the instrument angle values;

ψ, υ, γ is the true angle values;

Δψ, Δυ, Δγ - error framing angles.

Since the angles ψ, υ, γ and ψand, υandthat γandrepresent the orientation of the true and the priori position of the trihedron Mxyz distance in the axis system, their mutual position can be described by the matrix guides of the cosines for the case of a small misalignment of the coordinate systems

where I is the identity matrix;

is a skew-symmetric matrix of the errors of the production orientation angles offline.

Taking into account formulas (3) the expression (1) takes the form

where BAmatrix guides of the cosines In containing the instrumental values of orientation angles.

Thus, the vector-matrix dependence (4), clearly reflecting the relationship of the current instrument angles ψand, υandthat γandand ship equipment SNA (rrr,rcxrcyrczwith error values Autonomous measurements of angles (Δψ, Δυ, Δγ), subject to adjustment.

The expression (4) given the matrix CBAquite difficult. However, when solving practical problems, one can assume that the angles ψ, υ, γ is changed in the range of (0°÷±6°), when you can imagine cosx≈1, sinx≈x, x2≈0. Then the matrix CBAtakes the form

Taking into account formulas (5) the mathematical description of the communication satellite and offline information displays a considerable range of real operating conditions of the equipment at the marine facility and can the be used to build an algorithm for calculation and correction of errors of the devices of the Autonomous determination of the orientation parameters.

Given the need to determine the orientation of an object in space according to the signals of at least two SPACECRAFT, we can write (4) in vector-matrix form of a system of linear equations for the unknown values of the errors Autonomous means of determining angles

Further transformations allow us to obtain formulas for unknown (Δψ, Δυ, Δγ).

Transformation of equations (6) are the following :

1. Select matching pairs of equations of the system (6) for the first and second SPACECRAFT relative to the variables (Δψ, Δυ), (Δψ, Δγ), (Δυ, Δγ).

2. The solution of each pair of the equations for unknown Δψ, Δυ, Δγ. For azimuthal channel generation amendments received

Analysis of the calculation formulas of the amendments to the orientation option allows you to determine the amount needed to calculate the information. This information includes the full set of current instrumental values of roll angles (γand), trim (υa), yaw (ψandobject and the full set of current values of the coordinates of two navigation KA topocentric (rrrand associated with the object (rcxrcyrcz) coordinate systems (s=1,2).

The formation of the main elements (rrr) calculation formula generation trampling down what it is algorithms receiving equipment of the SNA. High accuracy and reliability determine the SPACECRAFT coordinates in the normal mode of operation of the SNA guaranteed high performance global navigation system.

The procedure to calculate the coordinates of the navigation of SPACECRAFT in the system associated with the object, (rcxrcyrcz) can be carried out on the instrument angles ψa, υathat γa. These values can be used as elements of a matrix to calculate the coordinates of the navigation satellites. The efficiency of the algorithm is confirmed by the results of mathematical modeling.

To assess the possibilities of the considered method of mathematical modeling of the process of course correction. Used a mathematical model of GLONASS in a regular orbital fleet.

On the Earth's surface in the plane of the Meridian defined 8 control points, in which the task of definition amendment kurokaze. In the control points reception apparatus receives signals SNA, generates data about the coordinates of visible navigation satellites and selects satellites. After selecting a pair of satellites that are suitable to determine the orientation, and receive offline measurement data are calculated current values amendments kurokaze.

The results of the simulation is shown in the table and presented in graph form in figure 3.

The table contains the numerical values of the errors in the determination of the rate (ψ=34.377 coal. min) in the range of latitudes (0°-80°) on the time interval (t=4800-4850 with). The correction process is performed on the two signals of navigation satellites, whose numbers are given in the table. Correction of the results presents numerical values of the amendment of the definition of the course (angle Δψ. min) in increments of 10 seconds

The simulation results of the process of developing amendments Δψ.
tLatitude, degΔψ,minψ, minNo. KA1No. CA
4830 0-3.00634.377324
4840100.031 34.377322
485020-0.1234.3773 22
4820500.393 34.377120
483060-0.04134.3774 22
4850 70-0.16234.377421

Figure 3 shows the graphs of the error of making amendments rate Δψ depending on iraty designated object and rooms used by the navigation satellites (1; 3; 4). The nature of the change of graphics errors indicates high precision production amendments of the course according to the SNA. Throughout the range of variation of the latitude of the object (φ=0...80°) error Δψ does not exceed -3...+4 coal. minutes no dependence of the accuracy of the latitude of the place of the object. At the same time obvious connection error and relative location of the navigation satellites and the object. The solution is carried out in real time.

The results of the research can be concluded about the high efficiency of the considered method for correcting orientation parameters of the object.

The method of determining an adjustment to a course on data about the coordinates of the satellites is as follows:

- choose available for observation constellation of navigation satellites;

form pairs from the available satellites;

- select a pair of satellites with the lowest value of the geometric factor;

- take the data of the gyro system on the current values of the orientation parameters of the object;

- accept signals measurements and ephemeris information satellite systems;

- compute the coordinates of the satellites in topocentric and associated with the object coordinate systems;

- calculate the corrections to the current values of the orientation parameters of the object according to the current values of parameters Orient the tion, the coordinates of the satellites in the topocentric and associated with the object coordinate systems.

Technical solution to a problem is in the process of interaction of elements of the structure of the corrected navigation, orientation and stabilization.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, figure 4, which shows the corrected system inertial navigation and stabilization, containing a gyro-stabilized platform (1) three-axis gimbals with angle sensors, in which there are three two-stage integrating gyroscope and three linear accelerometer; digital device (4)that implements the algorithms of the inertial system, as well as staff (6) and back (7) blocks of correction and the correction switch (8). Thus the outputs of the rotation angle sensors of the rings Kardanov suspension and outputs of the accelerometers are connected to digital inputs of the device, one output of which is connected to the input of the gyro-stabilized platform, and the other is connected to the correction blocks, the outputs of which are connected with the switch correction (8). The system is controlled from a panel (PU), providing the control signal forming system according to the team For coming from user equipment in the SNA. The team included staff (B-41), and thepblock expedited correction (BEECH).

With ructure retains the basic functional elements and relationships of a prototype system, and introduces a new element - block expedited correction (BEECH) and new communication BEECH with a digital device (PC) and the equipment of the consumer SNA for the generation of the coordinates of satellites used.

The interaction of block expedited correction with elements of Ann is in the correct mode. Adjust mode is activated by signals AP SNA orpmeaning the receipt of corrective information. The signal turns on native CU. The equipment of the consumer produces information about the current values of the position coordinates of the object on the inputs standard error correction block (B-41) receives navigation data (ND) and satellite information & Phi;with, λwith. Algorithms B-41 to produce the current values of the corrections of errors EVERY(Δ), which is fed to the input unit of the HRC in position I of the switch contacts of the PC.

For signalpimplemented backup CU. The equipment of the consumer produces information about the current values of the coordinates of satellites used, the inputs of the block expedited correction (BEECH) receives navigation data (ND) and the position information of the satellites. Algorithms BEECH produce the current values of the corrections of errors of the Ann, which is fed to the input unit of the HRC in position II of the switch contacts of the PC.

The proposed structure interaction navigational AIDS in complex devices, the URS provides global, high secrecy and high precision operation.


1. Marine navigation equipment. Handbook edited by Smirnov ER - SPb.: "Elmore", 2002.

2 Vgideos and other unified inertial navigation and stabilization "Ladoga-M". Marine electronics №1(4), 2003, p.26-30.

3. Technical proposals for the development of navigation equipment. / Krasnoyarsk: Institute of Radio engineering KSTU, 1996.

4. Andreev, A.A., Kokorin VI and other Results of the high-latitude trials of modern Russian marine compasses. Proceedings of the international conference on integrated navigation systems. - SPb.: CSRI "Elektropribor", 2004, p.137-139.

5. Rivkin S. Statistical synthesis of gyroscopic devices. - Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1970.

Inertial-satellite navigation system, orientation and stabilization containing gyrostabilized platform in three-axis gimbals with angle sensors, in which there are three two-stage integrating gyroscopes and three accelerometers, a digital device that implements the algorithms of the inertial system, the error correction block, ensuring the functioning of the system in normal adjustment mode, and outputs the rotation angle sensors of the rings Kardanov suspension and outputs of the accelerometers, gyro-stabilized platform soedinenii inputs digital device, one of the outputs connected to the input of the gyro-stabilized platform, and the other is connected to the correction block, while the inertial-satellite navigation system is equipped with a remote control for generating signals of the control system, wherein the system is fitted with a block of expedited correction, the input of which receives the generated satellite reception equipment current coordinate values used by the navigation satellites and the current instrument settings orientation gyrostabilized platform, switch channels standard and expedited correction, and outputs correction blocks are connected to the inputs of the switch, the output of which is connected to the input of the digital device.


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