Multi-purpose service platform to produce space ships

FIELD: aerospace engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed platform comprises service hardware module representing a rectangular parallelepiped formed by end face plate (1) and four lateral boards (2, 3, 4, 5). Two intermediate boards (6, 7) are fitted there inside to divide said module into three compartments for service hardware. Storage batteries are arranged between boards (4, 7), while between boards (5, 6) onboard control complex, power supply, orientation and stabilisation systems electronic devices are arranged. Lateral board (5) accommodates control devices of orientation and stabilisation systems (11) and antenna (12). One of the service module boards, parallel to service boards, accommodates assemblies to couple with separation system. Engine plant is mounted between intermediate boards (6,7) in the area of assumed space ship center of gravity so that thrust vector of micro engine (19) is parallel to intermediate boards and perpendicular to end face board (1). Engine plant can displace in two mutually perpendicular directions thanks to appropriate adjusting elements (threaded posts with nuts, slots and "screw-nut"-type mechanisms). Solar battery panels (9, 10) are arranged on brackets extending beyond module edges. Useful load module mounting assemblies are arranged on free end faces of module lateral boards and extending brackets. Note here that useful load module hardware are arranged in space between solar batteries (9,10) and free zone of the module on the side of its exposed part. To protect instrumentation and engine plant, detachable covers (33, 34, 35) are provided. Engine plant incorporates fuelling coupling (36).

EFFECT: improved compactness of space vehicle, higher performances.

7 dwg

 

The invention relates to a multi-service platforms for spacecraft, mostly small spacecraft.

The development of space technology at the present stage is characterized by a large number of space vehicles of different mass. To further enhance the efficiency of the spacecraft associated with the creation of multi-service platforms, ensuring the functioning of the specified range of the target equipment and the creation with minimal cost-based multi-service platform series various spacecraft.

Typically, the composition of the multi-service platform includes: on-Board complex control system of orientation and stabilization system of power based on battery and solar panels system for thermal regime, the mechanical system (e.g., for the erection of solar panels), antenna-feeder device design. In addition, in the structure of modern multi-service platforms are introduced propulsion system for solving problems of orbital maneuvering generated spacecraft.

The basic requirements for multi-service platform, due to its design-layout scheme:

- minimum dimensions and weight;

- high density Kononov and created using multi-service platform spacecraft;

minimal structural changes multi-service platform when installing on the target hardware spacecraft;

- the minimum amount of ground testing;

- ease of use.

Known multi-service platform spacecraft "Sterkh" (or universal orbital platform) (see magazine cosmonautics news", No. 8 (223), June 2001, p.48). Spacecraft "Sterkh" is divided into two modules: module service equipment and the payload module. The payload module is installed on the service module equipment, implementing longitudinal design-layout scheme of spacecraft "Sterkh". The separation system of the spacecraft is mounted on the end of the module the service equipment.

The disadvantages of this platform should include the fact that some devices office equipment is mounted on the module payload. These include, for example, include: gravitational device, an electromagnetic device, a solar system sensors orientation and stabilization. In turn, some of the devices of the target devices are located on the module utility equipment, such as antennas. The propulsion system, which is part of the service module of the apparatus, is mounted on the side surface of the space and the parathas "Sterkh", structurally situated on both modules.

In this approach, multi-service platform is not the finished Assembly unit and constructive change when the creation of a new spacecraft with a different target hardware. This leads to the creation of new designs service platform, the deterioration of the overall mass, increase in ground testing, which is a significant drawback.

Closest to the claimed multi-platform space platform is "Neva" (see magazine cosmonautics news", No. 7, July 2005, p.48-49).

Space platform "Neva" contains a power supply system, system orientation and stabilization, propulsion system, on-Board information and control complex, a means of providing heat mode, design, electrical, mounting device and separation. Structurally platform Neva made in the form of a frame in the shape of a cube, on the four sides of which it is thermally stabilized panel from ohlalala with the service equipment. On one of the vacant faces of the cube card is installed with the propulsion system so that the power storage and supply of fuel component is located inside the platform, and the block of the engine outside of the Board. On this Board made flan is C dock adapter launchers (for example, booster). On the opposite Unallocated face of the cube is a flange for mounting the payload module.

When creating a spacecraft platform "Neva" payload module is installed on the service module equipment, implementing longitudinal design-layout scheme of the spacecraft.

Disadvantages of multi-service platform for the prototype due to the design-layout scheme spacecraft, created on its basis, and are as follows.

1. Office equipment and part of the propulsion system is basically mounted on the panel so that it occupies the internal volume of the service platform. Flange for mounting the payload module is made of a solid, which excludes the location (depth) of devices of the target devices in free internal areas of the service platform.

In addition, this arrangement service equipment to the cable network has local free internal areas of the service platform, which physically may not be used for layout (bottom) parts of the devices of the target devices located in the module payload.

All this leads to a decrease in the density of the layout of the entire spacecraft and, consequently, to an increase in its mass.

2. PR is the use of the maneuvering engines to reduce disturbance torques on the spacecraft needed to the engines ' thrust vector passes through the center of mass of the spacecraft. This is achieved either by balancing the space vehicle, or the engine is supplied with a system of his exhibition in the right direction. Multi-service platform, typically used to create a variety of spacecraft with different target devices. In this case, to the balancing of the spacecraft by balance of goods is impractical because it leads to weight gain. Therefore, the engine installation is to be provided by the show system engines. The location of the block of the engine outside the service platform on the flange, designed for docking spacecraft adapter (through the separation system), leads to the complication of the system show engines. In addition, complicate the separation system of the spacecraft, which should be developed taking into account the protrusion part of the propulsion system in the area of its installation.

In addition, this arrangement of the propulsion system complicates the filling system propulsion fuel due to limited access to it.

3. In the design of the service instrumentation module and the module of target equipment are separate compartments, joined together. This leads to an increase in weight design the entire spacecraft.

4. Created on the basis of the module of service equipment space vehicles for different target hardware will have different sizes. The timing of the creation of means of adapting spacecraft small mass (adapters for group and associated run) represent approximately 50% of the time for spacecraft. In this case, the implementation group (APG) runs created spacecraft commencement of their adaptation to the booster will be determined by the timing of the creation of spacecraft. This fact increases the time and ultimately the cost of creating adapters for group (APG) space launch vehicles, as to ensure the specified launch date spacecraft timing of the creation of adapters usually have to cut. In addition, significantly hampered the development and creation of multi-adapters for group (APG) runs.

The purpose of the inventive multi-service platform is to increase the density of the layout, reducing weight, improving technical and operational characteristics, as well as reducing the time and cost of creating a means of adapting to the rocket for launch vehicles, created on the basis of spacecraft with different target devices.

This goal is achieved by comodule service equipment is made in the form of an open box-like structure in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, formed end plate and bonded with her four side boards, inside of which is still installed perpendicular to the face Board and parallel to the side boards, two intermediate Board, dividing the service module into three compartments, in which are mounted utility equipment, while on one of the boards of the service module, parallel intermediate boards, mounted units interface with the separation system, and the propulsion system is mounted in the module service equipment between the intermediate plates in the vicinity of the proposed center of mass of the spacecraft so that the thrust vector of the micro parallel intermediate Board, perpendicular to the face Board of the service module and is directed from its open part, and the propulsion system is installed with the possibility of movement in two mutually perpendicular directions perpendicular to the intermediate cards and parallel end Board, by mounting it on the mounting Board, held in place with locking nuts on the four threaded posts that are installed in the intermediate boards, and longitudinal grooves in the Board propulsion system, providing docking propulsion screws through the slots on the mounting plate and mechanisms of the screw-nut mounted on the mounting Board and Board propulsion PA is alleline the grooves, when this card with nodes for connection with a separation system and a diametrically opposite side payment from the open part of the service module equipment include advocating for the module brackets, on which, as well as diametrically opposed on those same boards mounted nodes installation of solar panels and installation sites of the payload module with the devices of the target devices in the form of, for example, threaded holes are located on the free end of the side boards of the module of service equipment and speakers brackets, and the location area of the target devices of the apparatus formed by the space between panels solar panels installed on the brackets, and free zone module service equipment from its open part.

The inventive multi-service platform is illustrated by drawings on which is shown:

- figure 1 - General view of the multi-service platform without the payload module;

- figure 2 - location of the devices of office equipment for multi-service platform with their solar panels and end Board;

- figure 3 - three-dimensional view of a multi-service platform with the payload module with the cover removed, on Board;

- figure 4 - three-dimensional view of components of a spacecraft comprising: multipurpose business what I platform with solar panels, the payload module;

- figure 5 - mounting of propulsion units in multi-service platform;

- figure 6 - attachment of the propulsion system on the installation Board;

- 7 - mounting of propulsion units in multi-service platform (view from the side of the micro).

Multi-service platform is designed in the form of an open box-like structure in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped formed by the end plate 1 and bonded with her four side boards 2, 3, 4, 5. Inside the box-shaped stationary installed perpendicular to the face Board and parallel to the side boards 4, 5, two intermediate circuits 6, 7, dividing the service module into three compartments, in which are mounted utility equipment. In addition, between the plates 6, 7 in parallel them mounted installation fee 8.

The composition of the multi-service platform includes a foldable solar panel 9, 10 actuators disclosure and mechanical parts-commit-disclosure (not shown).

On the side Board 5 mounted devices of orientation and stabilization 11 and antenna 12. Between the plates 5, 6 are mounted electronic devices on-Board control system, power systems, system orientation and stabilization 13. Between the plates of 4.7 installed rechargeable battery 14. Between PLA the AMI 6, 7 mounted engine unit 15.

The propulsion system 15 is installed with the possibility of movement in two mutually perpendicular directions perpendicular to the intermediate boards 6, 7 and parallel end Board 1. For this purpose, the engine unit 15 is mounted on its own rectangular Board 16, the corners of which the grooves 17. Fee 16 propulsion through the slots 17 is attached to the mounting Board 8 by screws 18, which in the circuit Board 8 threaded holes (in the drawing is shown). The longitudinal size of the slots 17 is made of the conditions of the exhibition of micro 19 relative to the transverse center of mass of the entire spacecraft.

For moving and fixing Board 16 propulsion unit relative to the mounting Board 8 are screw 20 mounted in brackets 21 on the mounting Board 8 and the brackets 22 on the circuit Board 16.

Setup fee 8 for mounting the propulsion unit 15 is installed on the four threaded posts 23 by means of nuts 24, 25 which transfer Board 8 with the installed propulsion system 15 on the racks 23. The rack 23 are perpendicular to the boards 6, 7 and fixed in them.

The thrust vector of micro 19 parallel intermediate boards 6, 7, perpendicular to the face Board 1 service module and is directed from its open part, to Asses the micro 19 stands for end cost 1 through the window in a protective cover (not shown), closing the cutout 26 in the end Board 1.

Installation space vehicles, created on the basis of this multi-service platform, the adapter booster if you implement group and associated runs using the separation system, mounted on the Board 4 (not shown).

The side boards 4, 5 module service equipment from the open part of the service module equipment include advocating for the module brackets 27, 28, respectively, which are mounted nodes installation of solar panels 10. Diametrically opposed on those same boards mounted nodes installation of solar panels 9.

Installation sites of the payload module with the devices of the target devices in the form of, for example, threaded holes are located on the free end of the side boards 2, 3 module service equipment and speakers brackets 27, 28 (in the drawing is shown).

Thus, the location area of the target devices of the apparatus is the space between the panels of the solar battery 10 and the free space in the module service equipment from its open part.

The brackets 27, 28 define a zone size of the payload and, if necessary, its changes should also be changed.

As an example, the payload module u f is RMI, containing cost 29 and bonded with him the box 30. The devices of the target devices 31 are mounted on the circuit Board 29 and can be mounted on both sides, located in free zones module service equipment.

Fee 29 payload module is attached to the free ends of the side boards 2, 3 module service equipment and speakers to the brackets 27, 28 (in the drawing is shown).

Such embodiment of the payload module can be used in the presence of the target apparatus large-sized foldable antennas based on the frame-film structures, the disclosure of which is carried out in space.

Location foldable solar panel battery 10 from the side of the payload module provides protection devices target equipment during ground operation of the spacecraft and access to system devices. Especially it is necessary to provide access to motor installation 15 for carrying out its fuel when preparing the spacecraft for launch.

For balancing power at the site of entry of the spacecraft into operation when solar panels 9, 10 not disclosed or when there is a temporary loss of orientation, the composition of the multi-service platform introduced an additional solar panel battery 32.

Board service module where the HN removable lids 33, 34, 35 to protect devices located there and propulsion.

In the lid 33 is a window for access to the coupling 36 of the propulsion system 15.

The use and operation of multi-service platform is as follows.

Consider the case where multi-service platform with some dimensions of the brackets 27, 28 dimensions, and other parameters provides the placement and operation of a set of target equipment {C1}. Then for a variety of target equipment {C1} the set {Skai}1values of the vector of structural parameters that determine the structural composition of the generated i-ro spacecraft, can be written as display:

{Skai}1:SB1×SC1×Sopen1, (1)

where, SB1- the set of values of parameters that define the base

the structure of the multi-service platform that is used to address the full range of targets {t1};

SC1- the set of values of parameters that define components

patterns in the form of target equipment from the set {W1}, used in the creation of a separate i-x spacecraft;

Sopen1- the set of values of parameters that define components

patterns as different compartments for placement of target equipment from the set {t 1}that is used to create a separate i-x spacecraft.

In this case, the basic structure of SB1multi-service platform will include all utility equipment 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, solar panels 9, 10, 32, construction in the form of cards 1-8, and the brackets 27, 28 on the boards 4, 5. The dimensions of the brackets 27, 28 will determine the dimensions of the card 29 and 30 boxes compartment payload and an area for equipment under consideration a variety of target equipment

In addition, with regard to the installation of the panels 10 solar panels on the brackets 27, 28, will be determined by the dimensions of the multi-service platform and the dimensions of the spacecraft, created on its basis.

The set Sopen1will be different in design modules of the payload, for example, in the form of circuit boards 29 and 30 boxes with dimensions determined by the dimensions of the brackets 27, 28.

In this case, all created on the basis of multi-service platform spacecraft to the target set {t1} will have the same dimensions.

Consider the case where created for the target set {t1} multi-service platform does not provide the dimensions of the placement and operation of a set of target equipment {C2}. Then for a variety of target equipment {C2} notesto {S Kai}2values of the vector of structural parameters that determine the structural composition of the generated i-th spacecraft, can be written as display:

{SKai}2: SB2×SKB2×SC2×Sopen2, (2)

where, SB2- the set of values of parameters that define the basic structure of a multi-service platform that is used when solving

the entire range of targets {t2};

SKB2- the set of values of parameters that define the components of the structure of the underlying structure of the multi-service platform in the form of brackets 27, 28, used to create a separate i-x spacecraft;

SC2- the set of values of parameters that define the components of the structure in the form of target equipment from the set {t2}that is used to create a separate i-x spacecraft;

Sopen2- the set of values of parameters that define the components of the structure in the form of various compartments for placement of target equipment from the set {t2}that is used to create a separate i-x spacecraft.

The basic structure of SB2multi-service platform will include all utility equipment 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, solar panel battery is 9, 10, a structure in the form of cards 1-8.

The dimensions of the brackets 27, 28 can be selected for the most overall target equipment from the set {t2} or you can get out and be produced for each set of target equipment.

The brackets 27, 28 may be removable and attached to the boards 4, 5, respectively. It is also possible the manufacture of brackets 27, 28 along with cards 4, 5, then when creating the i-th spacecraft will re-manufactured boards 4, 5 with the arms 27, 28.

By analogy with (1) the size of the brackets 27, 28 will determine the dimensions of the card 29 and 30 boxes compartment payload and an area for equipment 31 consider a variety of target equipment {C2}. In addition, with regard to the installation of the panels 10 solar panels on the brackets 27, 28 will be determined by the dimensions of the multi-service platform and the dimensions of the spacecraft, created on its basis.

The set Sopen2will also be different in design compartments payload in the form of circuit boards 29 and 30 boxes with dimensions determined by the dimensions of the brackets 27, 28.

In this case, all created on the basis of multi-service platform spacecraft to the target set {t2} will have the same dimensions determined by the dimensions of the brackets 27, 28 for the most overall goals the eve of the equipment, or different specific sizes of brackets 27, 28, manufactured for a specific target hardware.

When creating the i-th spacecraft is determining its position of center of mass. Based on the position of the center of mass of the spacecraft is the exhibition of the thrust vector of micro 19 in the desired position in which the thrust vector passes through the center of mass of the spacecraft. The exhibition is carried out by moving the entire propulsion unit 15 relative to the grooves 17 in the transverse direction and propulsion system with 15 - 8 against the threaded racks 23 in the longitudinal direction.

Moving in the transverse direction is carried out by the screws 20, mounted in brackets 21 on the circuit Board 8 and the brackets 22 on the circuit Board 16, when loosened mounting screws 18.

The inventive multi-service platform compared to the prototype allows the following.

1. To increase the density of the layout generated based on the multi-service platform spacecraft by 15-20% due to side layout of the payload module relative to the service platform and the location of the target devices of the equipment in free zones module service equipment.

2. To reduce the mass of the structure created on the basis of multi-service platform space apparatus is of ATA by 10-15% due to the increase of their density layout.

3. To increase the operational and technical characteristics are generated based on the multi-service platform spacecraft by providing access to equipment office equipment when preparing the spacecraft for launch and accurate exhibition of micro 15 relative to the center of mass of the spacecraft.

4. For a given set of target equipment in accordance with the expression (1) all created based on the multi-service platform spacecraft will have the same dimensions. This allows you to 30-35% to reduce the time and 20-25% of the cost of creating adapters for group (APG) run created space vehicles through the implementation of a parallel scheme of development of space vehicles and adapters for their group (APG) run.

In addition, if some program spacecraft launches the possibility of designing and creating multi-purpose adapters for group (APG) run, even more increase the efficiency of their creation.

The inventive multi-service platform passed the full cycle of ground testing, including integrated electrical tests on the impact vibromechanical loads tested in thermal vacuum chamber tests for electromagnetic owls shall estimate and others, confirmed high technical and operational characteristics of a service platform.

Multi-service platform to create a spacecraft that contains the module service equipment located therein instruments of service systems, nodes joining with the separation system, is attached to the module propulsion system, located on the side faces of the module diametrically oppositely rotating solar panels and installation sites of the payload module with the devices of the target devices, wherein the service module equipment is made in the form of an open box-like structure in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped formed by the end plate and bonded with her four side boards, inside of which is still installed perpendicular to the face Board and parallel to the side boards, two intermediate card sharing service module three compartment, which is installed with office equipment, while on one of the boards of the service module, parallel intermediate boards, mounted the specified nodes for connection with a separation system, and the propulsion system is mounted in the module service equipment between the intermediate plates in the vicinity of the proposed center of mass of the spacecraft so that the thrust vector of its micro parallel prom the mediate Board, perpendicular to the face Board of the service module and is directed from its open part, and the propulsion system is installed with the possibility of movement in two mutually perpendicular directions:
perpendicular to the intermediate cards and parallel end Board that is provided by its installation on the installation Board, held in place with locking nuts on the four threaded posts that are installed in the intermediate boards, and longitudinal grooves in the Board propulsion system, providing docking propulsion screws through the slots on the mounting Board, as well as mechanisms of type "screw-and-nut mounted on the mounting Board and Board propulsion parallel to these grooves, with Board, on which are mounted the nodes for connection with a separation system, and the diametrically-opposite side payment from the open part of the service module equipment - include advocating for the module brackets, on which, as well as diametrically opposed on these boards - mounted nodes installation of solar panels, and these parts are of the payload module with the devices of the target devices in the form of, for example, threaded holes are located on the free end of the side boards of the module of service equipment and these speakers brackets and the location area of the target devices of the apparatus is formed by a space between the solar panels and batteries, mounted on the said brackets, and a free area of service instrumentation module from its open part.



 

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6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: space-system engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to means and methods of conducting predominatly long-term experiments on low-earth orbit in field of materials production under conditions of ultra-high vacuum. Spacecraft (SC) consists of pressurised section and lock chamber with access door and escape door, mechanical arm, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) set and molecular protective screen. Lock chamber escape door hatch is made detachable, protective screen is firmly fixed to this hatch on its outside and is equipped with attachment point to the mechanical arm end link. MBE set is connected to the mentioned hatch on its inside. SC is equipped with device for attaching escape door hatch to lock chamber. According to the present invention, method also provides for boosting MBE set together with screen out of the lock chamber, detaching them from SC with mechanical arm, orienting screen to position of protecting MBE set from outside atmosphere flow. Hereafter researches in screen wake sphere are conducted and MBE set is brought back to lock chamber. At this stage MBE set and screen are fixed on the mentioned hatch. When bringing back MBE set to lock chamber using mentioned attachment device, angular and linear errors of mechanical arm overlapping escape door hatch and lock chamber axes are corrected. Mentioned hatch is engaged from mechanical arm and is axially moved till it is completely attached to the chamber with all the necessary docking interface sealing forcing provided. Before starting experiments in screen wake, screen can be oriented in a way to secure maximal illumination of MBE set equipment and screen for its degasification.

EFFECT: increasing data rate and quality of conducted MBE researches and reducing expenses on their realisation.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to satellite systems for realisation of communication and monitoring tasks, comprising groups of spacecrafts (SC) brought to orbits of different height. System is intended for servicing of vast geographic region: land territory with adjacent sea and ocean areas. System comprises SC on highly elliptical orbits (101-105), including two SC (1, 2) for meteorological and heliogeophysical monitoring and specialised SC (3, 4, 5) for communication, and also SC (6, 7) at low orbits (106, 107) for radio-locating monitoring. System comprises ground complex (29) for SC control, ground complex (24) for reception, processing and distribution of space data and ground communication segment (25). At that possibility is provided to transfer information from SC (1, 2) directly to ground complexes (24, 29), and also to transfer data by components of ground complex (24) and ground communication segment (25) with application of space retranslation channels via SC (1-5).

EFFECT: improved reliability and expansion of system functions in combination with simplification of its service.

9 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers namely to telecommunication satellites with energy consumption power of 1-2.5 kV. According to the invention, space vehicle (satellite) is made of two modules: payload and support systems. Instruments are installed on inner skins of their radiators - honeycomb panels. Evaporation zones of horizontal straight and uncontrolled L-shaped heat tubes are built into those panels opposite the instrument location area. Those zones are attached with their flanges to inner skin of panels in that area. Condensation zones of the above tubes are arranged in the panel areas free of instruments. Radiators are located in planes perpendicular to the axes corresponding to northern and southern sides of the vehicle. At that, opposite located radiator panels are arranged at a minimum possible distance from each other, which is determined beforehand based on instrument arrangement conditions. More heat-stressed instruments are located in the lower part of panels, in which there used are uncontrolled L-shaped heat tubes. Condensation zone flanges of the above heat tubes are made so that they face outer skins, and are attached thereto. The above zones are located in extreme zones of panels, which are free from instruments.

EFFECT: decreasing mass, and reaching the acceptable configuration of the above satellites.

4 dwg

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to space engineering and can be used in development of space vehicles intended for comprehensive investigation of soil of celestial bodies and delivery of effective loads to the massifs of Mars, Moon, asteroids and other planets and celestial bodies of solar system. The device to deliver effective cargo into celestial body massifs (versions) comprises a hollow primary structure having a front and cylindrical tail part accommodating a ballast with a mean density exceeding that of the primary structure and effective cargo. The length of cylindrical tail parts makes 8 to 15 its diameters, the center of masses being located at the distance equal to 0.4 to 0.5 of the primary structure length starting from the front part head. In compliance with the first version the front part, starting from the head, represents the first truncated cone or, simply, cone of the cylinder behind the head, the said truncated cone lager base abutting on the cylinder tail part of the other truncated cone. In compliance with the second version the front part hast the holes communicating with the primary structure space wherein ballast and effective cargo are located, while the ballast or a part of it are made from materials can penetrate, due to inertial forces, through the said holes into ambient medium.

EFFECT: deeper penetration, smaller area in contact with medium, rectilinearity and predictability of trajectory of motion in medium, reduced factor of friction with medium in contact.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to procedure of global geophysical events monitoring and prediction of emergence and development of natural and anthropogenic disasters on Earth. System comprises space segment and surface segments. Space segment consists of three orbit groups. In orbit group of small spacecrafts (SSC), which are located on geostationary orbit, SSC that are combined into two orbit groups of three satellites on tops of two triangular planes, create constellation of six tops. For orbit group that consists of 3-4 SSC on sun-synchronous orbits with height of 600-700 km, orbit planes are evenly distributed along longitude of ascending node. In orbit group of 50 microsatellites (MSC - micro-spacecrafts), the latter are located mainly on sun-synchronous orbits and partially on geostationary orbits. Highly sensitive equipment is installed on SSC and MSC with complex of instruments for measurement of foreshocks and sensors of operational control and prediction of natural and anthropogenic disasters.

EFFECT: system that provides automated aerospace monitoring of global geophysical natural and anthropogenic disasters, makes it possible to obtain operative short-term forecast - warning hours and days before.

10 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in that, on receiving the spacecraft in distress alarm signal, the Doppler frequency of the signal above is measured by an interrogatorless method to locate the spacecraft at the moment when the said frequency equals zero. At this very moment, the angle between the spacecraft receiving antenna axis and that of the horizon pickup is measured to calculate the coordinates of the point below the satellite. The aforesaid measurements are made two times and the coordinates of the points below the satellites along the measured angles allow determining the coordinates of the spacecraft in distress on the Earth surface. To measure the Doppler frequency, two signal processing channels are used wherein the received signal frequency is converted using the onboard master oscillator. In the first processing channel, the oscillator voltage is phase-shifted by 90°, the frequency difference voltages are isolated, amplified and amplitude limited to be converted into rectangular clipped voltages. The first channel voltages of this type are converted into a series of short positive pulses with their time position corresponding to the moments of the voltage passing through the zero level with a positive derivative. Adjacent clipped positive voltages of the second channel are inverted in phase by 180° and quantised by the said short positive pulses of the first channel. The quantised pulses digital form allows determining the Doppler frequency. Given its zero value, corresponding to the spacecraft passing through the beam point, the control pulse is generated to allow the further processing of the received signal.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of measuring minor values of the Doppler frequency and fixation of its zero value.

3 dwg

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in using a vessel aboard the satellite with a required constant area of the liquid phase location on the said vessel wall surface. The Earth satellite lengthwise axis, in operating conditions, is constantly directed along the current radius-vector of the orbit mass centre. The aforesaid vessel is placed at a maximum possible distance from the satellite mass centre along the direction parallel to the said lengthwise axis. The vessel should be placed so that the normal at the point of the vessel wall surface opposite the working medium outlet was directed towards the satellite mass centre. The said point should be located at a minimum possible distance from the satellite lengthwise axis.

EFFECT: simpler design and smaller weight of service satellite systems.

2 dwg

FIELD: space-system engineering.

SUBSTANCE: system can be used on the earth satellite vehicle in orbit except geostationary centers which are stabilised by rotation along the vertical axis, and the ground reception centers. The system contains an emergency object transmitter, spacecraft equipment and ground reception center equipment. Spacecraft equipment includes a horizon sensor, receiving antenna, comparison device, receiver, Doppler frequency meter, blocking-generator, two gating circuits, two valves, pulse generator, pulse counter, plug board chart, and magnetic storage device, transmitter, transferring antenna, modulation code generator, high-frequency generator and power amplifier. The ground reception center equipment includes reception antenna, high-frequency amplifier, two mixers, calibration frequency block, phase doublet, three narrowband filter, scale-of-two phase circuit, phase detector, Doppler frequency meter, computing unit and registration block.

EFFECT: it enlarges functional possibilities of the system.

5 dwg

FIELD: production methods.

SUBSTANCE: suggested method includes emission and retranslation of primary and final radio signals between spaceship, basic and additional land determinations stations. At the same it is additionally retranslated the final radio signal from spaceship to the basic land station and it is admitted at this station. The radio connection with the radio signal of the spaceship with one or more additional stations, admission of the primary signal to the additional station, its transformation to the final signal and admitting of it to the spaceship. About the distance between spaceship and main determination station is judged by the interval between the moment of emission and moment of admitting the primary signal at this station. About the distance between spaceship and additional determination station is judged by the interval between the moment of emission and moment of admitting the primary signal at the main station. It is measured additionally the moving of the frequency of the final signal, admitted on the main determination station, regarding the frequency of the primary movement, emissed from the same station. The distance between spaceship and additional station is determined with measuring of the Doppler drift.

EFFECT: it is reduced the time and increased the accuracy of distance determination between spaceship and determination stations.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: suggested method includes the conduction of heat gain from instruments, installed on middle heat-conducting cellulite panel to the side radiator-oscillator by L-shaped regulating heating tubes (HT). At the same the instrument container of the spacecraft is created by union of two flat-topped heat-conducting cellulite panel blocs, and in each of them it is installed the L-shaped HT. The vaporizers of this HT are made by pairwise connection in the longitudinal direction in the middle cellulite panel. The condensers of HT are made in the side cellulite panel of flat-topped block, which is the side radiator-oscillator. Besides L-shaped HT, for additional heat-conducting from one internal surfaces of the radiator-oscillator and transmission of it to the others radiator-oscillator it is used parallel flat-topped HT. The vaporizers and condensers of the HT are built into additional cellulite panel layer of the proper side radiator-oscillator and orthogonal situated relatively the condensers of L-shaped HT.

EFFECT: it is increased the exactness and safety of the work and it is exceeded the possibility of using the system of thermoregulation.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; scientific and commercial fields.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing payloads on injection facility, launching the launch vehicle, separation of injection facility from launch vehicle and injection of injection facility into geocentric orbit where said payloads are separated from injection facility. Main payload is placed on injection facility directly of body of accompanying payload; this body combines its functions with functions of main load-bearing member of adapter system for placing the main payload. After separation of injection facility from launch vehicle, additional acceleration of injection facility is performed and injection facility is injected into reference orbit and then it is shifted to geocentric orbit where main and accompanying payloads are separated. Accompanying payload is separated from injection facility after main payload is at safe distance without waiting for complete turn of main payload. Spacecraft in facility injecting the artificial satellites into geocentric orbit are placed in succession on injection facility beginning with lower one. Main payload in form of one or several spacecraft is placed on body of lower spacecraft through separation device. Body of lower spacecraft combines its functions with functions of adapter load-bearing member for placing the main payload.

EFFECT: increased mass ratio of launch vehicle and injection facility; extended functional capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

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