Heat recovery unit

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at heat exchanging and can be used in energy sector. A heat recovery unit comprises a casing divided by a leakproof baffle into the cells for the cold and hot media, and a heat tube bundle passing through the cells and fixed in the baffle. The cold medium cell is divided into two chambers by a wall being perpendicular to the baffle between the cold and hot media cells, namely into the cold medium preheating chamber and final heating chamber. The former chamber is filled by heat tubes along its total height and the latter chamber is made with a tank which is free from the heat tubes and made in the chamber upper part. The chambers are interconnected by a pipeline. Heat tubes in the hot medium cell or in the cold medium cell or in both cells can be ribbed.

EFFECT: expanded applicability and high economic parametres of the performance along with high heat engineering efficiency and reliability.

4 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the sector of energy and can be used in the development of waste heat exchangers to produce steam or hot water using heat flow vibronic gas emissions from different fuels and EnergoPolyus equipment.

Known fire-tube boiler (see the book Kovalev A.P., Lelei NS, Panasenko PPM and other Steam generators. - M.-L.: Energy, 1965, S. 23) is composed of a casing filled with water, and the pipe (or two tubes) of large diameter in it, which is called the flame. In this boiler, which can operate in heating mode water or generate steam, combustion products are consistently one or one and then the other pipe (if there are two fire tubes of the boiler is called East Lancashire) or divided into two parallel streams. The main disadvantage of this boiler is its low production, which depends on the area of heating surface, which is relatively small.

More productive is another type of boiler, which is called smoke or combined (locomobile) (see the book Lichtman M., Hrapovic LO Equipment and operation of boilers.- Kyiv: Tekhnika, 1997, p.46, 53), which is composed of shorter heating pipe connected to the beam tube of small diameter pipes. Cycling is such boilers is increased in comparison with the fire due to the development of surface through which the heat exchange, and this is the total area of the inner surface of the pipe, which is in direct contact with the hot medium is heated and transfers heat through the walls of the pipes on their outer surface.

This analogue also has significant drawbacks. In accordance with Newton's law of Ramana passed from combustion products heat flux Q is directly proportional to the heat transfer coefficient α, the square F pressure and temperature Δt or the difference flue gas temperatures tbecame popularand the pipe wall on the inner surface of the pipe tSTT, that is, Q=α·F·Δt.

The heat transfer coefficient from the gas medium has a relatively small magnitude (of the order of several tens of W/m2·) In comparison with the magnitude of the coefficients of heat transfer from the outer surface of the flue pipe to the water (of the order of several thousand W/m2·To). The coefficient α has a low value because in this type of boiler is relatively ineffective method of heat transfer, namely in terms of the longitudinal flow smooth internal surfaces of pipes. Thus, critical (which determines the efficiency of heat transfer) is the efficiency of heat transfer from the gas medium to the inner surface of the flue pipe. The possibility of increasing this efficiency is productivity (at constant values of α and Δt is the increase in the area of the inner surface of the flue pipe. This can be done in two ways. The first is to increase the number of fire tubes. The possibilities in this direction is limited due to technological difficulties create a tight beam with a large number of small diameter pipes. Another approach consists in the development of the inner surface of the flue pipe by equipping it with additional surface, for example, in the form of longitudinal ribs. However, this is inefficient, technologically complex and expensive way, which is almost never used in practice. Manufacturing technology tube boiler quite complex, which is determined primarily by the complexity of creating collector smoke tube bundle in the end surface of the flame tube, which is made by welding. The distance between adjacent tubes in the tube bundle are determined by the technological possibilities and are significant, and accordingly, the dimensions of the boiler will be significant. In addition, the repair of such boiler if cracks or pores in the welds laborious.

As a prototype of the selected closest in technical essence to the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger (see USSR author's certificate No. 1179086, IPC F28D 15/00, 15/02, publ. 1985), comprising a housing separated by a sealed partition into compartments for hot and cold environments, and a bundle of heat pipes running across the compartments and secured in the partition.

In this technical solution, the efficiency and the reliability is improved in comparison with similar due to the use of heat pipes that are installed so that their evaporative plots are located in the compartment for hot environment, for example vibronic flue gases and the condensation is installed in the compartment for cold environment, for example water. Reusable increase the surface heat transfer is achieved that the gas flow submerged evaporator sections of the bundle of heat pipes that, as a rule, are equipped with ribs. The temperature across the surface evaporation is approximately the same. The same applies to the surface of the heat transfer in the cold environment. In the prototype uses a more efficient method of heat transfer, namely in terms of transverse wash external surfaces of the heat pipes. Reliability is ensured by the fact that the heat pipe is fixed and sealed in the wall. It is known in the energy sector and a well developed seal in the tube plate. When the failure of one or more heat pipes does not change significantly the heat transfer ability of the heat-exchanger. This also is not violated density between compartments because even in the unlikely event of depressurization of the heat pipe from a hot or cold medium density remains its obolos and from another environment. That is, the failure of one or even several heat pipes, which is unlikely, cannot be the cause of the loss density and subsequent mixing of hot and cold environments. Heat pipes can be replaced if necessary. Heat pipes efficiently transmit the heat flow into the Bay with a cold environment. The prototype also has relatively small dimensions and weight, which ranges from 1/3 to 1/5 of the size and weight of the flue boilers (see, for example, the book Vasiliev L.L., Kiselev VG, Matveev, Y., Molodkin PF heat Exchangers-heat recovery steam generators for heat pipes. - Minsk: Science and technology, 1987, p.85).

The disadvantages of the prototype is that this recovery will receive only one hot environment, namely in the form of a liquid (usually it's water). This reduces the economic performance of the heat exchanger, because to get hot environment in the form of steam need to have another heat exchanger, and therefore, it is necessary to spend money on its purchase. If you get hot environment of the two species in this recovery, it will work poorly because vapour and its accumulation in the upper part of the compartment to the cold environment of the sites condensation heat pipes, which will be in this part will not work on the generation of a pair, respectively, and eff is aktivnosti exchanger will be reduced. Discharge of produced steam will also be complicated by the presence in the vapour space of the bundle of heat pipes. The existing temperature and pressure in such a heat exchanger-the heat exchanger during operation of the steam generation will be used inefficiently due to lack economizer part and, accordingly, the preheating of feed water from its lowest temperature at the entrance. In addition, in the compartment to the cold environment in this mode of operation will take place conditions underheating and boiling may be unstable as the heating water up to the saturation temperature. This is totally unacceptable for the steam generator, which should be stable. When the heat-exchanger in the receive mode of the heated medium in liquid form no economizer part also leads to inefficient use of the available temperature driving force.

The basis of the invention lies in the task of creating a heat exchanger, in which the new structure of the compartment for cold environment would allow for the extension directions of use and high economic performance heat exchanger with high thermal efficiency and reliability.

The problem is solved in that in a heat exchanger, comprising a housing, a divided hermit who offered the partition into compartments for hot and cold environments and a bundle of heat pipes passing through the compartments and secured in the wall according to the invention compartment for cold environment is divided into two chambers by a wall perpendicular to the wall, namely the camera preheating and final heating of the cold environment, and the first of them are filled along the entire height of the heat pipes and the second made with the formation in the upper part of this chamber capacity, free from heat pipes, while the cameras are connected by pipeline. Heat pipes in the compartment for hot environment, or in the compartment for cold environment, or in both compartments can be equipped with ribs.

Performing a case split sealed by a partition into compartments for hot and cold environments with a bundle of heat pipes that pass through the compartments and fixed in the wall, with compartment for cold environment is divided into two chambers by a wall perpendicular to the wall, namely the camera preheating and final heating of the cold environment, and the first of them are filled along the entire height of the heat pipes and the second made with the formation in the upper part of this chamber capacity, free from heat pipes, and these chambers are connected by piping, and heat pipes can be equipped with ribs in the compartment for hot environments or compartment for cold environment, or in both compartments is, allows you to expand the areas of use of the heat exchanger by providing a hot environment in the form of steam and hot environment in the form of liquid. The economic performance of this heat exchanger will be high due to the extension directions of its use, i.e. the heat exchanger allows you to save money on the purchase of two heat exchange devices for two hot environments. The proposed heat exchanger will be equally efficient to work at getting either hot environments, so as to obtain, it is reasonable to use all available temperature and pressure. High efficiency heat exchanger is ensured by the fact that the available disposable temperature and pressure used better and more profitable way. For example, during operation of the heat exchanger is in the receive mode pair is as follows. Wybranie gases are directed to the heat exchanger into the hot medium from the side opposite to the location of the camera pre-heating the compartment to the cold environment. That is, the flow vibronic gases supplied to the evaporating sections of the heat pipe, the condensation sections are placed in the chamber pre-heating already substantially cooled, partially utraty is their potential in the chamber of the final heating of the cold environment. Here he gives the rest of their capacity, which is used for preheating the cold environment in the form of water to a temperature slightly below the saturation temperature, that is, brings a cold environment to a state close to boiling. Next, the flow of exhaust gases enters the chimney and emitted into the environment. Getting into the final camera-heating the pre-heated almost to the saturation temperature cold environment immediately starts to boil using high initial heat capacity of the hot medium, forming a vapour phase. That is, there is the rational use of temperature and pressure. If the heat exchanger was not camera preheating, then when you hit a cold environment into a cold medium boiling could begin only after warming up a cold medium to saturation temperature and would not be stable, and would be carried out periodically, that is, the heat exchanger would work in pulse mode, which is unacceptable. During operation of the heat exchanger is in the receive mode heated cold environment in the form of a liquid pre-heated in the chamber pre-heating contributes to the stable operation of malotilate with the rational use of disposable temperature and pressure.

The proposed heat exchanger saves you okay reliability due to the use of this technical solution is well spent sealing the tube bundle in the tube plate and heat pipes in each double insulating barrier between environments, the heat transfer between which they conduct. Education is free from the heat pipes to the tank in the upper part of the chamber the final heating of the cold environment creates favorable conditions for heat pipes in the receive mode the heated environment in the form of steam. The resulting vapor is accumulated in this capacity, and the entire length of the plots condensation is in a cold environment in the form of a boiling liquid, which does not allow them to overheat, and can run at an optimal temperature.

Technical essence and principle of the proposed heat exchanger is explained by the drawing.

The drawing shows a heat exchanger in the cut. The heat exchanger includes a housing 1 with a sealed partition 2 therein. This partition 2 divides the housing 1 Bay 3 hot and cold 4 environments. Through both sections 3 and 4 passes a beam of heat pipes 5, which are fixed in a sealed partition wall 2. Wall 6 divides the compartment for cold environment 4 camera preheating of this medium 7 and the camera its final heat 8, which are interconnected by the pipe 9. In the chamber 8 is formed free from of heat pipes 5 capacity 10. Compartment 3 is equipped with an input 11 and output 12 pipes. The chamber 7 has an inlet pipe 13, and the camera 8 to the outlet 14.

The heat exchanger operates as follows. The heat exchanger can operate on the uh modes.

1. The mode of receiving the heated environment in the form of liquid. The cold environment, which must be heated, for example water, is fed into a cold medium 4 through the inlet 13. Hot environment, for example wybranie flue gases through the inlet 11 is fed into the hot medium 3, which heats the evaporator sections of the heat pipes 5 and exits through the outlet 12. The coolant heat pipes 5 boils and evaporates and migrates in the form of steam due to the latent heat of vaporization the heat flow into the cold environment 4. In the compartment 4, the coolant heat pipes 5 is condensed on their condensing sections are cooled cold environment, which in this heat. With the cold environment fills the chamber 7, the pre-heated in this chamber, after which the pipe 9 is fed into the chamber of the final heating of the cold environment 8 to complete its completion (including capacity 10), where the final degraves and sent to the consumer through the outlet 14. The condensed coolant heat pipes 5 is returned in liquid form to the evaporator sections of these heat pipes into a hot environment 3.

2. The mode of receiving the heated environment in the form of steam. The cold environment in liquid form, which must be converted into steam, for example water, is fed into a cold medium 4 is input via the pipe 13. Hot environment, for example wybranie flue gases through the inlet 11 is fed into the hot medium 3, which heats the evaporator sections of the heat pipes 5 and exits through the outlet 12. The coolant heat pipes 5 boils and evaporates and migrates in the form of steam due to the latent heat of vaporization the heat flow into the cold environment 4. In the compartment 4, the coolant heat pipes 5 is condensed on their condensing sections, cooled cold environment, which in this heat. The cold environment in the form of liquid completely fills the chamber 7 and pre-heated in this chamber, which acts as a water economizer, and then in the form of subcooled prior to the saturation temperature of the liquid goes through the pipe 9 into the chamber of the final heating of the cold environment 8, where doreverse to saturation temperature and turns into a vapor that accumulates in the free from of heat pipes of the tank 10. The process of obtaining the pair should be conducted so that the cold environment in the chamber of the final heating fully covers the condensing sections of the heat pipes, creating a boundary surface between the boiling liquid and vapour. After this steam is sent to the consumer through the outlet 14. The condensed coolant heat pipes 5 is returned in the form of liquid and Priceline plots of these heat pipes into a hot environment 3.

The heat exchanger is equipped with all necessary equipment, namely, sight column, water gauge glass, safety valve, automatic control systems and security and others, and when operating in different modes, use the relevant part of that equipment.

Manufactured and tested an experimental model of a heat exchanger, having in its composition body, which was divided sealed by a partition into compartments for hot and cold environments. Through a tight partition passes the beam of heat pipes, evaporative areas are placed in the compartment for hot environment, and condensation - in compartment for cold environment. Heat pipes were fitted with ribs in the compartment for hot environment. Compartment for cold environment is divided into two chambers by a wall perpendicular to the partition, the first of which side of the input pipe to the cold environment is completely filled by the height of the heat pipes, was performing a camera function preheating (economizer) and in which there were lots of condensation of the latter (along the gas) number of heat pipes, and the second, where there was lots of condensation of the remaining rows of heat pipes, was performing a camera function of the final heating of the cold environment, namely degreane to saturation temperature and evaporation. Both cameras would be and are interconnected by pipes. The heat exchanger was tested in the mode of the water heater (mode 1), and in the mode of the steam generator (mode 2). As a hot medium was used flow vibronic natural gas combustion products from the process furnace.

In the tests were obtained such characteristics exchanger operating in nominal mode of operation of the furnace.

1. The flow of products of combustion, nm3/s0,86
2. Flue gas temperature at inlet,°C270
3. The temperature of the combustion products at the exit,°C130
4. Aerodynamic drag, PA220
5. Recycled heat flux, kW170
6. Heating capacity (water heater), kW170
7. The steam (steam generator), kg/s0,07
8. Working pressure water (steam), MPa, not more than0,07
9. Dimensions taloudelliset the RA, mm
width950
length820
height1550
10. Weight, kg590
11. Energy-saving effect
11.1. Savings of natural gas due to the heat utilization
wybranego the flow of gases, m3per hour19
11.2. Increasing the utilization rate of fuel to the furnace, %25

The experimental sample of the heat exchanger is stable and operates reliably from the time of its launch (December 2005).

1. Heat exchanger, comprising a housing separated by a sealed partition into compartments for hot and cold environments, and a bundle of heat pipes passing through the compartments and secured in the partition, wherein the compartment for cold environment is divided into two chambers by a wall perpendicular to the wall, namely the camera preheating and final heating of the cold environment, and the first of them are filled along the entire height of the heat pipes and the second made with the formation in the upper part of this chamber capacity free from of heat pipes, and the camera are connected by pipeline.

2. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat pipes are equipped with ribs in the compartment for hot environment.

3. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat pipes are equipped with ribs in the compartment to the cold environment.

4. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, characterized in that the heat pipes are equipped with ribs in the compartments for hot and cold environments.



 

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2 dwg

FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.

EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.

7 dwg

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