Nonvolatile memory device

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises nonmagnetic matrix and discrete anisotropic single-domain magnetic elements arranged in it and divided into columns and lines for recording and storage of information, facilities for their remagnetisation, facilities of their heating for reduction of coercive force in process of remagnetisation and facilities for reading of information stored by magnetic elements at the moment of their magnetisation change during heating.

EFFECT: reduced power inputs for reading of stored information and its rewriting.

2 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a device non-volatile electrically programmable memory implemented using the methods of micro - and nanotechnology.

Known cell in the matrix memory (RU 2004100899[1[), which includes a conductive bus of the first level, made of semiconductor p - or n-type located on the substrate, electrically insulating it from the other conductive tyres in the first level of the matrix, crossing her a conductive bus second level, separating the bus first and second level dielectric layer thickness of from 3 to 100 nm, the insulating gap in the form of an open end of the dielectric layer in the areas of crossing of the tires of the first and the edges of the tyres in the second level, located in the insulating gap material with variable conductivity, changing with the passage through it of the thread electrons, and the environment above the surface of the insulating gap, providing the exchange of particles with variable conductivity. The cell possesses the properties of the non-volatile electrically programmable memory and rectifying properties with characteristics that provide electrical isolation cell in the matrix. This is ensured by the fact that in the areas of cross-over tire edges of the first and second tire levels after filing between voltage and run electroforming (accumulation of conductive material is in the insulating gap and the self-form therein an insulating gap) is formed integral unit, having the structure: metal bus - conductive material formed in the insulating gap with an insulating gap semiconductor, which is similar to the structure of the Schottky barrier with variable width nanometer insulating gap between the conductive electrode and the semiconductor.

This cell has the following disadvantages. First, it's a bad rectifying characteristics (low breakdown voltage and large reverse currents)that is associated with a high local electric field in the depletion of the surface layer of the semiconductor tires first level because of the small radius of curvature region of conductive material in the insulating gap.

Secondly, it is the possibility of a significant instability of the electrical characteristics of the cell, due to open in a gas environment (unprotected) areas of the surface low-alloy semiconductor (p - or n-type) tires first level near the insulating slits, which may be formed of surface States and uncontrolled accumulation of charge. Thirdly, this large currents, which flow on semiconductor tyres in the first level, the resistance of which is fundamentally impossible to do as low as for the metal conductive tyres in the second level, because a significant voltage drop on them limiting the em maximum dimension matrix for the coordinate along the tire of the first level.

A device non-volatile memory containing the magnetic storage elements of information, divided into rows and columns (columns and rows). The device is equipped with a heating system of the magnetic elements to reduce the magnitude of the magnetic field strength required to overwrite stored in the device information. The heating elements are in the form of diodes, which passed the reverse current, causing them to heat. In addition to the heating system, the known device is equipped with two sets of mutually perpendicular tires to supply them with electric current, the course of which the tire leads to mutually perpendicular magnetic fields. As a result of this magnetic field "fold" and together with the means of heating provide "light" overwrite information using spin-dependent as (see US 2006215444 [2]). A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the presence of an extensive system of conductors and elements designed to heat (one system) and the magnetization reversal (the second system). A means of reading the stored information in the description of this device is missing.

Closest to the claimed by its technical essence is a non-volatile memory device (MRAM), known from the description to US 2003235072 [3]. From the local device includes magnetic elements, only part of which is used to overwrite the information in the process of heating. While the heated portion of the magnetic element is translated into a paramagnetic state and the corresponding change in magnetic state of this field is fixed by using a transistor with a MOS structure, in which parameters are affected, in accordance with the Hall effect, the change of the magnetic state of the magnetic element.

A disadvantage of the known device is that to overwrite the information is used to change the magnetic state is not only storage element and recording information, but only part of it. Each magnetic element recording and storage of information shall be provided with a transistor that operates (or using) the Hall effect, which naturally complicates the design.

Claimed as the invention the non-volatile memory device is aimed at simplifying the design and reducing energy consumption for reading stored information and overwrite it.

This result is achieved in that the device non-volatile memory contains a non-magnetic matrix and its broken up into rows and columns of discrete anisotropic single-domain magnetic elements for recording and storing information, means for magnetization reversal, a means of heating to reduce the coercive the silts during magnetization reversal, and means for reading the stored magnetic information elements at the moment of changing their magnetization when heated, while the means for heating is made in the form attached to the means of addressing and pulse current source of the two sets, located in the neighboring magnetic elements in planes parallel conductive tires, intersecting near each of the magnetic elements, means for magnetization reversal of the magnetic elements in the form connected to a pulsed current source set intended for heating conductive tire, the longitudinal axis of which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the magnetic single domain elements, and a means of reading - in the form of a covering group of magnetic elements of a coil constituting the connected with by means of registration conductive shell with an open prismatic surface, the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the prisoners inside her magnetic elements.

Use as elements for recording and storing information of the discrete anisotropic single-domain magnetic elements allows us to provide reliable storage of information, since at room temperature for alternating magnetization (and hence Erasure or overwriting of data) requires a magnetic field of relatively high intensity. The use of the heating of each individual magnetic element allows this device one the belt to solve two tasks: on the one hand, to approach the temperature of the Curie point, and thus significantly reduce required for the magnetization reversal magnetic field strength, and on the other hand, to read stored data element information. Indeed, all of anisotropic single-domain magnetic elements at temperatures below the temperature of the Curie point of the magnetic material from which they are made, can be magnetized along one of the two directions coincide with the direction of the axis of easy magnetization (i.e. with the direction of the long axis of the magnetic elements) and the magnetization reversal requires the application of sufficiently high magnetic fields. When heated, the magnetized element is the reduction of its magnetization to zero, and this, as we know, leads to electromagnetic radiation from the magnetic element. This radiation can be fixed by means of reading that can be made in the form of a covering group of magnetic elements of a coil constituting the connected with by means of registration conductive shell with an open prismatic surface, the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the prisoners inside the magnetic elements. In contrast to the prototype, in which the registration tool changes amaniche the activity item information storage is an individual tool-transistor MOS structure on the Hall effect, in this case, the proposed tool in the form of a conductive shell with an open prismatic surface allows you to register the change of the magnetization from the individual element in the group covered by this surface. And the number of such elements in the group can reach several tens. The advantage of the inventive device is that the same set of conductive tire is used for heating the magnetic elements and their magnetization reversal.

The essence of the claimed device non-volatile memory is illustrated by examples of its implementation and drawings. Figure 1 shows the longitudinal () and transverse (b) sections one implementation options of the portion of the non-volatile memory device, the group of magnetic elements which are covered open prismatic surface, when both sets of conductive tyres are outside this surface. Figure 2 shows a longitudinal () and transverse (b) sections one implementation options of the portion of the non-volatile memory device, the group of magnetic elements which are covered open prismatic surface, but one of the sets of conductive tyres are inside this surface.

Example 1. In the most preferred embodiment, the implementation of the non-volatile device is Amati can be manufactured using known technologies optical lithography, electronic lithography, nanoimprinting. At the same time to impart the necessary properties of the original deposited thin-film materials can be used streams of accelerated particles. The device may include a substrate or base 1, made of any suitable material possessing the necessary strength and dielectric properties. Based on 1 known, above, created the first set of parallel between a conductive tire 2, made from materials such as aluminum, copper, molybdenum, etc., the spaces between which are filled with an insulating material 3, which may be silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, molybdenum oxide, etc. on Top of the first set of tyres 2 is put another layer of insulating material 3. Within the proposed structure of the non-volatile memory device are discrete anisotropic single-domain magnetic elements 4. Magnetic elements 4 are covered with the conductive shell 5 as open prismatic surface, which is electrically connected with the registration tool (not shown) and made of materials such as aluminum, copper, etc. Over the conductive membrane 5 is placed a dielectric layer 3 and a second set of conductive busbars 6, made of the same m the material, that and a set of 2 tires, and intersecting with the first set of tyres 2 near the magnetic elements 4. The second set of tyres 6 may be covered with a layer of insulating material (dielectric) 3.

The device operates as follows. All single-domain magnetic elements 4 at temperatures below the temperature of the Curie point of the magnetic material from which they are made, magnetized along one of the two vectors (directions), coincides with the direction of the axis of easy magnetization (i.e. with the direction of the long axis of the magnetic elements). The distance between the magnetic elements in accordance with the known ratio is selected so that when any configuration possible directions of magnetization of the magnetic elements they could not cause magnetization reversal of any of them, i.e. to eliminate mutual influence on each other. For reading data stored in non-volatile memory device, and means for querying any magnetic element 4, into two mutually intersecting bus 2 and 6, at the intersection where it is located, on location (not shown, as is widely known) pulses of a current of a minimum amplitude and duration to provide heating of the magnetic element 4 to a temperature corresponding to the Curie point, the Mat is of real magnetic elements. The amplitude of the current pulse, the noise on each of the two tires 2 and 6, is chosen in such a way that heating of the magnetic element 4, in the case of a transmission pulse current only through any one of these two tires 2 or 6, does not exceed one half of the difference in temperature between the Curie temperature and the starting temperature of the magnetic element.

When applying current pulses, as described above, the magnetization of the respective magnetic element 4 will drop to zero, while the magnetization of all other magnetic elements located between buses 2 and 6, will be changed significantly less because half of the heating temperature.

The change of magnetization of the heated magnetic element 4 in the conductive shell (orbit) 5 occurs EMF, the sign of which is the registration tool, (any, selected from those known, for example, an electronic device using triggers), will be fixed direction of magnetization of the heated (the Respondent) of the magnetic element 4, i.e. read the information stored in it. To save the information stored in heated (the Respondent) of the magnetic element 4 to read, immediately after the survey, the conductive bus 2, below (or above) this element in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the magnetic element 4 (axis Le is anyone magnetization), one of the elements (external) reader (known from the prior art, such as a square-wave generator) is a pulse of current of such direction and amplitude, to ensure its magnetization at the initial stage of cooling (when the coercive force of the heated magnetic element 4 is close to zero) in the previous to the survey direction, taking into account the sign of the EMF pulse registered by means of reading in the survey of this element. However, other magnetic elements 4, except respondents, paramagnetically will not, as they are heated enough to reach the Curie point and the coercive force is large, and the magnetic field generated by the tire 2, it is not enough for the magnetization reversal.

For recording information on any of the selected magnetic element into two mutually intersecting conductive bus 2 and 6 (at the intersection where it is located), from the recording device (selected from those known, for example, such as a generator of rectangular pulses)pulses of current to its heating. However, in this case, the direction of the current pulse, set the recording device in the conductive heating the tire, which is used for the magnetization reversal, immediately take into account the nature of the information ("0" or "1"), which should be recorded on this magni the element. In addition, in this case, the duration of the current pulse supplied to permanecemos bus, should exceed the duration of the current pulse supplied to the second of the two conductive tires used only for heating, to provide the desired direction of magnetization of the respective magnetic element 4 at the time of cooling from a temperature corresponding to the Curie point, when the coercive force is equal to zero.

The non-volatile memory device containing a non-magnetic matrix and its broken up into rows and columns of discrete anisotropic single-domain magnetic elements for recording and storing information, means for magnetization reversal, a means of heating to reduce the coercive force of the magnetization switching and means for reading the stored magnetic information elements at the moment of changing their magnetization when heated, and the means for heating is made in the form attached to the means of addressing and pulse current source two sets located in the neighboring magnetic elements in planes parallel conductive tires, intersecting near each of the magnetic elements, means for magnetization reversal of the magnetic elements in the form is connected to a pulsed current source set intended for heating tocop oodama tires longitudinal axis which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the magnetic single domain elements, and a means of reading - in the form of a covering group of magnetic elements of a coil constituting the connected with by means of registration conductive shell with an open prismatic surface, the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the prisoners inside the magnetic elements.



 

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