Method of creating induced electromotive force
SUBSTANCE: method of creating induced electromotive force is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction and consists in the fact that as magnetic system which is stationary relative to the circuit, there used is linear mercury magnetic core with exciter on the basis of exciting laser. Linear mercury magnetic core is located inside loops of circuit coil, and exciting laser is taken outside the circuit. As a result, owing to light pulse energy absorption in linear mercury magnetic core, there created is energy pulse wave the directed movement of which excites equivalent directed pulse magnetic wave which, when crossing coil loops, leads to induced electromotive force formed at its outputs.
EFFECT: as per invention, constant mechanical drive is not required for magnetic system.
The invention relates to the field of electronics and can be used to create stand-alone generators (low voltage power supply) electronic devices.
The phenomenon of electromotive force (EMF) in the circuit on the basis of a coil (solenoid) at the intersection of its magnetic field is called electromagnetic induction was discovered by the English physicist Foredeep in 1831.
A known way of generating electromotive force in the circuit on the basis of a coil (solenoid), which interacts with a fixed flat permanent magnet (M.I. Kuznetsov fundamentals of electrical engineering. Edited by Dr. Sevastyanova. Moscow. The graduate school. 1964, p.172). Thus the coils of the coil move relative to the force lines of the flat permanent magnet. When connecting to the leads of the coil load circuit Znin the latter there is a current Inthe magnitude and direction of which depend on the magnitude of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet, the speed and direction changes the position of the turns of the coil relative to the force lines of the permanent magnet, and the number of turns in the coil.
The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of having a mechanical actuator to move the contour on the basis of a coil (solenoid) on the power lines fixed flat postoyanno the magnet.
In modifications of the considered method, a fixed flat permanent magnet is replaced by an electromagnet (M.I. Kuznetsov fundamentals of electrical engineering. Edited by Dr. Sevastyanova. Moscow. The graduate school. 1964, s), however, the main disadvantage is stored.
Closest to the claimed method is a method in which a permanent magnet interacts with a fixed path on the basis of a coil (solenoid) (M.I. Kuznetsov fundamentals of electrical engineering. Edited by Dr. Sevastyanova. Moscow. The graduate school. 1964, s). The essence of the constructive solutions of the prototype reveals the drawing in figure 1. When moving flat permanent magnet relative to the stationary coils of the coil of the latter crosses the coils of the coil and its lines of force. The connection to the coil leads of the load circuit ZNleads to the fact that in the latter there is a current INthe magnitude and direction of which depend on the magnitude of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet, the speed and direction of change in its position (power lines) relative to the turns of the coil, and the number of turns in the coil.
The disadvantage of this method include the need for a mandatory mechanical drive for moving the flat permanent magnet (power lines) relative to the stationary coils of the coil (solenoid) circuit.
In mo the changes discussed how flat permanent magnet is replaced by an electromagnet (M.I. Kuznetsov Fundamentals of electrical engineering. Edited by Dr. Sevastyanova. Moscow. The graduate school. 1964, s), however, the main disadvantage is stored.
A common feature of known ways to generate electromotive force is the variation of the conversion of mechanical energy of the drive coil or magnet electric.
A common disadvantage of all known methods of obtaining electromotive force in the system path on the basis of a coil (solenoid) - magnetic system is the need for the implementation of mechanical drive.
The technical result of the invention is to provide a method for obtaining electromotive force, free from the need for a permanent mechanical drive.
The proposed method create electromotive force is that in the system path on the basis of a coil (solenoid) - magnetic system" stationary magnetic system is implemented linear mercury magnetic core and agent-based pump laser. Linear mercury magnetic structurally located within the turns of the coil circuit. The pathogen on the basis of the pulsed pump laser is located outside the contour. Due to the absorption of energy of the light pulse laser pump line mercury magnetic pulse occurs the energy wave. Directed movement of the pulse energy wave vosburg is no equivalent magnetic pulse wave. Directionally-floating in space pulse magnetic wave interacts with the turns of the coil circuit and due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction leads to EMF. When connecting to the leads of the coil load circuit ZNin the latter there is a current INthe magnitude and direction of which depend on the magnitude of power of pulse magnetic waves, the speed and direction of change of its position relative to the turns of the coil, and the number of turns in the coil.
As follows from the description of the claimed method of obtaining inductional electromotive force, the implementation of mechanical drive for moving the magnetic lines of force relative to the turns of the coil circuit is not required. These functions implements the pump laser in conjunction with a linear mercury magnetic circuit due to the formation of the pulse energy of the wave and the equivalent pulse magnetic waves.
Total for the proposed method and the prototype are the following characteristics:
- fixed path on the basis of the coil (solenoid);
- fixed coils coils intersect the moving magnetic lines of force of the magnetic system.
Distinctive features of the prototype are the following characteristics:
- fixed magnetic system consisting of a linear mercury magnetic circuit and the pump laser;
- construct the VNO linear mercury magnetic core is located inside the turns of the coil circuit;
- structurally, the pump laser is located outside the path.
The essence of the constructive solutions of the proposed method of obtaining inductional electromotive force reveals the drawing in figure 2.
Fixed contour-based coil (solenoid) (1), an external circuit which is connected to the coil leads and contains the load ZN(in the latter there is a current IN), interacts with a fixed linear mercury magnetic core (2). Structurally linear mercury magnetic core is located inside the turns of the coil circuit (1) and its inlet connected to the pump laser (3). Structurally, the pump laser (3) outside of the loop (1).
The inventive method of obtaining inductional electromotive force is implemented as follows.
Due to the absorption of energy of the light pulse laser pumping (3) in a stationary linear mercury magnetic core (2) occurs the pulse energy wave. Directed movement of the pulse energy wave excites the equivalent magnetic pulse wave. Directionally-floating in space magnetic wave interacts with the turns of the coil circuit (1) and due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction leads to an EMF at its outputs. When connecting to the leads of the coil load circuit ZNin the latter there is a current INvalue and sent to the e which depend on the magnitude of power of pulse magnetic waves, speed and direction changes its position relative to the turns of the coil, and the number of turns in the coil.
Consider the example of a specific implementation of the proposed method.
To check the way was created the layout of the circuit based on the coil (solenoid), an external circuit which is connected to the coil leads and contains the load ZN=RN=100,0 com. The cylindrical coil type length 10.0 cm with an inner diameter of 5.0 mm and an external diameter of 2.0 cm contains 3000,0 turns of copper wire with a diameter of 0.15 mm Linear mercury magnetic circuit was simulated capillary length 15.0 cm, filled with mercury (Hg). As the pump laser was used pulsed semiconductor laser with an operating wavelength in the infrared range and capacity of 10.0 mW. At the load with a single pulse from the pump laser was fixed pulse voltmeter voltage of the order of 10.0 mV.
Using the proposed method allows to create standalone generators (low-voltage power supplies), free from the need for a permanent mechanical drive and driven only by the power of the pump laser.
The method of obtaining inductional electromotive force in a fixed path on the basis of coils, the coils of which intersect a moving magnetic force is eniami magnetic system, and based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, characterized in that the magnetic system is fixed, the implemented linear mercury magnetic core and agent-based pump laser, structurally linear mercury magnetic core is located inside the turns of the coil circuit, the pump laser is located outside of the circuit, due to energy absorption of the light pulse laser pump line mercury magnetic pulse occurs the energy wave, directional movement which excites equivalent directed magnetic pulse wave.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to power engineering and can be used for generating electrical energy. The device for generating electrical energy contains a source of heat energy, apparatus for supplying heat energy from the source to apparatus for converting energy, apparatus for converting heat energy into electrical energy and apparatus for conducting the generated electrical energy to an electrical network. Apparatus for converting heat energy into electrical energy contains at least one converting module. The module comprises at least one radiator with thermoluminescent coating, infrared band photocell and a concentrator. The concentrator is opposite the radiator with thermoluminescent coating. Infrared radiation is directly concentrated onto the infrared band photocell. The photocell is connected to the apparatus for conducting the generated electrical energy to an electrical network.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of generating electrical energy.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: solar-power engineering; power systems built around solar power stations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed solar-power system mainly used as universal regional power system has solar power stations and other power stations operating on reusable and traditional energy sources interconnected and connected to users by means of power transmission lines. Base equal-power solar power stations are installed in latitudinal direction at equal angular distance in longitude ΔU = 360°/n, where n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 is number of base solar power stations. Base solar power stations are connected through converters and Tesla step-up transformers to single-wire multiple-circuit power transmission line. Also connected thereto through Tesla transformers are converters, inverters, and three-phase power transmission lines using other reusable energy sources, that is solar power stations, hydroelectric power stations, windmill-electric stations, and biomass fired power stations, as well as power consumers. Total power capacity of base solar power stations equals that of all connected power consumers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of round-the-clock and round-the-year power supply to users.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system may be used as source of powerful electric current and voltage pulses. System comprises source of supply at least two modules in the form of magnetic explosion generators, including stators connected parallel to source of power supply, and liners filled with charges of explosive substance, and pulse former divided into insulated sections by number of modules, in each module stator and liner are serially connected to adjacent sections of former, which may be arranged in the form of current circuit breakers with conductor destroyed by charge of explosive substance or electric explosion in the form of capacitors or in the form of sectional primary winding of step-up transformer. Modules may comprises several generators with serially joined stators and liners of neighboring generators. Stators of generators may be connected with source of supply via coils with inductivity, which is much higher than inductivity of former.
EFFECT: invention provides for higher power and reliability by increase of current pulse amplitude and stored energy.
8 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns magnetism physics, to obtaining of the unidirectional pulsing vortical magnetic field creating a magnetic field pulling on a circle in relation to an iron-core body to moving in it. The creation method of a vortical magnetic field along some circle, equivalent to magnetic field rotation, consists that some constant magnets are symmetrically located concerning a circle. Longitudinal magnetic axes of constant magnets are combined with tangents to the specified circle in the points symmetrized on this circle. The number n constant magnets is defined from a condition: 2π/n ≤ ΔΘ, where angle ΔΘ=arccos[1/(1+γ)], parametre γ=d/R, and d - distance from cross points of longitudinal magnetic axes of constant magnets with their planes of poles to the specified circle of radius R. Force function of constant magnets D and the parametre are chosen in a such manner, that the retarding moment created by the previous magnet, partially or it was completely compensated by the accelerating moment of the subsequent magnet in a direction of a vortical magnetic field. Value D=µ0µνS2H0 2/8π2R5, where µ0=1,256·10-6 H/m - absolute magnetic permittivity of vacuum, µ relative permeability of an iron-core body in volume ν that interacts with the magnetic field which intensity is equal H0 in a plane of poles of constant magnets with a cross section of their poles S.
EFFECT: reception of rotary movement of an iron-core body, that is in reception of mechanical (electric) energy from static magneto-periodic structure.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor can be used in power engineering. The motor contains a ferromagnetic circular rotor, inside of which there is an immovable magnet with a linear shape, and outside - two C-shaped permanent magnets. The permanent magnetic viscosity τ of the material of the rotor, radius R and angular speed ω are linked by the expression τ=0.186 X0/ω R, where X0 is the average distance between poles of the C-shaped magnets. The motor is started by external winding of the rotor to angular speed ωstart>0.186 X0/τ R. A sensor is fitted on the rotor, linked to a receiver (magnetic or optical sensor-receiver pair). On the C-shaped magnets, there are magnetising coils, connected in series to a direct current source, the control input of which is connected to the circuit for automatic control from the series-connected with the output of the above mentioned receiver a pulse former, D flip-flop, phase detector, low pass filter and a direct current amplifier. The second input of the phase detector is connected to a circuit of reference signal from series connected reference generator and comparator.
EFFECT: possibility of automatic stabilisation of speed of rotation of the rotor of the motor in varying work load mode.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the physics of magnetism and is meant for investigating the structure of ferromagnetic materials, particularly for providing evidence of "freezing" in the domain pattern of magnetic field lines of permanent magnets, made from ferromagnetic materials. The magneto-parametric generator consists of two magnetically connected thin-walled cylindrical and coaxially located permanent magnets from the analysed ferromagnetic substance, one of which (rotor) is rotated by an electric motor, and the other (stator) is U-shaped. On its magnetic core there is an inductor coil, forming, together with a variable capacitor connected to it, an oscillating circuit, tuned at frequency ω=ΩD/2md, where Ω is frequency of rotation of the cylindrical magnet - rotor with diametre D, m is an integer, the value of which is measured, d is the known cross sectional dimension of the domain in the used ferromagnetic substance. The thickness of the walls of the cylindrical magnets h near magnet gaps is chosen such that it is much less than the diametre D, for example by one or two orders, and in the limit - h=d.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating structure and properties of domains of ferromagnetic materials as a function of their magnetisation and effect of different types of external factors on them, particularly their temperature.
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine is to find application in engine-building. The engine comprises a hollow stator with a rotor contained in the chamber; the stator and the rotor have at least a single permanent magnet each which magnets are turned towards each other with their like poles. Additionally the engine comprises the following components: protective screens fixedly attached on the stator magnets, a set of shielding dampers and a system for the dampers automatic opening that consists of a balance mounted onto the rotor axle and a wheeled hook attached on the rotor magnet with a counterbalance attached onto the rotor diametrally opposed to the permanent magnet.
EFFECT: engine structural simplification combined with environmental friendliness parametres improvement.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: thermo electrical system of power generation consists of a multiple set of thermo electrical elements constituting a block with cold and hot side during operation. Operating medium collects reject heat from the cold side of, at least, several thermo electrical elements. Later on, following the above mentioned reject heat collection, the operating medium is heated and releases, at least, part of the heat to the hot side of, at least, several thermo electrical elements from the multiple set of the above elements. So the power is generated by means of, at least, several out of multiple set of thermo electrical elements.
EFFECT: application of invention helps to use heat losses.
27 cl, 35 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to pulsing techniques based on magnetic cumulation of energy, i.e. fast compression of magnetic flux using metal sheath, scattered by an impact wave of an explosive substance. The pulse power system comprises series-arranged magnetic explosion source of initial energy with an output insulator and at least one explosive device with an axial system for initiating charge of the explosive substance. The system for initiating charge contains a power supply, lead-in wire and wiring for blasting a chain of electric detonators. The lead-in wire is between the magnetic explosion source of initial energy and the explosive device. The lead-in wire is in form of at least one pipe-like dielectric element with a conductor and with compact installation into a through-hole. The hole is on the output insulator of the magnetic explosion source of initial energy.
EFFECT: increased reliability of the system and stable results when carrying out experiments.
7 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is intended to be used in electric engineering and electronics, for instance, in devices for high-power short current pulses generation. The method includes installation of hollow cylinder made of metal with low electrical conductivity in solenoid cavity, creation of initial magnet field by current transfer through solenoid winding, infusion of initial magnet field into cylinder chamber by diffusion technique, magnet field compression by cylinder walls moving along the chamber axis. In this case hollow cylinder is forced to rotate around its axis at the moment of magnet field compression, or hollow cylinder is made of flat or tube stock material by rotary drawing method (rolling-off) and drawing is performed in one or several stages while stock is rotated in one direction, or hollow cylinder is made of flat or tube stock material by rotary drawing method (rolling-off) in one or several stages and cylinder stock material is rotated in direction coinciding with direction of cylinder rotation at the moment of magnet field compression.
EFFECT: pulsed magnet field properties improvement by suppression of instability of cylinder inner surface shape during its squeesing.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for electric energy production using contacts system of nanostructured conducting surfaces with thin water layer and device for its realisation - hydroelectric generator on the base of nanostructured materials as source of electric energy are intended for obtaining electric energy using renewable energy sources. The invention is based on the fact that contacts system of nanostructured conducting surfaces with thin water layer of several nanometers to fractions of millimeter in thickness under certain conditions becomes the source of electromotive force (EMF). The invention provides electric energy production and can find wide application in various fields of science and engineering.
EFFECT: creation of effective method for electric energy production.
2 cl, 8 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of energy generation consists in that, within some segment of space L, the saturating magnetic field is generated for magnet-viscous substance which is shifted within the specified space segment at speed V value of which is matched with time constant τ of magnet-viscous substance viscosity, e.g. by formula L/V≈2.5τ. As a result, mechanical energy is generated due to arising force, attached to magnet-viscous substance saturating magnetic field at collinear orientation to vector of speed V. The device contains constant magnet and associated magnet-viscous substance made in the form of disk of radius R connected with its rotation axis. The disk edge is placed in localised space of length L by tangent to disk of saturating magnetic field of constant magnet. Device start-up is carried out by single application of pulse moment from external source sufficient enough to provide device start-up. Time constant of magnet-viscous substance is selected from the expression τ=0.36L/ω0R, where ω0 is value of disk angular speed corresponding to maximum rotary moment.
EFFECT: generation of energy due rotation.
2 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; drive motors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed permanent-magnet motor has twin stator incorporating permanent magnets in the form of U-section solenoids disposed on inner surface of stator and two rotors, one per each permanent-magnet section, in the form of arched bars rigidly coupled with axis of revolution, as well as coupling and flywheel. Rotor magnet is attracted by stator solenoid due to interaction of unlike-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets which turns rotor through definite angle until like-polarity poles of stator and rotor magnets are aligned. As rotor magnet end front along its running leaves dead zone, it is pushed out of stator magnet and ensures continuous rotary motion. When rotor passes through dead zone, its rotary motion is maintained by flywheel and dc machine running as motor supplied with power from storage battery that functions to help rotor pass through dead zone. Upon leaving dead zone rotor shaft load reduces and dc machine runs as generator. In his way electrical energy is recuperated and used for booster charge of storage battery.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg