Method of controlling surface roughness based on effect of photoluminescence of nanoparticles

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of controlling surface roughness involves probing the surface with laser radiation and recording photoluminescence intensity using photosensitive devices. The rough surface is covered with a layer of nanoparticles. The detected information feature used is characteristic photoluminescence of these particles, induced by the probing laser radiation. Roughness of the surface is controlled by changing the nature of photoluminescence intensity when the angle between the axis of the probing radiation and the normal to the rough surface is changed.

EFFECT: integral evaluation of roughness, local evaluation of the section of interest and automation of the control process.

7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to precision measuring equipment, namely, optical control of surface roughness, and can be used in various branches of science and technology, in particular in the jewelry industry to assess the purity of the diamond.

The prior art is well known technical solutions of a similar nature.

Thus, the prior art it is known device for controlling the quality of the surface, determine the height of the roughness, a rational choice of technological processes when creating polished, Everglade surfaces in various industries. To control for controlled surface directed monochromatic radiation flux at an angle not exceeding 10°, determine the intensity of the specularly reflected radiation and the intensity of the light reflected in the direction other than the mirror, at a given angle, determine the ratio of the measured intensities. In addition, measure the intensity of radiation reflected from the test surface under a second angle, and determine the ratio of the additionally measured and mirror-reflected intensities, see, for example, the description of the author's certificate SSSS No. 1839881, G01B 11/30, 1984.

Also the prior art active contactless method is serenia roughness of the processed surface, wherein the scanning device of the laser radiation is directed at the area of the cutting zone, characterized in that the scanning device of the laser radiation, a part of the control-transmitting element, contains a pulse generator, a diode laser, a focusing lens system of the radiation and reception of the beam reflected from the measured surface, a sensor, a power source, a signal amplifier, a modulator with a transmitting antenna, a logical device move along the contact zone of the workpiece and the micro with gear, while the high-frequency signal radiated by the transmitting antenna is sensed, amplified and recorded the receiver element, consisting of a receiving antenna, receiver, demodulator, filter, produce useful component of the signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital Converter and device registration, see, for example, the description of the application number. 2000119841, G01B 11/30, 2000.

There is also known a device for controlling surface roughness of a product containing an optical system comprising a light taps of the incident and reflected radiation and the electronic unit. The emitter of the illuminator is made monochromatic. The electronic unit consists of photoconverters of the incident and reflected radiation, the switch, the Registrar, the source is and the power analog-to-digital Converter, microcontroller, controller, interface and non-volatile memory device. Measurements are taken in real time from calibration curves stored in the nonvolatile storage device by calculating reflectance regardless of the instability of the radiation intensity of the illuminator, see, for example, the description of patent No. 2156955, G01B 11/30, 1999.

In addition, known is a device that allows to improve the accuracy of measurement for the surfaces of parts made of materials, reflective properties which depend on the angle of incidence of light. The device contains five receivers reflected from the surface of the radiation, arranged symmetrically about the specular direction. The computing device generates the average value of roughness parameters, see, for example, the description of the patent application # 94033271, G01B 11/30, 1994.

The disadvantages of the above analogues based on the use of optical effects and coherent radiation should include, in particular, the dependence of the intensity of the reflected surface of the probing signal from the optical properties of the sample material, the surface of which is investigated. Famous is the way to reduce this dependence by covering the sample surface is, for example, a layer of silver [1]. However, in this case, the vertical relief of the original surface is preserved only in average. Save the peaks of a few tens of nanometers, it is doubtful, since the surface of the silver is not smooth and grained with a grain size from several tens of nanometers to few microns [1]. In addition, subsequent use of the details with silver-plated surface for a number of reasons may not be possible.

The task to be solved by the invention is to provide control of the surface roughness of the optical method in which the detected characteristic in response to the probing radiation is used photoluminescence particles of nanoscale level, the layer which is pre-applied to the analyzed surface.

When implementing the present invention are achieved several technical results, in particular, provided the integral estimation of the surface roughness, local assessment of the area of interest, automation, process control and efficiency.

The essence of the method is in use for measuring surface roughness effect photoluminescence particles of nanoscale level.

As a material of the nano-particles can be used, e.g. the, the silicon.

Conventional silicon has a weak photoluminescence between 0.96 and 1.20 eV, i.e. at energies close to the width of the forbidden zone, component at room temperature 1,125 eV. This photoluminescence in silicon is the result of transitions of electrons through a prohibited area. However, particles of silicon nanoscale level demonstrate a strong light-induced photoluminescence with energies significantly more of 1.4 eV at a temperature of 300 K (see figure 1). The position of the peak in the emission spectrum is determined by the size of the particles [2].

In addition, photoluminescence particles of nanoscale level characteristic is the shift of spectral lines of excitation and photoluminescence. In particular, figure 2 presents the spectra of the particles of nanoscale level CdSe diameter of 5.6 nm. Absorption spectrum (solid line) and photoluminescence (dashed line) obtained upon excitation at 2,655 eV (467 nm).

The frequency difference of the excitation spectra and luminescence allows you to confidently select the photoluminescence in the presence of background illumination inducing her laser radiation using a narrow-band optical filters.

Figure 3 presents the model roughness of a surface area derived from the current GOST 2789-73 "surface Roughness".

In accordance with the proposed method, Pervin the m when estimating parameters of roughness is a measurement of the intensity of the photoluminescence and the definition on the basis of the values of some characteristic angles between the axis of the laser beam and the normal to the sample surface.

Figure 3 such characteristic angles denoted by θkrand θbefore.

As can be seen from figure 3, the angle θkrdefines the extreme angular position of the laser beam which does not cause the shadow area from the surface roughness.

The angle θkrcan be estimated using the following expression:

where H is the height of the roughness element,

S - half-width of the roughness element.

When exceeding the current value of the angle θ value θkrthe flow of excitation energy photoluminescence decreases due to the effect of shielding (shading) of the excited particle surface roughness, and, in the end, the particle fall fully within the shadow area. Its photoluminescence stops. Hence, another parameter characterizing the analyzed method is angle θbeforein which have on the surface of the particle is completely enters the shadow area from the roughness of the surface.

The value for θbeforecan be estimated using the following relationship:

where R is the radius of the particles of nanoscale level.

The nature of changes in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) IFL(θ) particles of nanoscale level on a perfectly flat surface over the entire range of changes ug is and θ, in the General case of 0<θ<π, is determined by the ratio:

In case of a real surface, the modification of the photoluminescence intensity is dependent on the parameters of the surface roughness. When the angle θ in the range θkr<θ<θbeforethe nature of changes in the photoluminescence intensity I(θkr<θ<θbefore) particles can be obtained by calculating the ratio of the area of the segment of the cross section of the particles, shaded serving the roughness of the surface, to the total cross-sectional area of the particles. In this case, the desired relation is the following:

where k is the ratio of the shaded part of the cross-sectional diameter of the particle to its diameter.

Thus, the intensity of photoluminescence of local areas of the surface in the area of the laser spot is detektivami information characteristic that defines the characteristic angles θkrand θbefore. On the basis of the measured angles, the known particle size of nano level and formulas (1) and (2) calculate the roughness parameters of the local area.

Can be considered, at least three variants of the method of control of the surface roughness. First, as the control of the local roughness of the surface. In the which, as the control surface by scanning its local areas. And finally, thirdly, the implementation of rapid control rough surfaces.

Below is a description of graphic materials, in no way limiting all possible embodiments of the invention.

Figure 5 shows a variant of the block diagram of the device for implementing the method of controlling surface roughness of local areas and the entire surface by scanning its local sections, and figure 6 is a variant of the block diagram of an apparatus for implementing the Express control of a rough surface. Below is the numbering of the elements of the block diagrams, their name and used further abbreviations:

1 - probe laser (PLN),

2 - beam excitation laser (LSL),

3 - point laser (PL)

4 - polarizer (P),

5.1, 5.2, .3 - optical lens (OL),

6 - analyzed surface (PI),

7 - a narrow-band optical filter (UAF),

8 - photoresistive unit (FRU),

9 - photoluminescence (PL),

10 - electronic computing device (EVA),

11 monitor the EVA (MMU),

12 - Electromechanical rotary unit (EPU),

13 - Electromechanical coordinate device (MCA),

14 - turning unit (PU),

OXYZ system of coordinates

θOXZθOYZ- the angles between the normal to studies the target surface and the axis LSL in the plane OXZ and OYZ, respectively.

As mentioned, for integral roughness control device that implements it must provide scanning the sample surface in the plane OXY. For this purpose, MCA (13). Moreover, the name "electro-mechanical" does not limit the ability to incorporate high-precision devices move in the coordinate plane OXY with precise devices on other principles, such as piezoelectric.

To change the angle between the axis LSL (2) and the normal to the sample surface element is a flowchart EPU (12).

While MCA (13) allows to measure the coordinates (x, y) of the analyzed surface area, and EPU (12) the angle θ between the axis PLN (1) and the normal to the sample surface. For clarity, figure 5 EPS (12) supplemented thickened curve, showing, in particular, as it changes the angle θ in the plane OXZ.

Required for excitation of fluorescence (9) characteristics LSL (2) are formed in the P (4) and OL (5.1).

The fluorescence radiation (9) particles of nanoscale level, under PL (3) FE (6)passes through the OL (5.2) and WAF (7) to the input FRU (8).

Information output FRU (8) is treated in the EVA (10). The results of the processing of information output from the FRU (8) are displayed on MMU (11).

Below is an example implementation of the invention is in no way limiting all options for its implementation.

La the black spot (3) is placed with MCA (13) in the specified area of the surface with the coordinates of its center point (x, y). Next change the angular position of the laser beam generally in the range of 0<θ<π in the plane OXZ, and in the plane OYZ, finding in each case two pairs of values of the characteristic angles (-θkrθkr) and (-θbeforeθbeforein the plane OXZ and OYZ, respectively.

Scanning on the sample surface, define an array of values of the angles θkrand

θbeforetied to the coordinates of the surface.

By appropriate processing of the array data receive characteristics of the roughness of the surface being examined, for example the maximum value of roughness, average value, standard deviation, correlation between near and remote parts of the surface and other

When performing rapid control of the surface roughness of the optical system OL (5.1) and OL (5.3) is formed LSL (2), PL (3) which covers the whole of the investigated surface (or most of it). In this case, you can refuse the use of MCA (13), and the axis of the laser beam may be billed in advance relative to the normal to the surface at an angle θthe abovecorresponding to θbeforefor a known particle size of nano level and desired (controlled) surface finish the surface. To control the surface roughness under different the viewing angle, additionally, we introduce the rotator PU (14).

A quick analysis of the surface roughness produced by the presence (or absence) of sites with different maximum for a given angle intensity (see the dependence of the intensity of photoluminescence from the angle θ in accordance with equation (3)), the dimension of which is produced, for example, using synthetic aperture photodetectors.

At a given angle θthe aboveand the size of the particles of nanoscale level, the absence (or presence) shaded or dark areas of the sample surface indicates compliance (mismatch) of the parameters of the surface roughness specified.

Below are the results of the qualitative analysis of the proposed method.

Table 1 presents data and results of calculations θkrand θbeforefor the received source data.

Table 1
№ p/pNSRθkrθbefore
1h θkr=26,6°θbefore=52,2°
2θbefore=39,4°
3θbefore=32,9°

Table 2 presents estimates of the heights of the surface roughness corresponding to θkrand θbeforein table 1, for 2R=5 nm.

Table 2
№ p/pθkrθbeforeN, nmCleanliness class
1θkr=26,6°θbefore=52,2°10∇14
2θbefore=39,4°20∇13
3θbefore=32,9°40∇12

For comparison of the accuracy of control of the roughness of a surface is prepared according to method proposed in table 2 we present the class designation of surface cleanliness, the corresponding estimates of the heights of the roughness. Note that ∇14 corresponds to the highest purity of surface treatment.

Figure 4 presents graphs of the intensity of photoluminescence from the angle θ in the range θkr<θ<θbeforebuilt using the data from table 2 and formulas (3) and (4).

Analysis of the graphs of figure 4 graphs shows that the proposed control method can be used to control a wide range of surface finish, however, it is preferable to use for the evaluation of surfaces with high processing class.

The last observation can be attributed to the proposed method for precise control of the surface roughness.

As photoresistive device (8) according to the variant of figure 5 can be used photomultiplier tube (PMT) or charge-coupled devices (CCD), and according to the variant of figure 6, for example, the photodetector MultiScan representing silicon structure formed on XDI (Silicon With Dielectric Isolation) and contains the set counter is enabled diodes.

The frequency selectivity of the PMT (8) provides WAF (7)that is configured on the transmission spectrum of the photoluminescence. As WAF (7) can be used diffraction optical filter.

Optical lens (5.1), (5.2) and (5.3), CLAUSE (4) SHALL WAF (7) features are not.

Particles of nanoscale level can be obtained, for example, by mechanical grinding of the matter from which they are created. Existing technologies nanomoney structures today allow you to create calibrated particles of nanoscale level of a given size, as well as to cover the surface with a controlled value of the layers and the density of particles per unit surface area.

Thus, the proposed method of control of the surface roughness can be realized with the use of modern technologies, including nanotechnology, and existing electronic, optical and electro-mechanical equipment.

Literary sources

1. BORN in the Study of surface microrelief using multibeam interference fringes of equal chromatic order. The success of the physical Sciences, volume LII, issue 4, 1954.

2. Cpul, Foans. The world of materials and technologies. Nanotechnologies. M, Technosphere, 2004.

3. Begbalance, Avecilla, Eggy, Nasarrawa. The synthesized aperture on the photodetectors MultiScan, Journal of technical physics, 2000, vol 70, vyp.

1. The method of controlling surface roughness, which is carried out by sensing using laser radiation and recording the intensity of the photoluminescence using photosubstitution the x devices wherein the rough surface is covered with a layer of particles of nanoscale level, as detected information sign using characteristic photoluminescence of these particles, induced by the probe laser radiation, and control of surface roughness carried out to change the nature of the photoluminescence intensity when changing the values of the angle between the axis of the probe radiation and the normal to a rough surface.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control surface roughness define the characteristics of the rough surface at a known particle size of nano level and the values of the characteristic angles, which does not occur the shadow area from surface roughness and characteristic angles when placed on the surface of the particle is completely falls into the shadow area.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control of the local roughness of the surface sections.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control roughness by scanning its local areas.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that provide rapid control of the surface roughness of the laser beam of large diameter.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the probe electromagnet the th radiation use coherent laser radiation in the near infrared and visible optical wavelength range.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the material particles of nanoscale level can be used, for example, silicon.



 

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