Flow diaphragm cell

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: flow cell has a housing in which there is a row of cathode and anode chambers, separated by diaphragms and have metal plates-electrodes, which act as cathodes and anodes, two electric buses, connected to same-pole metal plates-electrodes, ac voltage stepdown transformer and a rectifier, the ac voltage inputs of which are connected to the output winding of the stepdown transformer. A dual electric switch is also included, which has two simultaneously switching two-channel switches, each of which has two inputs and one output. The first input of the first and the second input of the second switches and the second input of the first and first input of the second switches are connected, respectively, to the negative and positive terminals of the rectifier, and terminals of the first and second switches are connected to the first and second electric buses. There is also a system for joining inlet and outlet pipes of the cell and a pipe mixer of catholyte and anolyte.

EFFECT: longer operation of flow cell without deterioration of quality of the end product and widening of its functional capabilities.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to applied electrochemistry and can be used to retrieve from the water Catolica, anolyte and their mixtures, which, in turn, can be used as fluids, stimulating and normalizing processes in various biological objects and liquids-antiseptics.

Known flow diaphragm electrolyzer containing a General basis, six of the same electrode blocks, pipelines, pump, two rectifier, voltage regulator, control Cabinet and power network [1]. Each electrode unit comprises a cylindrical housing, the inner surface of which acts as the cathode, a cylindrical rod positioned on the axis of the housing, the outer surface of which acts as the anode, and a neutral aperture made in the form of a segment of a cylindrical tube and located between the inner surface of the housing and a cylindrical rod, tube to enter the water simultaneously in the cathode and the anode chamber, which is located in the lower part of the housing, the socket for output Catolica located in the upper part of the housing, and a nozzle for outputting the anolyte, which is located in the lower part of the body. All the electrode units are connected in parallel through the pipeline network and parallel electrical network.

The disadvantage of electrolysis is the fact that the process on the surfaces of the cathodes and the surfaces of the diaphragms, facing the cathode, deposited layers of non-conductive electrical shock salts that interfere with the operation of the electrolyzer. This requires periodic cleaning the surface of the cathode and the diaphragm by filling the cathode chambers of a strong acid or by disassembly of cylindrical units, mechanical removal of layers of salts from the internal surfaces of buildings and submerged orifice in the liquid, dissolving salt in their day.

Known technical solution hardening carbon electrodes diaphragm (membrane) of the cell, as claimed in a utility model, with the formula: "a Cell that contains two carbon electrodes, AC adapter, power plug, diaphragm, housing and capacity for activated water, and an electric plug is connected to the input of the rectifier contained in a housing, characterized in that the device entered tandem switch two position, two LEDs and limit their current resistors and outputs of the rectifier connected to the secondary contacts of the tandem switch, and one pair of cross-extreme switch contacts associated with each other and through appropriate resistors with two LEDs and connected to the positive potential output of the rectifier, and a second pair of cross-extreme contact is interrelated and connected directly to the output of negative polarity rectifier" [2]. Schematic diagram of this device is shown in figure 2 description of the utility model and the diagram on s BIPM No. 13, 2001, However, this scheme is not functional because one carbon electrode is always connected to the negative output of the rectifier and the input of another carbon electrode, previously served as the anode, a negative voltage nothing useful happens between two electrodes under the same negative potential, no current flows and no electrochemical reaction of the electrode with water does not occur).

Closest to the claimed device is a flow-through cell containing a dielectric housing with a lid, a number of porous corrugated diaphragms, the corrugations of which are located in the housing vertically and which divide the internal space of the housing on a number of alternating cathode and anode chambers, each chamber vertically placed two metal plate electrodes, metal plate-electrodes, except for the extreme, made perforated, perforated plate-electrodes pressed against the corrugated membranes, three pieces of the dielectric tube, the walls of which on the one forming the outer cylindrical surface of the hole and one end of each of which is closed by a plug, and the other to the CE performed external thread, the first and second pieces of pipe attached with both sides of the body in its lower part and a through hole is connected with the cathode and anode chambers, the threaded ends of the first and second lengths of pipe placed in the rear part of the housing and the segments themselves play the role of nodes, collecting from the cathode and anode chambers respectively catholyte and the anolyte, the third segment of the dielectric tube attached to the cover and connected through holes in the wall with the cathode and anode chambers, with the threaded end of the third segment is placed in the front of the case, and the pipe section performs the role of a node that distributes water between the cathode and anode chambers, two pipeline valve and a source of DC voltage [3].

The disadvantage of the electrolyzer-prototype is that in the process of his work on the surfaces of the cathodes and the surfaces of the diaphragms facing the cathode, deposited layers of non-conductive electrical shock salts that interfere with the operation of the electrolyzer. This requires periodic cleaning surfaces of the cathode and the diaphragm by filling the cathode chambers of a strong acid or by disassembly of the cell, the mechanical removal of the layer of salts from the surfaces of the cathode plates and submerged orifice in the liquid, dissolving salt in their pores. Another disadvantage of the electrolyzer-prototype is the fact that that it includes no flow mixer Catolica and anolyte (it is known that a mixture of Catolica and anolyte is stronger stimulator for biological objects than catholyte [4]).

The objective of the invention is to increase the duration of the operation flow of the cell without degradation of the target product and expand its functionality (creating the possibility of obtaining a mixture of Catolica and anolyte in the electrolytic cell).

The solution of this problem is achieved in that in the flow-through diaphragm electrolyzer, comprising a housing separated by a porous diaphragm on the cathode and anode chambers, which are placed in the cathode and anode electrodes, three pieces of the dielectric tube, the walls of which on the one forming the outer cylindrical surface of the hole and one end of each of which is closed by a dielectric cap, and on the other end made outer thread, the first and second pieces of pipe attached with both sides of the body in its lower part and a through hole is connected with the cathode and anode chambers, and a third pipe section is attached to the upper housing, the first and second pipeline valves, step-down transformer, switch the AC voltage, connected in series with the fuse and the input winding poliauxietilenglikola, and the rectifier, the input AC voltage which is connected to the output winding of a step-down transformer, additionally introduced fittings, each of which has a through Central opening, an outer thread on one end and a series connected in series of truncated cones at the other end, the fourth segment of the dielectric tube, similar to the first three, in all four sections of the holes in the walls threaded and screwed fittings, the fifth segment of the dielectric tube, the ends of which is made of the external thread, the third pipeline valve, the inlet of which is connected to the end of the fifth segment of the dielectric pipes, pipe tee-coupler, the input which is connected to the output of the third pipeline valve, and its outputs with the inputs of the first and second pipeline valves, the first and second flexible hoses, ending with one end of the tube with external thread, connected to the outputs of the first and second pipeline valves, and the other end coupling nuts connected with the threaded ends of the first and second segments of the dielectric tube, a coaxial electrical switch that contains two simultaneously switchable two-channel switch, each of which has two inputs and one output, the first input of the first and second entrance to the showing of switches and the second input of the first and the first input the second switches are connected respectively to the negative and positive terminals of the rectifier, made of elastic dielectric tube and for connecting pairs of fittings between the pipes, the length of which is selected within two or three lengths of the outer ends of the fittings, the case with members of its constituent objects that have the same width, is movable and includes alternating cathode and anode electrodes, made in the form of rectangular metal plates, each of which is adjacent the top of one of its upper corners of the ledge with a hole, and the protrusion of the first metal plate is located on the left ledge of the second metal plate is located on the right and so on, the porous diaphragm is planar, rectangular shape adjacent on both sides of the rectangular apertures of the dielectric frame in a lateral crosspiece, each of which, in its lower part, made side through a tapped hole in which is screwed the fitting and the upper crosspiece is similar to the vertical through the screw hole, the axis of which is offset relative to the vertical axis of the frame to the side not containing side through the screw holes in the side of the jumper, and which is also screwed fitting, flat rectangular dielectric strip, the dimensions of the planes which repeat the sizes of the planes of the frames and which are adjacent to both the framework and the meta is symbolic of the plate electrodes, dielectric front and rear compression plate-rack, the width of which is made equal to the width of contractible objects, and their height exceeds the height of contractible objects on the length of the pipe, the upper corners of the tightening plate-racks are made beveled, tightening the plate-racks and all of contractible objects made mounting holes, the axes of which are in the four planes, each perpendicular to the planes of contractible objects, and which are at distances from the outer surfaces of the framework at distances equal to half the width of their jumpers on the lower and upper surfaces of the tightening plate-racks made mounting screw holes, tightening studs placed in the fixing holes of contractible objects, washers, attached to the ends of the rods, and nuts, wound on the ends of the rods, two threaded rod placed with the folds on them nuts in the holes in the lugs of the plates of the electrodes and electrically connecting the unipolar plate-electrodes with the conclusions of the first and second switches, two transverse bar of rectangular cross section, made of a solid dielectric, having a length greater than the width of the tightening plate-racks, and openings, front and rear compression plate-rack is attached to the two cross bars with the measures of its lower threaded mounting holes and tightening screws, skipped through the holes of the transverse bars, the bars also made the mounting screw holes for fastening the first and second segments of the dielectric tube through the rectangular dielectric plate by means of brackets with mounting holes and screws, screwed into the threaded holes in the cross bars, the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tubes are located above the fittings, screwed into the threaded holes in the upper lintels of the framework and secured to the upper surfaces of the tightening plate-racks using the same brackets and screws, screwed into the upper threaded hole of the tightening plate-racks, threaded ends of the first and second threaded ends of the third and fourth segments of the dielectric pipes are respectively from the front and rear compression plate-racks, in the assembled cell to the axis of the threaded holes in the segments of the dielectric tube coincide with the axes of the threaded holes of the framework, it also introduced a flow-through mixer Catolica and anolyte and overall rectangular base, which is fixed to the nodes of the cell, while the free threaded end of the fifth segment of the dielectric tube plays the role of a General pipeline input cell, the first and second dielectric segments of pipe together with connect nymi with them, fittings and pipes play the role of nodes, distributes water between the cathode and anode chambers, and the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tube in conjunction with the United with them, fittings and nipples - role nodes, collecting from the cathode and anode chambers of the catholyte and the anolyte.

In the particular case of the flow-through mixer Catolica and anolyte comprises a tubular tee-mixer, the third and fourth flexible hoses, similar to the first and second, and the sixth segment of the dielectric tube, similar to the fifth segment, the third and fourth flexible hoses with their ends terminating in a metal tube with external thread, connected to inputs of the tee-mixer, the input end of the sixth segment of the dielectric tube is connected to the output of tee-mixer, and the Union nut of the third and fourth flexible hose connected with the threaded ends of the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tube.

The operation of the device is illustrated by diagrams and drawings of the cell, its individual components and elements.

Figure 1 shows a pipeline diagram of the flow cell, and figure 2 - electric scheme. Figure 3 shows the mutual position of metal plate electrodes, a flat rectangular dielectric spacers, flat rectangular dielectric part and the flat diaphragm in the electrolytic cell, and figure 4 is a mutual location the position of the first and second segments of the dielectric tube, one end of each of which is closed by a dielectric cap, and on the other end made outer thread, with twisted them in fittings and worn on the Union pipes. Figure 5 shows the design of the electrolyzer (front and top).

Figure 1 shows: 1 - body of the cell; 2 and 3, the first and second segments of the dielectric tube by their threaded ends; 4 and 5 - the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tube by their threaded ends; 6 - the fifth segment of the dielectric tube; 7 and 8, the first and second pipeline valves; 9 - third of the input pipeline valve; 10 - tube tee-tee; 11 and 12, the first and second flexible hoses, each of which ends with one end of a metal tube with external thread and at the other end - cap nut; 13 - tubular tee-mixer, 14 and 15 - the third and fourth flexible hoses, similar to the first and second; 16 - the sixth segment of the dielectric tube.

Figure 2 marked: 17 - down transformer; 18 - switch AC voltage; 19 - fuse; 20 - rectifier 21 and 22 threaded rods (electric bus); 23 - coupled electrical switch; 24, 25 and 26 of the first, second and last metal plate-electrodes.

Figure 3 illustrates: 27 - the first flat dielectric strip; 28 - first flat IER is actionsa frame; 29 - the first planar aperture; 30 - second flat rectangular dielectric frame; 31 and 32 of the second and third flat rectangular dielectric strip; 33 - the third flat rectangular dielectric frame; 34 - side a through threaded hole fitting; 35 is a vertical end-to-end threaded hole fitting; 36 - ledge of the metal plate electrode; a 37 - hole of the protrusion of the metal plate electrode; 38 - mounting hole.

Figure 4 marked: 39 - helical dielectric cap of the second segment 3 of the dielectric tube; 40 - fitting; 41 - pipe.

Figure 5 illustrates: 42 and 43, the front and rear tightening dielectric plate-rack; 44 - pin; 45 - front dielectric bar of rectangular cross section; 46 is a rectangular dielectric plate; 47 - bracket.

Before operation of the electrolyzer perform the following operations.

Completely cover the third input of the gate 9 and fully open the first 7 and second 8 valves. The fifth segment 6 of the dielectric pipes connected to the water supply, and the electrical network of cell - to AC voltage of 220 C. the Threaded ends of the third 4 fourth 5 segments of the dielectric tube is attached via a hose to going to the consumer pipes containing overlapping taps for sampling of Catolica and anolyte. Opening shall have a valve connected to the inlet of the electrolysis of water. Then gradually open the third inlet valve 9 includes a switch 18 of the AC voltage and picked by means of valves 7, 8 and 9 such the rate of passage of water through the cathode and anode chambers, in which the values of pH the pH and redox potential Eh of Catolica and anolyte are acceptable to the consumer (samples Catolica and anolyte take through the above-named branches).

The proposed cell is as follows.

Coming through the third inlet valve 9 water bursts through the tee-tee 10 in two directions. One part of it passes through the first valve 7, the other part through the second valve 8. Then the water passes through the first 11 and second 12 flexible hose, the first 2 and second 3 segments dielectric pipe fittings 40 and the nozzles 41 and enters the cathode and the anode chamber of the electrolyzer (in most cases in the cathode and anode chamber per unit of time received different amounts of water). Catholyte and anolyte from the housing of the electrolytic cell 1 is discharged through the third 4 fourth 5 segments of the dielectric tube.

To obtain a mixture of Catolica and anolyte to the third 4 fourth 5 segments of the dielectric tube plug flow tee-mixer 13 through the third 14 and fourth flexible hoses 15.

The feature of the proposed cell is the ratio between the obtained volumes Catolica and anolyte is maintained when changing the polarity of the voltage on the metal plate-electrodes (when switching switch 23 to another position), when the reconnection flexible hoses 11 and 12 with inputs of segments 2 and 3 inputs of segments 3 and 2 and in the reconnection of hoses consumer connected to the threaded ends of the sections 4 and 5 of the dielectric tube. With outputs of segments 4 and 5 instead of Catolica will do the anolyte, and instead of anolyte - catholyte (in the former volume ratios).

When applying for metal-plate-electrode pulsed unipolar voltage from the rectifier 20 begins the process of electrolysis of water. In the cathode chambers is hydrogen ion exponent pH of the liquid is shifted into the region of large values, and the value of the redox potential Eh is in the range of lower values in the anode chambers of the pH value is shifted into the region of smaller values, and the value of Eh is in the region of large values. The hydrogen produced on the surface of the cathode plate, rises up and goes together with Catolica. Oxygen is emitted on the surface of the anode plates, also rises and goes along with the anolyte. Catholyte is an electron donor (reducing agent, antioxidant), and the analyte - electron acceptor (oxidant, hydroxy what ant).

Tap water is usually not an antioxidant. A mixture of Catolica and anolyte is an antioxidant always, including when the pH of the mixture lower to 7.0. For example, a mixture of Catolica and anolyte obtained from tap water had a pH of 7.2 and Eh=+250 mV when the pH of the mixture of 7.2 was Eh=-300 mV. In a mixture of Catolica and anolyte (as well as catholyte) during its relaxation are low-frequency flicker noise electric and acoustic vibrations, performing informational role for biological objects (catholyte observed stronger fluctuations than in the mixture of Catolica and anolyte).

Reconnection of hoses at the entrance of segments 2 and 3 and reconnection of hoses at the output of segments 4 and 5 may also be produced using inputs of pipeline valves and hoses or paired pipeline valves switches and additional hoses.

Constant voltage component taken from the output of the rectifier 20, is selected within 12-24 Century

Periodically changing the polarity of the voltage applied to the metal plate-electrodes, and the reconnection of hoses help to increase service life of the cell without degradation of Catolica, anolyte and their mixtures, as in this case, the deposited cathode chambers on the surface of metal plates-electrode and surface membranes of salt in the next period of operation of the cell (in the period when the cathode chamber become anodic) dissolved in the anolyte.

Mixing Catolica and anolyte without access of oxygen, in contrast to the open method of mixing Catolica and anolyte, improves the quality of the mixture.

Sources of information

1. Survey information. Ser. "The food industry. Issue 3. Electrochemical activation of water solutions and its technological application in the food industry". Tbilisi: The Cargo. NIENTE, 1988. - 80 S. (Fig.16).

2. Evidence of the Russian Federation for useful model No. 17920, CL SW 9/00. The electrolyzer. Publ. 10.05.2001. BIPM No. 13.

3. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2224722, CL C02F 1/46. Publ. 27.02.2004. BIPM No. 6 - the prototype.

4. As the USSR №1574196, CL A01N 59/00. Publ. 30.06.1990. Bull. No. 24.

1. Flow diaphragm electrolyzer, comprising a housing separated by a porous diaphragm on the cathode and anode chambers, which are placed in the cathode and anode electrodes, three pieces of the dielectric tube, the walls of which on the one forming the outer cylindrical surface of the hole and one end of each of which is closed by a dielectric cap, and on the other end made outer thread, the first and second pieces of pipe attached with both sides of the body in its lower part and a through hole is connected with the cathode and anode chambers, and a third pipe section is attached to the upper housing, the first and second pipelines the main valves, step-down transformer, switch the AC voltage, connected in series with the fuse and the input winding of a step-down transformer and a rectifier, the input AC voltage which is connected to the output winding of a step-down transformer, characterized in that it additionally introduced fittings, each of which has a through Central opening, an outer thread on one end and a series connected in series of truncated cones at the other end, the fourth segment of the dielectric tube, similar to the first three, in all four sections of the holes in the walls threaded and screwed fittings, the fifth segment of the dielectric tube, the ends of which performed external thread, the third pipeline valve, the inlet of which is connected to the end of the fifth segment of the dielectric pipes, pipe tee-coupler, the input connected to the output of the third pipeline valve, and its outputs with the inputs of the first and second pipeline valves, the first and second flexible hoses, ending with one end of the tube with external thread, connected to the outputs of the first and second pipeline valves, and the other end coupling nuts connected with the threaded ends of the first and second segments of the dielectric tube, the JV is provided an electric switch, contains two simultaneously switchable two-channel switch, each of which has two inputs and one output, the first input of the first and the second input of the second switch and the second input of the first and the first input of the second switch are connected, respectively, with positive and negative terminals of the rectifier, made of elastic dielectric tube and for connecting pairs of fittings between the pipes, the length of which is selected within two or three lengths of the outer ends of the fittings, the case with members of its constituent objects that have the same width, is movable and includes alternating cathode and anode electrodes, made in the form of a rectangular metal plates, each of which is adjacent the top of one of its upper corners of the ledge with a hole, and the protrusion of the first metal plate is located on the left ledge of the second metal plate is located on the right and so on, the porous diaphragm is planar, rectangular shape, adjacent both sides of the rectangular apertures of the dielectric frame in a lateral crosspiece, each of which, in its lower part made side through a tapped hole in which is screwed the fitting and the upper crosspiece is similar to the vertical through the screw hole, the axis of which is offset is relative to the vertical axis of the frame to the side not containing side through the screw holes in the side of the jumper, and which is also screwed fitting, flat rectangular dielectric strip, the dimensions of the planes which repeat the sizes of the planes of the frames and which are adjacent to both the framework and the metal plate electrodes, a dielectric front and rear compression plate-rack, the width of which is made equal to the width of contractible objects, and their height exceeds the height of contractible objects on the length of the pipe, the upper corners of the tightening plate-racks are made beveled, tightening the plate-racks and all of contractible objects made mounting holes, the axes of which are in the four planes, each perpendicular to the planes of contractible objects, and which pass from the external surfaces of the frames at distances equal to half the width of their jumpers on the lower and upper surfaces of the tightening plate-racks made mounting screw holes, tightening studs placed in the mounting holes of contractible objects, washers, attached to the ends of the rods, and nuts, wound on the ends of the rods, two threaded rod placed with the folds on them nuts in the holes in the lugs of the plates of the electrodes and electrically connecting the unipolar plate-electrodes with the conclusions of the first and second switches, two transverse rectangular bar is ecene, made of solid dielectric, having a length greater than the width of the tightening plate-racks, and openings, front and rear compression plate-rack is attached to the two cross bars with their lower threaded mounting holes and tightening screws passed through the holes of the transverse bars, the bars also made the mounting screw holes for fastening the first and second segments of the dielectric tube through the rectangular dielectric plate by means of brackets with mounting holes and screws, screwed into the threaded holes in the cross bars, the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tubes are located above the fittings screwed into the screw holes of the upper jumper frames and secured to the upper surfaces of the tightening plate-racks using the same brackets and screws, screwed into the upper threaded hole of the tightening plate-racks, threaded ends of the first and second threaded ends of the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tube are, respectively, from the front and rear compression plate-racks, in the assembled cell to the axis of the threaded holes in the segments of the dielectric tube coincide with the axes of the threaded holes of the framework, it also introduced a flow-through mixer Catolica and anole is a and the common rectangular base, which is fixed to the nodes of the cell, while the free threaded end of the fifth segment of the dielectric tube plays the role of a General pipeline input cell, the first and second dielectric segments of pipe together with the United with them, fittings and pipes play the role of nodes, distributing water between the cathode and anode chambers, and the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tube in conjunction with the United with them, fittings and nipples - role nodes, collecting from the cathode and anode chambers of the catholyte and the anolyte.

2. The electrolyzer according to claim 1, characterized in that the flow-through mixer Catolica and anolyte comprises a tubular tee-mixer, the third and fourth flexible hoses, similar to the first and second, and the sixth segment of the dielectric tube, similar to the fifth segment, the third and fourth flexible hoses with their ends terminating in a metal tube with external thread connected to inputs of the tee-mixer, the input end of the sixth segment of the dielectric tube is connected to the output of tee-mixer, and the Union nut of the third and fourth flexible hose connected with the threaded ends of the third and fourth segments of the dielectric tube.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to purify raw water which contains one or more substances which are hard to decompose, where the said substances can be halogenated dibenzodioxines, halogenated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, substances which damage the endocrine system different from dioxins, carcinogenic substances and organic halogenated compounds, which can be directly removed through photodecomposition or chemical decomposition, the substances which are hard to decompose are concentrated and neutralised on the following stages: (B) adsorption purification stage, (C) membrane filtration purification stage and (D) chemical decomposition of substances which are hard to decompose, adsorbed on an adsorbent using peroxide without desorption from the adsorbent. The preferred version of the method also includes the following stages: (A) membrane concentration, (E) chlorine neutralisation, (F) photodecomposition, (G) back washing the filtration membrane, (H) flocculation separation. The device for realising the methods has the corresponding sections for carrying out the water purification stages. The method is used to purify water which contains a reducing agent, which neutralises free chlorine.

EFFECT: efficient and cheap neutralisation of substances which are hard to decompose in purified water.

22 cl, 9 dwg, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to purify raw water which contains one or more substances which are hard to decompose, where the said substances can be halogenated dibenzodioxines, halogenated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, substances which damage the endocrine system different from dioxins, carcinogenic substances and organic halogenated compounds, which can be directly removed through photodecomposition or chemical decomposition, the substances which are hard to decompose are concentrated and neutralised on the following stages: (B) adsorption purification stage, (C) membrane filtration purification stage and (D) chemical decomposition of substances which are hard to decompose, adsorbed on an adsorbent using peroxide without desorption from the adsorbent. The preferred version of the method also includes the following stages: (A) membrane concentration, (E) chlorine neutralisation, (F) photodecomposition, (G) back washing the filtration membrane, (H) flocculation separation. The device for realising the methods has the corresponding sections for carrying out the water purification stages. The method is used to purify water which contains a reducing agent, which neutralises free chlorine.

EFFECT: efficient and cheap neutralisation of substances which are hard to decompose in purified water.

22 cl, 9 dwg, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to purify raw water which contains one or more substances which are hard to decompose, where the said substances can be halogenated dibenzodioxines, halogenated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, substances which damage the endocrine system different from dioxins, carcinogenic substances and organic halogenated compounds, which can be directly removed through photodecomposition or chemical decomposition, the substances which are hard to decompose are concentrated and neutralised on the following stages: (B) adsorption purification stage, (C) membrane filtration purification stage and (D) chemical decomposition of substances which are hard to decompose, adsorbed on an adsorbent using peroxide without desorption from the adsorbent. The preferred version of the method also includes the following stages: (A) membrane concentration, (E) chlorine neutralisation, (F) photodecomposition, (G) back washing the filtration membrane, (H) flocculation separation. The device for realising the methods has the corresponding sections for carrying out the water purification stages. The method is used to purify water which contains a reducing agent, which neutralises free chlorine.

EFFECT: efficient and cheap neutralisation of substances which are hard to decompose in purified water.

22 cl, 9 dwg, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to purify raw water which contains one or more substances which are hard to decompose, where the said substances can be halogenated dibenzodioxines, halogenated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, substances which damage the endocrine system different from dioxins, carcinogenic substances and organic halogenated compounds, which can be directly removed through photodecomposition or chemical decomposition, the substances which are hard to decompose are concentrated and neutralised on the following stages: (B) adsorption purification stage, (C) membrane filtration purification stage and (D) chemical decomposition of substances which are hard to decompose, adsorbed on an adsorbent using peroxide without desorption from the adsorbent. The preferred version of the method also includes the following stages: (A) membrane concentration, (E) chlorine neutralisation, (F) photodecomposition, (G) back washing the filtration membrane, (H) flocculation separation. The device for realising the methods has the corresponding sections for carrying out the water purification stages. The method is used to purify water which contains a reducing agent, which neutralises free chlorine.

EFFECT: efficient and cheap neutralisation of substances which are hard to decompose in purified water.

22 cl, 9 dwg, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to purify raw water which contains one or more substances which are hard to decompose, where the said substances can be halogenated dibenzodioxines, halogenated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, substances which damage the endocrine system different from dioxins, carcinogenic substances and organic halogenated compounds, which can be directly removed through photodecomposition or chemical decomposition, the substances which are hard to decompose are concentrated and neutralised on the following stages: (B) adsorption purification stage, (C) membrane filtration purification stage and (D) chemical decomposition of substances which are hard to decompose, adsorbed on an adsorbent using peroxide without desorption from the adsorbent. The preferred version of the method also includes the following stages: (A) membrane concentration, (E) chlorine neutralisation, (F) photodecomposition, (G) back washing the filtration membrane, (H) flocculation separation. The device for realising the methods has the corresponding sections for carrying out the water purification stages. The method is used to purify water which contains a reducing agent, which neutralises free chlorine.

EFFECT: efficient and cheap neutralisation of substances which are hard to decompose in purified water.

22 cl, 9 dwg, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: device for reagentless water purification - module for intense aeration and degassing contains a reactor-tank 7, two injectors 4, 5, injector section 3, hydrocyclone 2 and fan 6. Reactor-tank 7 is a rectangular container with a bottom, lying at an angle α to its largest vertical wall, and if fitted with level sensors. The air space τ above the water level in the reactor-tank should not be less than 0.2 metres, and faces of mixing chambers of the injectors are at a height h of not less than 0.5 metres above the water level in the reactor-tank 7.

EFFECT: cheap reagentless water purification.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: device for reagentless water purification - module for intense aeration and degassing contains a reactor-tank 7, two injectors 4, 5, injector section 3, hydrocyclone 2 and fan 6. Reactor-tank 7 is a rectangular container with a bottom, lying at an angle α to its largest vertical wall, and if fitted with level sensors. The air space τ above the water level in the reactor-tank should not be less than 0.2 metres, and faces of mixing chambers of the injectors are at a height h of not less than 0.5 metres above the water level in the reactor-tank 7.

EFFECT: cheap reagentless water purification.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a photocatalyst composition based on carbon material with large specific surface area with a deposited photocatalyst based on titanium dioxide or titanium dioxide which is modified with noble metals, mainly used for photocatalytic purification of air and water, contaminated with molecular impurities of organic or inorganic nature. A photocatalyst-adsorbent is described, which is characterised by that, it consists of an inorganic fabric on a woven or non-woven base, soaked with a composition which contains an inorganic binder, adsorbent and photocatalytically active titanium dioxide. Surface area of the adsorbent is at least twice larger than the surface area of the photocatalytically active titanium dioxide. A photocatalyst-adsorbent is also described, which is characterised by that, it consists of an inorganic fabric on a woven or non-woven base, soaked with a composition which contains an inorganic binder and adsorbent, on which photocatalytically active titanium dioxide is deposited. Surface area of the adsorbent is at least twice larger than surface area of photocatalytically active titanium dioxide.

EFFECT: above described catalysts-adsorbents combine sorbent and photocatalyst properties, have low hydrodynamic resistance, sufficient hardness and have value of photocatalytic activity with respect to decomposition of organic and inorganic substances in water and air.

12 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 10 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment technology and can be used for ozone treatment of drinking water in centralised water supply systems. The device has an ozone gas mixture generator, a reservoir with a water supply system and a system for discharging water to the consumer, in the near-bottom part of which are fitted gas dispersing elements, connected by pipes with the ozone gas mixture generator. The gas dispersing elements are in form of hollow two-layered panels with a uniformly perforated top layer, uniformly fitted on the cross section of the reservoir and forming a bouble bottom and double bottom space - a high pressure zone between the bottom layer of the panels and the bottom of the reservoir. The gas dispersing elements are fitted with centres for swirling the water stream in form of slot-type swirl atomisers, inlet openings of which are linked with the double bottom space, outlet slot nozzles are placed above the perforated surface of gas-permeable elements and are parallel the said surface. The double bottom space is linked with the system for supplying water to the reservoir. One face of the panels is placed on corner hinged bearings, and the ozone gas mixture pipes are the axis of rotation of the corner hinged bearings of the gas dispersing elements.

EFFECT: proposed invention increases mass-transfer surface between water and the ozone gas mixture; also reduces operating costs by cutting time for decontaminating the reservoir.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing oxygen dissolved in organic liquids using a solid-phase catalyst and a reducing agent. The method is realised using the following operations: a) a reducing agent in form of hydrogen is added to organic liquid, b) excess undissolved reducing agent is removed if necessary, c) dissolved oxygen is reacted with the reducing agent on a catalyst, d) after virtually complete removal of dissolved oxygen, the organic liquid is brought into contact with sulphur-containing inorganic or organic compounds or mixtures containing said sulphur-containing compounds. Preferred versions of realising the method involve: passing a reducing agent directly through a catalyst or over the catalyst, reacting dissolved oxygen with the reducing agent in a fixed bed of a bulk catalyst, where the catalyst used is a solid substance which contains a noble metal (Pd). Organic solvents, for example methanol, are used as the organic liquid.

EFFECT: method allows for preventing side reactions and creation of dangerous conditions in chemical plants which violate safety rules.

12 cl, 7 ex

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg

FIELD: food and pharmaceutical industries; water filtration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of purification of liquids and is dealt with filtration, in particular with the methods of purification of liquids from impurities. It may be used in the systems of industrial and household water supply in food and pharmaceutical industries. The method of liquids purification includes a partial shutting off a trunk of the unpurified liquid, delivery of the unpurified liquid in a trunk of the unpurified liquid and to the filtration element - in a trunk of purified liquid. Before the unpurified liquid delivery into the trunks of the unpurified and purified liquids it is passing through an ejector. The technical result is an increased convenience in operation and productivity of purification due to simultaneous outflow of both purified and unpurified liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of convenience in operation and productivity of purification of liquids without decrease of a flow area of the purified liquid trunk running cross-section.

6 dwg

FIELD: water-supply engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing hardness salts from regenerates and can be used in water treatment processes in heat-and-power engineering, chemical, petrochemical, food, and other industries provided with ion-exchange water-desalting filters. Method is accomplished by precipitation of hardness salts involving recycle of precipitate treated by alkali solution followed by passage of supernatant through H-cationite filter. Treated precipitate accumulated in preceding settling cycles is recycled into regenerate and settling-subjected solution is passed through cationite filter to produce purified sulfuric acid further used for regeneration of H-cationite filters in water-treatment cycle. Precipitate is treated with alkaline regenerate from OH-anionite filters or with alkali solution obtained from electrolysis of regenerates with pH not below 11. Amount of regenerate introduced into accumulator-settler should be at least 20 kg/m3.

EFFECT: excluded liming procedure, preserved initial (after regeneration of filters) content of sulfate ions in sulfuric acid, reduced consumption thereof during preparation of regeneration solution, and excluded discharge of sulfate ions unto water objects.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: petrochemical and food and other processing industries.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a device for purification of sewage and is dealt with designs of sewage treatment plants for purification and averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and may be used for preliminary purification of sewage of the enterprises of processing industries from floating and settling insoluble impurities. The device contains a cylindrical body with a cone-shaped bottomed, a mounted along the axis of the body cylindrical partition, a located above the body reactive water distributor with branch-pipes, a floating device, a rotating rocker arm with a foam pushing plates mounted with the help of a half-coupling to the reactive water distributor at a maximum level of water in the device, a collecting tank mounted with possibility of delivery in it of the circulating water, a pump, a pressure tank-saturator linked by a pressure pipeline with the reactive water distributor. Inside the body there is a ring-type chute, in which the reactive water distributor branch-pipes supplied with diffusers on their ends are placed. The technical result is an increase of efficiency of sewage purification and realization of averaging of consumption and composition of sewage and its purification simultaneously.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of sewage purification and simultaneous realization of averaging of sewage consumption, composition and purification.

1 dwg

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: water treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removing and decomposing nitrate ions contained in water, for example in ground water or in surface waters. Process consists in passing aqueous solution through electrochemical cell containing at least one anode and at least one cathode and passing electric current between them. Surface(s) of cathode is(are) covered with layer consisted of metallic rhodium. Aqueous solution is preferably aqueous solution, which was used for regeneration of ion-exchange column.

EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical cell efficiency.

18 cl, 3 ex

Up!